Observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way."

Transcription

1 HOW TO CHOOSE FROM THE DIFFERENT RESEARCH METHODS* The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research. The method you choose will affect your results and how you conclude the findings. Most scientists are interested in getting reliable observations that can help the understanding of a phenomenon. There are two main approaches to a research problem: In a nutshell, quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data. It focuses on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements. Gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic or even diagnostic. The primary aim of a Qualitative Research is to provide a complete, detailed description of the research topic. Quantitative Research on the other hand focuses more in counting and classifying features and constructing statistical models and figures to explain what is observed. Qualitative Research is ideal for earlier phases of research projects while for the latter part of the research project, Quantitative Research is highly recommended. Selecting the correct type from the different research methods can be a little daunting, at first. There are so many factors to take into account and evaluate. This is before looking at the statistics required, and studying the preferred methods for the individual scientific discipline. Every experimental design must make compromises and generalizations, so the researcher must try to minimize these, whilst remaining realistic. For pure sciences, such as chemistry or astrophysics, experiments are quite easy to define and will, usually, be strictly quantitative. For biology, psychology and social sciences, there can be a huge variety of methods to choose from, and a researcher will have to justify their choice. Whilst slightly arbitrary, the best way to look at the various methods is in terms of strength. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH METHODS The first method is the straightforward experiment, involving the standard practice of manipulating quantitative, independent variables to generate statistically analyzable data. Generally, the system of scientific measurements is interval or ratio based. When we talk about scientific research methods, this is what most people immediately think of, because it passes all of the definitions of true science. The researcher is accepting or refuting the null hypothesis. The results generated are analyzable and are used to test hypotheses, with statistics giving a clear and unambiguous picture. This research method is one of the most difficult, requiring rigorous design and a great deal of expense, especially for larger experiments. The other problem, where real life organisms are used, is that taking something out of its natural environment can seriously affect its behavior. It is often argued that, in some fields of research, experimental research is too accurate. It is also the biggest drain on time and resources, and is often impossible to perform for some fields, because of ethical considerations. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was a prime example of experimental research that was fixated on results, and failed to take into account moral considerations. In other fields of study, which do not always have the luxury of definable and *Information originally sited at and

2 quantifiable variables - you need to use different research methods. These should attempt to fit all of the definitions of repeatability or falsifiability, although this is not always feasible. OPINION BASED RESEARCH METHODS Opinion based research methods generally involve designing an experiment and collecting quantitative data. For this type of research, the measurements are usually arbitrary, following the ordinal or interval type. Questionnaires are an effective way of quantifying data from a sample group, and testing emotions or preferences. This method is very cheap and easy, where budget is a problem, and gives an element of scale to opinion and emotion. These figures are arbitrary, but at least give a directional method of measuring intensity. Quantifying behavior is another way of performing this research, with researchers often applying a numerical scale to the type, or intensity, of behavior. The Bandura Bobo Doll experiment and the Asch Experiment were examples of opinion based research. By definition, this experiment method must be used where emotions or behaviors are measured, as there is no other way of defining the variables. Whilst not as robust as experimental research, the methods can be replicated and the results falsified. OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH METHODS Observational research is a group of different research methods where researchers try to observe a phenomenon without interfering too much. Observational research methods, such as the case study, are probably the furthest removed from the established scientific method. This type is looked down upon, by many scientists, as quasi-experimental research, although this is usually an unfair criticism. Observational research tends to use nominal or ordinal scales of measurement. Observational research often has no clearly defined research problem, and questions may arise during the course of the study. For example, a researcher may notice unusual behavior and ask, What is happening? or Why? Observation is heavily used in social sciences, behavioral studies and anthropology, as a way of studying a group without affecting their behavior. Whilst the experiment cannot be replicated or falsified, it still offers unique insights, and will advance human knowledge. Case studies are often used as a pre-cursor to more rigorous methods, and avoid the problem of the experiment environment affecting the behavior of an organism. Observational research methods are useful when ethics are a problem. CONCLUSION In an ideal world, experimental research methods would be used for every type of research, fulfilling all of the requirements of falsifiability and generalization. However, ethics, time and budget are major factors, so any experimental design must make compromises. As long as a researcher recognizes and evaluates flaws in the design when choosing from different research methods, any of the scientific research methods are valid contributors to scientific knowledge. *Information originally sited at and

