Research Methods in Psychology 3rd edition

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1 Research Methods in Psychology 3rd edition Edited by Glynis M. Breakwell, Sean Hammond, and Jonathan A. Smith isage Publications Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore

2 Contents LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS PREFACE HOW TO USE THIS TEXTBOOK AND COMPANION WEBSITE xiv xviii xxii Ö PART 1 THE BASES OF RESEARCH 1 1 THEORY, METHOD AND RESEARCH DESIGN 2 Glynis M. Breakwell and David Rose 1.1 THEORY BUILDING AND THEORY TESTING MATCHING METHODOLOGIES TO THEORY INTEGRATING FINDINGS FROM DIFFERENT METHODOLOGIES FURTHER READING 23 2 PRACTICAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN PLANNING RESEARCH 24 Martyn Barrett 2.1 INTRODUCTION FORMULATING RESEARCH QUESTIONS ASSESSING THE PRACTICAL FEASIBILITY OF THE RESEARCH ASSESSING THE ETHICAL FEASIBILITY OF THE RESEARCH CONSIDERING THE POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF THE RESEARCH IN ADVANCE APPLYING FOR RESEARCH FUNDING CONCLUSION BPS AND APA ADDRESSES AND WEBSITES FURTHER READING 48 3 LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT INTRODUCTION CLASSIFYING MEASUREMENTS DISCRETE VERSUS CONTINUOUS VARIABLES 58 vii

3 3.4 MEASUREMENT ERRORS CHOICES OVER LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT AND STATISTICS CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 63 THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY 64 Alyson Davis and Gavin Bremner 4.1 INTRODUCTION EXPERIMENTATION AND THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD WHAT IS AN EXPERIMENT? CAUSALITY AND EXPERIMENTATION VARIABLES RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY EXPERIMENTAL MANIPULATION AND CONTROL BASIC EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS EVALUATING THE EXPERIMENTAL METHOD CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 87 QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS INTRODUCTION PRE-EXPERIMENTS QUASI-EXPERIMENTS NON-EQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGNS TIME SERIES DESIGNS TIME SERIES WITH NON-EQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGNS MODIFICATIONS TO THE BASIC DESIGNS CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 103 SURVEYS AND SAMPLING 104 Patrick Sturgis 6.1 INTRODUCTION STATISTICAL INFERENCE: FROM SAMPLE TO POPULATION NONRESPONSE SAMPLING STRATEGIES SURVEY MODE SMALL-SAMPLE ISSUES CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 121 viii

4 PART 2 DATA GATHERING OBSERVATIONAL METHODS 124 Rudi Dallos 7.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH? LEVELS OF OBSERVATION: BEHAVIOUR AND TALK OBSERVATION AND THEORETICAL LENSES DECIDING WHAT TO OBSERVE - CODING SCHEMES INTERPRETATIVE ORIENTATION TO OBSERVATION PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION RESEARCH VALIDITY CONCLUSION FURTHER READING PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS 146 Paul Sowden and Paul Barrett 8.1 INTRODUCTION THE PRINCIPAL AREAS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION QUANTIFYING BIOSIGNAL DATA CONCLUSION FURTHER READING PSYCHOPHYSICAL METHODS 160 David Rose 9.1 INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLES OF ABSOLUTE THRESHOLDS FORCED-CHOICE TECHNIQUES METHODS FOR MEASURING ABSOLUTE THRESHOLDS DIFFERENCE THRESHOLDS SENSATIONAL MEASUREMENTS SOME GENERAL TIPS ON RUNNING EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION FURTHER READING USING PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS 182 Sean Hammond 10.1 INTRODUCTION TYPES OF PSYCHOMETRIC TEST CLASSICAL TEST THEORY THE PROBLEM OF VALIDITY ITEM RESPONSE THEORY CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 209 ix

