# Exponential Notation and the Order of Operations

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1 1.7 Exponential Notation and the Order of Operations 1.7 OBJECTIVES 1. Use exponent notation 2. Evaluate expressions containing powers of whole numbers 3. Know the order of operations 4. Evaluate expressions that contain several operations Overcoming Math Anxiety Preparing for a Test Preparation for a test really begins on the first day of class. Everything you have done in class and at home has been part of that preparation. However, there are a few things that you should focus on in the last few days before a scheduled test. 1. Plan your test preparation to end at least 24 hours before the test. The last 24 hours is too late, and besides, you will need some rest before the test. 2. Go over your homework and class notes with pencil and paper in hand. Write down all of the problem types, formulas, and definitions that you think might give you trouble on the test. 3. The day before the test, take the page(s) of notes from step 2, and transfer the most important ideas to a 3 5 card. 4. Just before the test, review the information on the card. You will be surprised at how much you remember about each concept. 5. Understand that, if you have been successful at completing your homework assignments, you can be successful on the test. This is an obstacle for many students, but it is an obstacle that can be overcome. Truly anxious students are often surprised that they scored as well as they did on a test. They tend to attribute this to blind luck. It is not. It is the first sign that you really do get it. Enjoy the success. Earlier we described multiplication as a shorthand for repeated addition. There is also a shorthand for repeated multiplication. It uses powers of a whole number. Example 1 Writing Repeated Multiplication as a Power NOTE Recall that Repeated addition was written as multiplication. NOTE René Descartes, a French philosopher and mathematician, is generally credited with first introducing our modern exponent notation in about can be written as 3 4. This is read as 3 to the fourth power. In this case, repeated multiplication is written as the power of a number. In this example, 3 is the base of the expression, and the raised number, 4, is the exponent, or power. Base Exponent, or power factors We count the factors and make this the power (or exponent) of the base. 91

2 92 CHAPTER 1 OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS CHECK YOURSELF 1 Write as a power of 2. Definitions: Exponents The exponent tells us the number of times the base is to be used as a factor. Example 2 Evaluating a Number Raised to a Power 2 5 is read 2 to the fifth power Here 2 is the base, and 5 is the exponent. 5 times 2 5 tells us to use 2 as a factor 5 times. The result is 32. CHECK YOURSELF 2 Read and evaluate 3 4. CAUTION Be careful: 5 3 is entirely different from 5 3. NOTE whereas Example 3 Evaluating a Number Raised to a Power Evaluate 5 3 and Use 3 factors of is read 5 to the third power or 5 cubed Use 2 factors of 8. And 8 2 is read 8 to the second power or 8 squared. CHECK YOURSELF 3 (a) 6 2 (b) 2 4 We need two special definitions for powers of whole numbers. Definitions: Raising a Number to the First Power A whole number raised to the first power is just that number. For example, 9 1 9

3 EXPONENTIAL NOTATION AND THE ORDER OF OPERATIONS SECTION Definitions: Raising a Number to the Zero Power A whole number, other than 0, raised to the zero power is 1. For example, Example 4 Evaluating Numbers Raised to the Power of Zero or One a. 1 b. 1 c. 5 d CHECK YOURSELF 4 (a) 7 0 (b) 7 1 We talked about powers of 10 earlier when we multiplied by numbers that end in 0. Because the powers of 10 have a special importance, let s list some of them. NOTE Notice that 10 3 is just a 1 followed by three zeros. NOTE 10 5 is a 1 followed by five zeros , ,000 Do you see why the powers of 10 are so important? NOTE Archimedes (about 250B.C.) reportedly estimated the number of grains of sand in the universe to be This would be a 1 followed by 63 zeros! Definitions: Powers of 10 The powers of 10 correspond to the place values of our number system, ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on. This is what we meant earlier when we said that our number system was based on the number 10. If multiplication is combined with addition or subtraction, you must know which operation to do first in finding the expression s value. We can easily illustrate this problem. How should we simplify the following statement? 3 4 5? Both multiplication and addition are involved in this expression, and we must decide which to do first to find the answer. 1. Multiplying first gives us

4 94 CHAPTER 1 OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS CAUTION 2. Adding first gives us The answers differ depending on which operation is done first! Only one of these results can be correct, which is why mathematicians developed a rule to tell us the order in which the operations should be performed. The rules are as follows. Step by Step: The Order of Operations If multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction are involved in the same expression, do the operations in the following order: Step 1 Do all multiplication or division in order from left to right. Step 2 Do all addition or subtraction in order from left to right. Example 5 Using the Order of Operations NOTE By this rule, we see that strategy (1) above was correct. (a) Multiply first, then add or subtract. (b) (c) (d) (e) CHECK YOURSELF 5 (a) (b) (c) We now want to extend our rule for the order of operations. Let s see what happens when parentheses or exponents are involved in an expression. NOTE Students sometimes remember this order by relating each step to part of the phrase Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally. P E MD AS Step by Step: The Order of Operations Mixed operations in an expression should be done in the following order: Step 1 Do any operations inside parentheses. Step 2 Evaluate any powers. Step 3 Do all multiplication or division in order from left to right. Step 4 Do all addition or subtraction in order from left to right. Example 6 Evaluating an Expression Evaluate Step 1 There are no parentheses