3 Designs & Techniques Type of Method Description Descriptive Research Observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way. Case study An in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event. Descriptive Designs Naturalistic Observation Observing a subject in their natural habitat without any manipulation by the observers. Aim: Observe and Describe Survey/ Questionnaire Series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Semi-Experimental Designs Aim: Determine Causes Reviewing Other Research Aim: Explain Field Experiment Quasi-Experimental Design Twin Studies Literature Review Meta Analysis Systematic Reviews Applying the scientific method to experimentally examine an intervention in the real world. Involves selecting groups, upon which a variable is tested, without any random pre-selection processes. Compares the similarity of identical and fraternal twins to help disentangle the relative importance of environmental and genetic influences on individual traits and behaviors. A body of text that aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Statistical method of combining the results of several studies that address a set of related research hypotheses. Provide an exhaustive summary of literature relevant to a research question. Test Study Before Conducting A Full Scale Study Aim: Does the Design Work? Pilot Study Usability Testing System Testing Proof of Concept A small scale preliminary study conducted before the main research, in order to check the feasibility or to improve the design of the research. A technique used to evaluate a product by testing it on users. Testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. A demonstration in principle, whose purpose is to verify that some concept or theory has the potential of being used. *Information originally sited at and

4 *Information originally sited at and

5 Type of Techniques Pretest-Posttest Design Control Group Description Involves randomly assigning subjects between two groups, a test group and a control. Both groups are pre-tested, and both are post-tested, the ultimate difference being that one group was administered the treatment manipulated in some manner. For many true experimental designs, pretest-posttest designs are the preferred method to compare participant groups and measure the degree of change occurring as a result of treatments or interventions. Scientific control refers to a concept that allows for comparison as a part of the scientific method. It is often used in discussion of natural experiments. For instance, during drug testing, scientists will try to control two groups to keep them as identical and normal as possible, then allow one group to try the drug. This allows science to isolate the effects of the drug. The control group if practically identical to the experimental group in terms of subjects, the experimental group is changed according to some key variable of interest, while the control group remains constant during the experiment. Randomization Usability Testing Competitor Analysis Heuristic Evaluation Hierarchal Task Analysis Involves randomly allocating experimental units across control and experimental groups. A simple random sample is selected so that all samples of the same size have an equal chance of being selected from the population. In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population). A technique used to evaluate a product by testing it on users. This can be seen as an irreplaceable usability practice, since it gives direct input on how real users use the system. Usability testing focuses on measuring a human-made product's capacity to meet its intended purpose. Usability testing usually involves systematic observation under controlled conditions to determine how well people can use the product. Examples of products that commonly benefit from usability testing are foods, consumer products, web sites or web applications, computer interfaces, documents, and devices. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors. This analysis provides both an offensive and defensive strategic context through which to identify opportunities and threats. Method for computer software that helps to identify usability problems in the user interface design. It specifically involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the "heuristics"). Jakob Nielsen's heuristics are probably the most-used usability heuristics for user interface design. They include visibility of system status; match between system and the real world; user control and freedom; consistency and standards; error prevention; recognition rather than recall; flexibility and efficiency of use; aesthetic and minimalist design; help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors; and help and documentation. The analysis of how a task is accomplished, including a detailed description of both manual and mental activities, task and element durations, task frequency, task allocation, task complexity, environmental conditions, necessary clothing and equipment, and any other unique factors involved in or required for one or more people to perform a given task. *Information originally sited at and

6 *Information originally sited at and

Evaluation: Designs and Approaches

Evaluation: Designs and Approaches Evaluation: Designs and Approaches Publication Year: 2004 The choice of a design for an outcome evaluation is often influenced by the need to compromise between cost and certainty. Generally, the more

More information

Research Methods & Experimental Design

Research Methods & Experimental Design Research Methods & Experimental Design 16.422 Human Supervisory Control April 2004 Research Methods Qualitative vs. quantitative Understanding the relationship between objectives (research question) and

More information

Guided Reading 9 th Edition. informed consent, protection from harm, deception, confidentiality, and anonymity.

