LESSON Networking Fundamentals. Understand TCP/IP

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1 Understand TCP/IP

2 Lesson Overview In this lesson, you will learn about: TCP/IP Tracert Telnet Netstat Reserved addresses Local loopback IP Ping Pathping Ipconfig Protocols

3 Anticipatory Set Experiment with ping and tracert. 1. From the start menu, go to the Run (Win XP) or Search (Win7) command and type cmd. This brings up a DOS command window. 2. Type ping 3. Ping a few of your favorite sites (www.facebook.com, etc.). 4. Now ping a few geographically close websites (local government, local TV station, local university, etc.). 5. Record the average times to see which "roundtrips" are the fastest. 6. Now experiment with tracert using the same urls. 7. Summarize the results. 8. Summarize your understanding of ping and tracert.

4 Internet Protocol Suite Two original components o o TCP Transmission Control Protocol IP Internet Protocol TCP operates at a higher level, concerned only with the two end systems such as the Web browser and a Web server. IP handles lower-level transmissions from computer to computer as a message makes its way across the Internet.

5 TCP Provides a communication service between an application and the IP Provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer Controls segment size, flow control, data exchange rate Keeps track of the individual units of data transmission, called segments, that a message is divided into for routing through the network Applications include and file transfer, and the Web.

6 IP Handles the actual delivery of the data Works by exchanging pieces of information called packets For example, when an HTML file is sent from a Web server, the TCP software layer of that server divides the sequence of bytes of the file into segments and forwards them individually to the IP software layer (Internet Layer). The Internet layer encapsulates each TCP segment into an IP packet by adding a header that includes (among other data) the destination IP address.

7 IP Packets A sequence of bytes consisting of a header and a body o The header describes the packet's destination and the routers to use for forwarding until it arrives at the final destination. o The body contains the data IP it is transmitting. IP packets can be lost, duplicated, or delivered out of order. o TCP detects these problems, requests retransmission of lost packets, rearranges out-of-order packets, and helps minimize network congestion. Individual packets of the same message can be routed on different paths through the network.

8 TCP/IP Stack The TCP or UDP transport layer 4 sends packets to IP network layer 3, which adds its own header and delivers a "datagram" to a data link layer 2 protocol. TCP/IP tools are in layers 7, 6, 5.

9 Port Numbers TCP uses port numbers to identify sending and receiving application end-points on a host. Three basic categories: well-known, registered, and dynamic/private Some examples include FTP (21), SSH (22), TELNET (23), SMTP (25) and HTTP (80).

10 TCP/IP Tools Ping: Tests if a particular host is reachable across an IP network; measures the round-trip time for packets sent from the local host

11 TCP/IP Tools Netstat: Displays current TCP/IP network connections and protocol statistics

12 TCP/IP Tools Tracert: Shows the route taken by packets across an IP network

13 TCP/IP Tools Ipconfig: Displays all TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes DHCP and DNS settings /? Command will play all options available with ipconfig

14 TCP/IP Tools Pathping: Displays the degree of packet loss along the path

15 TCP/IP Tools Telnet: A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks Local loopback IP: Tests the TCP/IP protocol implementation on a host -special range of addresses ( to ) is set aside Localhost: Translates to the loopback IP address in IPv4 or ::1 in IPv6

16 Lesson Review Student Activity NetFund_SA_3.6

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