5 EXPONENTIAL NOTATION AND THE ORDER OF OPERATIONS SECTION Step 2 Evaluate powers Step 3 Multiply or divide CHECK YOURSELF Example 7 Evaluating an Expression Evaluate (2 3) Step 1 Do operations inside parentheses (2 3) Step 2 Evaluate powers Step 3 Multiply or divide Step 4 Add or subtract CHECK YOURSELF 7 4 (8 5) 2 Example 8 Using the Order of Operations (a) Evaluate So Because the multiplication and division appear next to each other, work in order from left to right. Try it the other way and see what happens!

6 96 CHAPTER 1 OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS (b) Evaluate (5 13) 6. (5 13) So (5 13) 6 3. Do the addition in the parentheses as the first step. CHECK YOURSELF 8 (a) (b) (8 22) 5 CHECK YOURSELF ANSWERS three to the fourth power is (a) 36; (b) (a) 1; (b) 7 5. (a) 23; (b) 72; (c) (a) 18; (b) 6

7 Name 1.7 Exercises Section Date (2 4) (5 2) (3 2) (2 6) (3 2) (9 5) (7 4) (5 2) ANSWERS (24 6) (3 9) (3 3 3) (2 4 4) (5 3 1) (3 4 2) (2 2 5) (2 3 4)

8 ANSWERS Numbers such as 3, 4, and 5 are called Pythagorean triples, after the Greek mathematician Pythagoras (sixth century B.C.), because Which of the following sets of numbers are Pythagorean triples? 51. 6, 8, , 11, , 12, , 24, , 16, , 15, Is (a b) P equal to a P b P? Try a few numbers and decide if you think this is true for all whole numbers, for some whole numbers, or never true. Write an explanation of your findings, and give examples. 58. Does (a b) P a P b P? Try a few numbers and decide if you think this is true for all whole numbers, for some whole numbers, or never true. Write an explanation of your findings, and give examples. Answers ,000, Yes 53. Yes 55. No

9 Using a Scientific Calculator to Evaluate an Expression NOTE As we pointed out earlier, there are many differences among calculators. If any of the examples we consider in this section do not come out the same on the model you are using, check with your instructor. Multiplication, like addition and subtraction, is easy to do on your calculator. To multiply on the calculator: 1. Press the clear key. 2. Enter the first factor Press the times key. 4. Enter the second factor Press the equals key. The display shows 851 C Your display will now show the desired product, 851. Example 1 Using a Scientific Calculator to Multiply Three or More Numbers To multiply 3 5 7, use this sequence: When you press the times key the second time, note that the product of 3 and 5 is in the display. Display 105 CHECK YOURSELF 1 Multiply with your calculator. Example 2 Using a Scientific Calculator to Evaluate an Expression To evaluate 3 4 5, use this sequence: Display 17 CHECK YOURSELF 2 Evaluate with your calculator. So far, our calculator has done the multiplication and then the addition. Let s change the order of the addition and multiplication in an expression and see what the calculator does. Example 3 Using a Scientific Calculator to Evaluate an Expression To evaluate 6 3 5, use this sequence:

10 100 CHAPTER 1 OPERATIONS ON WHOLE NUMBERS Display 21 Again the calculator follows the order of operations. Try this with your calculator. CHECK YOURSELF 3 Evaluate with your calculator. Most calculators have parentheses keys that will allow you to evaluate more complicated expressions easily. Example 4 Using a Scientific Calculator to Evaluate an Expression To evaluate 3 (4 5), use this sequence: 3 ( 4 5 ) Display 27 Now the calculator does the addition in the parentheses as the first step. Then it does the multiplication. CHECK YOURSELF 4 Evaluate 4 (2 9) with your calculator. CHECK YOURSELF ANSWERS

11 Calculator Exercises Name Section Date Multiply, using your calculator ANSWERS , , Use your calculator to evaluate each of the following expressions (4 7) (6 5)

12 ANSWERS Solve the following applications using a calculator. 23. Sales. A car dealer kept the following record of a month s sales. Complete the table. Number Profit Monthly Model Sold per Sale Profit Subcompact 38 \$528 Compact Standard Monthly Total Profit 24. Salary. You take a job paying \$1 the first day. On each following day your pay doubles. That is, on day 2 your pay is \$2, on day 3 the pay is \$4, and so on. Complete the table. Day Daily Pay Total Pay 1 \$1 \$ Answers , ,309, , ,451, Monthly profit: \$20,064 21,351 17,328 \$58,

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