Guided Reading 9 th Edition. informed consent, protection from harm, deception, confidentiality, and anonymity. Guided Reading Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications 9th Edition EDFS 635: Educational Research Chapter 1: Introduction to Educational Research 1. List and briefly describe the

More information

Introducing Social Psychology

Introducing Social Psychology Introducing Social Psychology Theories and Methods in Social Psychology 27 Feb 2012, Banu Cingöz Ulu What is social psychology? A field within psychology that strives to understand the social dynamics

More information

12/30/2012. Research Design. Quantitative Research: Types (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Crowl, 1993)

12/30/2012. Research Design. Quantitative Research: Types (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Crowl, 1993) Quantitative Prepared by: Amanda J. Rockinson-Szapkiw Liberty University A research design is a plan that guides the decision as to: when and how often to collect data what data to gather and from whom

More information

Research Design and Research Methods

Research Design and Research Methods CHAPTER 3 Research Design and Research Methods Overview This chapter uses an emphasis on research design to discuss qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research as three major approaches to research

More information

MARKETING RESEARCH AND MARKET INTELLIGENCE (MRM711S) FEEDBACK TUTORIAL LETTER SEMESTER `1 OF 2016. Dear Student

MARKETING RESEARCH AND MARKET INTELLIGENCE (MRM711S) FEEDBACK TUTORIAL LETTER SEMESTER `1 OF 2016. Dear Student MARKETING RESEARCH AND MARKET INTELLIGENCE (MRM711S) FEEDBACK TUTORIAL LETTER SEMESTER `1 OF 2016 Dear Student Assignment 1 has been marked and this serves as feedback on the assignment. I have included

More information

The Mozart effect Methods of Scientific Research

The Mozart effect Methods of Scientific Research The Mozart effect Methods of Scientific Research Chapter 2 Experimental Research: p42 49 http://www.mozarteffect.com/ http://www.amazon.com/mozart-sonata-pianos-schubert-fantasia/dp/b0000cf330 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqn2qjhlcm

More information

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES Using SPSS Topics addressed today: 1. Differences between groups 2. Graphing Use the s4data.sav file for the first part of this session. DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR

More information

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES PRESENTED BY Name: WINNIE MUGERA Reg No: L50/62004/2013 RESEARCH METHODS LDP 603 UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI Date: APRIL 2013 SAMPLING Sampling is the use of a subset of the

More information

The Role of Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering Research

The Role of Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering Research The Role of Controlled Experiments in Software Engineering Research Victor R. Basili 1 The Experimental Discipline in Software Engineering Empirical studies play an important role in the evolution of the

More information

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Introduction: A Common Language for Researchers...2 Steps to Follow When Conducting Research...3 The Research Question... 3 The Hypothesis... 4 Defining the

More information

Practical Research. Paul D. Leedy Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Planning and Design. Tenth Edition

Practical Research. Paul D. Leedy Jeanne Ellis Ormrod. Planning and Design. Tenth Edition Practical Research Planning and Design Tenth Edition Paul D. Leedy Jeanne Ellis Ormrod 2013, 2010, 2005, 2001, 1997 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 1 The Nature and Tools of Research

More information

AIE: 85-86, 193, 217-218, 294, 339-340, 341-343, 412, 437-439, 531-533, 682, 686-687 SE: : 339, 434, 437-438, 48-454, 455-458, 680, 686

AIE: 85-86, 193, 217-218, 294, 339-340, 341-343, 412, 437-439, 531-533, 682, 686-687 SE: : 339, 434, 437-438, 48-454, 455-458, 680, 686 Knowledge and skills. (1) The student conducts laboratory investigations and fieldwork using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices

More information

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS AND

DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS AND Shalini Prasad Ajith Rao Eeshoo Rehani DEVELOPING 500 METHODS SEPTEMBER 18 TH 2001 DEVELOPING HYPOTHESIS AND Introduction Processes involved before formulating the hypotheses. Definition Nature of Hypothesis

More information

AS Sociology. The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research.

