# Final Exam. Route Computation: One reason why link state routing is preferable to distance vector style routing.

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4 4. Mobility and Routing, 15 points: We now consider the problem of routing to a mobile station that has moved. In the figure below, assume that mobile station M is homed on the LAN that contains R3 and X. M has an IP address that contains the net number corresponding to its home LAN. Sometime later, M moves to the LAN that contains R2. Stations S and X may still send packets to M at the old address, even after M has moved. We want to explore how to modify IP routing so that these packets can be delivered to M at its new location. S R1 R2 IP Network M moves R3 M X Lets assume that M (before or after moving) tells its home router R3 of the net number of its new LAN. We assume that M does not get a new host ID at its new LAN because it would take too long to have one assigned. Assume that M has a unique Data Link ID (e.g., Ethernet address) D M that it carries to the new LAN. Assume X wants to speak to M. Since it thinks its on the same LAN as M, X may send an ARP for M. What should router R3 do in response? Suppose that R3 has a packet destined for M that was sent by either S or X. How does R3 send the packet to M? Assume that the packet for M gets to R2. How does R2 deliver the packet to M (remember that R2 cannot do an ARP because M does not have a host ID on this new LAN. However, you can add info to the packet that can help R2.) The indirect route can result in sending a large number of extra packets when speaking to M. Can you suggest some way of eventually avoiding the indirect route? When M eventually moves back to its home LAN, how do you ensure that eventually everyone sends packets to M s home LAN. 4

5 5, Mobility and Transport, 15 points: The mobile station M in the previous question may take a long time to move, but may be in the middle of a transport connection with S. Suppose the time to move can vary from a few seconds to a few hours depending on where M is going to move. Assume that a lot of data has been transferred in the transport connection already, and M does not want to waste this work by tearing down the connection (and then restarting the connection after M moves.) Hugh Hopeful suggests that M just use the regular flow control mechanisms in the transport protocol to stop S from sending data while M is moving. What mechanism is High referring to? Peter Protocol points out that Hugh s mechanism will not work if the move time is significantly greater than the network round trip delay. Why? Peter Protocol therefore suggests that M send a FREEZE message to S before M moves. The FREEZE message contains a conservative bound on the time for the move, and must be acked before M moves. What should S do on receiving a FREEZE message? After a few bugs, Peter Protocol realizes that the FREEZE messages have to be numbered with a sequence number. Can you suggest why? 5

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