5 11 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN INTRODUCTION WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU WANT? OPEN VERSUS CLOSED RESPONSE FORMATS COMMON RESPONSE FORMATS COMMON WORDING PROBLEMS TYPES OF INFORMATION GLEANED FROM QUESTIONNAIRES EXISTING SCALES AND MEASURES QUESTIONNAIRE LAYOUT CONCLUSION FURTHER READING INTERVIEWING METHODS 232 Glynis M. Breakwell 12.1 INTRODUCTION THE INTERVIEW STRUCTURE PILOTING THE INTERVIEW CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW MEDIUM OF THE INTERVIEW INTERVIEWING CHILDREN VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF INTERVIEW DATA ANALYSING INTERVIEW DATA REPORTING INTERVIEW RESEARCH CONCLUSION FURTHER READING USING SELF-RECORDING: DIARY AND NARRATIVE METHODS 254 Glynis M. Breakwell 13.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT ARE DIARY TECHNIQUES? WHAT SORTS OF DATA ARE SUITABLE FOR DIARIES? THE PROS AND CONS OF THE DIARY APPROACH GETTING THE BEST OUT OF DIARY TECHNIQUES WHAT ARE NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES? ELICITING THE NARRATIVE ANALYSING DIARY AND NARRATIVE RECORDS CONCLUSION FURTHER READING FOCUS GROUPS 274 Lynne J. Mlllward 14.1 INTRODUCTION THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE FOCUS GROUP METHOD 277 x

6 14.3 WHAT TYPE OF EVIDENCE DO FOCUS GROUPS YIELD? THE FOCAL STIMULI FOCUS GROUP DESIGN AND PLANNING FOCUS GROUP IMPLEMENTATION RECORDING THE DATA TRANSCRIPTION ANALYSIS OF FOCUS GROUP DATA FEEDBACK OF RESULTS/FINDINGS FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS IN FOCUS GROUP RESEARCH CONCLUSION FURTHER READING ETHNOGRAPHIC AND ACTION RESEARCH 300 David Uzzell and Julie Barnett 15.1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ETHNOGRAPHY? PROBLEMS IN ETHNOGRAPHY MEASURING QUALITY IN ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH ACTION RESEARCH DISTINGUISHING CRITERIA OF ACTION RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS FURTHER READING PART3 DATA TREATMENT INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS 322 Jonathan A. Smith and Virginia Eatough 16.1 INTRODUCTION IPA AND PSYCHOLOGY SUITABLE RESEARCH QUESTIONS FOR IPA HOW MANY PARTICIPANTS? DATA COLLECTION METHODS STAGES OF ANALYSIS WRITING UP AN IPA STUDY CONCLUSION FURTHER READING GROUNDED THEORY 342 Karen Henwood and Nick Pidgeon 17.1 INTRODUCTION EMERGENT DESIGN, FLEXIBILITY AND ITERATION THE ORIGIN POINT AND USE OF THE PRIOR LITERATURE THEORETICAL SAMPLING STORAGE: THE RESEARCH RECORD OPEN CODING AND CONSTANT COMPARISON 353 xi

7 17.7 THEORETICAL MEMOS CORE ANALYSIS I: REFINING AND SATURATING CATEGORIES CORE ANALYSIS II: BUILDING THEORY AND MODELS WRITING AND EVALUATING GROUNDED THEORY STUDIES CONCLUSION FURTHER READING DISCOURSE ANALYSIS 366 Adrian Coyle 18.1 INTRODUCTION DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: ASSUMPTIONS, APPROACHES AND APPLICATIONS SAMPLING DISCOURSE TECHNIQUES OF DISCOURSE ANALYSIS WORKING WITH DATA EVALUATING DISCOURSE ANALYTIC WORK PROBLEMS IN DISCOURSE ANALYTIC WORK CONCLUSION FURTHER READING PRINCIPLES OF STATISTICAL INFERENCE TESTS INTRODUCTION SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS WHAT ARE BIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSES? CLASSICAL BIVARIATE DESIGNS THEORIES AND HYPOTHESES TYPE I AND TYPE II ERRORS PROBABILITY PARAMETRIC VERSUS NON-PARAMETRIC TESTS CHOOSING A STATISTICAL TEST CONCLUSION FURTHER READING INTRODUCTION TO MULTIVARIATE DATA ANALYSIS 414 Sean Hammond 20.1 INTRODUCTION EXAMINING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS MAKING PREDICTIONS EXPLORING UNDERLYING STRUCTURE THE SPECIAL CASE OF CATEGORICAL DATA CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 442 xii

8 21 INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING INTRODUCTION THE IDEA OF MODEL FITTING AND MODEL COMPARISON MEASUREMENT MODELS AND CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS STRUCTURAL MODELS ANALYSIS STRATEGY OTHER THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE WITH SEM CAUTIONARY NOTES CONCLUSION FURTHER READING META-ANALYSIS 466 David O'Sullivan 22.1 INTRODUCTION QUANTIFYING THE REVIEW PROCESS STEPS IN CONDUCTING A META-ANALYSIS CONCLUSION FURTHER READING 481 REFERENCES 482 INDEX 510 xiii

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