AS Sociology. The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research. AS Sociology Revision Sociological Methods The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research. Chris. Livesey 2006: www.sociology.org.uk

More information

Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing. Rick Balkin, Ph.D.

Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing. Rick Balkin, Ph.D. Experimental Design and Hypothesis Testing Rick Balkin, Ph.D. 1 Let s s review hypothesis testing and experimental design 3 types of hypothesis testing in experimental research: z-test t-test F-test Balkin,

More information

MSc Applied Child Psychology

MSc Applied Child Psychology MSc Applied Child Psychology Module list Modules may include: The Child in Context: Understanding Disability This module aims to challenge understandings of child development that have emerged within the

More information

NORTHERN VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY 211 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Dr. Rosalyn M.

NORTHERN VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY 211 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Dr. Rosalyn M. NORTHERN VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGE PSYCHOLOGY 211 - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY FOR THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES Dr. Rosalyn M. King, Professor DETAILED TOPICAL OVERVIEW AND WORKING SYLLABUS CLASS 1: INTRODUCTIONS

More information

In an experimental study there are two types of variables: Independent variable (I will abbreviate this as the IV)

In an experimental study there are two types of variables: Independent variable (I will abbreviate this as the IV) 1 Experimental Design Part I Richard S. Balkin, Ph. D, LPC-S, NCC 2 Overview Experimental design is the blueprint for quantitative research and serves as the foundation of what makes quantitative research

More information

Chapter 1 Introduction. 1.1 Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction. 1.1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 What Is a Monte Carlo Study? 2 1.2.1 Simulating the Rolling of Two Dice 2 1.3 Why Is Monte Carlo Simulation Often Necessary? 4 1.4 What Are Some Typical Situations

More information

WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB?

WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB? WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB? With its September 2002 issue, the American Journal of Critical Care debuts a new feature, the AJCC Journal Club. Each issue of the journal will now feature an AJCC Journal Club

More information

ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Carla Marquez-Lewis Email Contact: THE PROGRAM Career and Advanced Study Prospects Program Requirements

ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Carla Marquez-Lewis Email Contact: THE PROGRAM Career and Advanced Study Prospects Program Requirements Psychology (BA) ACADEMIC DIRECTOR: Carla Marquez-Lewis CUNY School of Professional Studies 101 West 31 st Street, 7 th Floor New York, NY 10001 Email Contact: Carla Marquez-Lewis, carla.marquez-lewis@cuny.edu

More information

Non-Researcher s Guide to Evidence-Based Program Evaluation

Non-Researcher s Guide to Evidence-Based Program Evaluation Non-Researcher s Guide to Evidence-Based Program Evaluation July 2012 Table of Contents Table of Contents... 2 Course Overview... 4 About This Course... 4 Intended Audience... 4 Course Topics... 4 Learning

More information

Measurement and measures. Professor Brian Oldenburg

Measurement and measures. Professor Brian Oldenburg Measurement and measures Professor Brian Oldenburg Learning objectives 1. To identify similarities/differences between qualitative & quantitative measures 2. To identify steps involved in choosing and/or

More information

Chapter 6 Experiment Process

Chapter 6 Experiment Process Chapter 6 Process ation is not simple; we have to prepare, conduct and analyze experiments properly. One of the main advantages of an experiment is the control of, for example, subjects, objects and instrumentation.

More information

Measurement and Measurement Scales

Measurement and Measurement Scales Measurement and Measurement Scales Measurement is the foundation of any scientific investigation Everything we do begins with the measurement of whatever it is we want to study Definition: measurement

More information

Experimental methods. Elisabeth Ahlsén Linguistic Methods Course

Experimental methods. Elisabeth Ahlsén Linguistic Methods Course Experimental methods Elisabeth Ahlsén Linguistic Methods Course Experiment Method for empirical investigation of question or hypothesis 2 types a) Lab experiment b) Naturalistic experiment Question ->

More information

Specific learning outcomes (Course: Introduction to experimental research)

Specific learning outcomes (Course: Introduction to experimental research) IB Psychology: course 1 (i3psh1, i3pss1) Standard and higher level: Introduction to experimental research The first course focuses on setting the ground for studying IB psychology; we will begin by looking

More information

Sampling. COUN 695 Experimental Design

Sampling. COUN 695 Experimental Design Sampling COUN 695 Experimental Design Principles of Sampling Procedures are different for quantitative and qualitative research Sampling in quantitative research focuses on representativeness Sampling

More information

IPDET Module 6: Descriptive, Normative, and Impact Evaluation Designs

IPDET Module 6: Descriptive, Normative, and Impact Evaluation Designs IPDET Module 6: Descriptive, Normative, and Impact Evaluation Designs Intervention or Policy Evaluation Questions Design Questions Elements Types Key Points Introduction What Is Evaluation Design? Connecting

More information

How to Develop a Research Protocol

How to Develop a Research Protocol How to Develop a Research Protocol Goals & Objectives: To explain the theory of science To explain the theory of research To list the steps involved in developing and conducting a research protocol Outline:

More information

Comparison of Research Designs Template

Comparison of Research Designs Template Comparison of Comparison of The following seven tables provide an annotated template to guide you through the comparison of research designs assignment in this course. These tables help you organize your

More information

An introduction to impact measurement

An introduction to impact measurement An introduction to impact measurement Contents 1 Introduction 2 Some definitions 3 Impact measurement at BIG 4 Setting impact measures for programmes APPENDICES A External Resources (separate document)

More information

Nursing Journal Toolkit: Critiquing a Quantitative Research Article

Nursing Journal Toolkit: Critiquing a Quantitative Research Article A Virtual World Consortium: Using Second Life to Facilitate Nursing Journal Clubs Nursing Journal Toolkit: Critiquing a Quantitative Research Article 1. Guidelines for Critiquing a Quantitative Research

More information

How to Prepare a Research Protocol for WHO? Shyam Thapa, PhD Scientist

How to Prepare a Research Protocol for WHO? Shyam Thapa, PhD Scientist How to Prepare a Research Protocol for WHO? Shyam Thapa, PhD Scientist Training Course in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2012 Protocol the plan of a scientific experiment Format may vary

More information

DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND PRESENTATION

DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND PRESENTATION DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Qualitative and quantitative Simple quantitative analysis Simple qualitative analysis Tools to support data analysis Theoretical frameworks: grounded

More information

Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013

Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Geneva Workshop 2013 Data Collection Instruments Accurate and systematic

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO HYPOTHESIS-TESTING AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

AN INTRODUCTION TO HYPOTHESIS-TESTING AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN GENERL EOLOGY IO 340 N INTRODUTION TO HYPOTHESIS-TESTING ND EXPERIMENTL DESIGN INTRODUTION Ecologists gain understanding of the natural world through rigorous application of the scientific method. s you

More information

SAMPLING & INFERENTIAL STATISTICS. Sampling is necessary to make inferences about a population.

SAMPLING & INFERENTIAL STATISTICS. Sampling is necessary to make inferences about a population. SAMPLING & INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Sampling is necessary to make inferences about a population. SAMPLING The group that you observe or collect data from is the sample. The group that you make generalizations

More information

Levels of Measurement. 1. Purely by the numbers numerical criteria 2. Theoretical considerations conceptual criteria

Levels of Measurement. 1. Purely by the numbers numerical criteria 2. Theoretical considerations conceptual criteria Levels of Measurement 1. Purely by the numbers numerical criteria 2. Theoretical considerations conceptual criteria Numerical Criteria 1. Nominal = different categories based on some kind of typology 2.

More information

Critical Appraisal of Article on Therapy

Critical Appraisal of Article on Therapy Critical Appraisal of Article on Therapy What question did the study ask? Guide Are the results Valid 1. Was the assignment of patients to treatments randomized? And was the randomization list concealed?

More information

Measuring Success: A Guide to Becoming an Evidence-Based Practice

Measuring Success: A Guide to Becoming an Evidence-Based Practice Measuring Success: A Guide to Becoming an Evidence-Based Practice by Jennifer Fratello, Tarika Daftary Kapur, and Alice Chasan Vera Institute, Center on Youth Justice Models for Change Every young person

More information

Software Engineering. Introduction. Software Costs. Software is Expensive [Boehm] ... Columbus set sail for India. He ended up in the Bahamas...

Software Engineering. Introduction. Software Costs. Software is Expensive [Boehm] ... Columbus set sail for India. He ended up in the Bahamas... Software Engineering Introduction... Columbus set sail for India. He ended up in the Bahamas... The economies of ALL developed nations are dependent on software More and more systems are software controlled

More information

Sample Size and Power in Clinical Trials

Sample Size and Power in Clinical Trials Sample Size and Power in Clinical Trials Version 1.0 May 011 1. Power of a Test. Factors affecting Power 3. Required Sample Size RELATED ISSUES 1. Effect Size. Test Statistics 3. Variation 4. Significance

More information

The investigation is an individual project undertaken by you with support from your teacher/lecturer to show that you can:

The investigation is an individual project undertaken by you with support from your teacher/lecturer to show that you can: Biology (revised) Advanced Higher Biology Investigation Candidate Guidance (for use from Session 2012 2013) Introduction The investigation is an individual project undertaken by you with support from your

More information

Pre-experimental Designs for Description. Y520 Strategies for Educational Inquiry

Pre-experimental Designs for Description. Y520 Strategies for Educational Inquiry Pre-experimental Designs for Description Y520 Strategies for Educational Inquiry Pre-experimental designs-1 Research Methodology Is concerned with how the design is implemented and how the research is

More information

GLOSSARY OF EVALUATION TERMS

GLOSSARY OF EVALUATION TERMS Planning and Performance Management Unit Office of the Director of U.S. Foreign Assistance Final Version: March 25, 2009 INTRODUCTION This Glossary of Evaluation and Related Terms was jointly prepared

More information

Scientific Methods in Psychology

Scientific Methods in Psychology Scientific Methods in Psychology Why do research? To demonstrate that psychology is a science! Psychology would like to have the same academic standing as other sciences like biology, chemistry, astronomy,

More information

Developing an implementation research proposal. Session 2: Research design

Developing an implementation research proposal. Session 2: Research design Developing an implementation research proposal Session 2: Research design Learning objectives After completing this session, you will be able to: Develop a research design outlining your data collection

More information

The Public Policy Process W E E K 1 2 : T H E S C I E N C E O F T H E P O L I C Y P R O C E S S

The Public Policy Process W E E K 1 2 : T H E S C I E N C E O F T H E P O L I C Y P R O C E S S The Public Policy Process W E E K 1 2 : T H E S C I E N C E O F T H E P O L I C Y P R O C E S S Why Study Public Policy Scientific Reasons To help us better understand the nature of political behavior

More information

Program Rating Sheet - Athens State University Athens, Alabama

Program Rating Sheet - Athens State University Athens, Alabama Program Rating Sheet - Athens State University Athens, Alabama Undergraduate Secondary Teacher Prep Program: Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education with Certification, Social Science 2013 Program Rating:

More information

Chapter 2: Research Methodology

Chapter 2: Research Methodology Chapter 2: Research Methodology 1. Type of Research 2. Sources of Data 3. Instruments for Data Collection 4. Research Methods 5. Sampling 6. Limitations of the Study 6 Chapter 2: Research Methodology Research

More information

Research & Development Guidance for Students

Research & Development Guidance for Students Research & Development Guidance for Students 2 Contents Introduction 3 Understanding the Research Approval Process 3 Is My Project Audit, Research or Something Else 4 What Next? 4 R&D Step by step Guide

More information

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Inclusion criteria = attributes of subjects that are essential for their selection to participate. Inclusion criteria function remove the influence of specific confounding

More information

Sherry Pagoto, PhD University of Massachusetts Medical School. Kristin Schneider, PhD Rosalind Franklin University

Sherry Pagoto, PhD University of Massachusetts Medical School. Kristin Schneider, PhD Rosalind Franklin University Sherry Pagoto, PhD University of Massachusetts Medical School Kristin Schneider, PhD Rosalind Franklin University Usability is broadly defined as how easy it is to use a system, how efficiently a person

More information

Descriptive Inferential. The First Measured Century. Statistics. Statistics. We will focus on two types of statistical applications

Descriptive Inferential. The First Measured Century. Statistics. Statistics. We will focus on two types of statistical applications Introduction: Statistics, Data and Statistical Thinking The First Measured Century FREC 408 Dr. Tom Ilvento 213 Townsend Hall ilvento@udel.edu http://www.udel.edu/frec/ilvento http://www.pbs.org/fmc/index.htm

More information

Fairfield Public Schools

Fairfield Public Schools Mathematics Fairfield Public Schools AP Statistics AP Statistics BOE Approved 04/08/2014 1 AP STATISTICS Critical Areas of Focus AP Statistics is a rigorous course that offers advanced students an opportunity

More information

PsyD Psychology (2014 2015)

PsyD Psychology (2014 2015) PsyD Psychology (2014 2015) Program Information Point of Contact Marianna Linz (linz@marshall.edu) Support for University and College Missions Marshall University is a multi campus public university providing

More information

Experimental Analysis

Experimental Analysis Experimental Analysis Instructors: If your institution does not have the Fish Farm computer simulation, contact the project directors for information on obtaining it free of charge. The ESA21 project team

More information

PhD Qualifying Examination: Human-Computer Interaction

PhD Qualifying Examination: Human-Computer Interaction PhD Qualifying Examination: Human-Computer Interaction University of Wisconsin Madison, Department of Computer Sciences Spring 2014 Monday, February 3, 2014 General Instructions This exam has 7 numbered

More information

What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work

What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work Grounded theory The aim of grounded theory is: to generate or discover a theory (Glaser and Strauss,

More information

Critical appraisal of quantitative and qualitative research literature

Critical appraisal of quantitative and qualitative research literature Australian Institute of Radiography 2009; 56 (3): 6 10 Short communication Critical appraisal of quantitative and qualitative research literature Tony Smith University Department of Rural Health, Faculty

More information

CHAPTER 3. Research methodology

CHAPTER 3. Research methodology CHAPTER 3 Research methodology 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the research methodology of the study, including the research design, setting, population, sample and data-collection instrument.

More information

Operational Definition for Evidence-Based Practices Addictions and Mental Health Division September 11, 2007

Operational Definition for Evidence-Based Practices Addictions and Mental Health Division September 11, 2007 Operational Definition for Evidence-Based Practices Addictions and Mental Health Division September 11, 2007 The Oregon Addictions and Mental Health Division (AMH) defines evidencebased practices as programs

More information

Section 2: Ten Tools for Applying Sociology

Section 2: Ten Tools for Applying Sociology Section 2: Ten Tools for Applying Sociology CHAPTER 2.6: DATA COLLECTION METHODS QUICK START: In this chapter, you will learn The basics of data collection methods. To know when to use quantitative and/or

More information

Empirical Software Engineering Introduction & Basic Concepts

Empirical Software Engineering Introduction & Basic Concepts Empirical Software Engineering Introduction & Basic Concepts Dietmar Winkler Vienna University of Technology Institute of Software Technology and Interactive Systems dietmar.winkler@qse.ifs.tuwien.ac.at

More information

Stages of Instructional Design V. Professional Development

Stages of Instructional Design V. Professional Development Stages of Instructional Design V. Professional Development Derived from Gagné, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace

More information

Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Toolkit

Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Toolkit Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Toolkit Translating Research into Practice Adapted for SRHS by: Lucy Gansauer, MSN, RN, OCN & Sherri Stroud, MSN, RN SRHS Nursing Evidence Based Practice Model Organizational

More information

Chapter 1: The Nature of Probability and Statistics

Chapter 1: The Nature of Probability and Statistics Chapter 1: The Nature of Probability and Statistics Learning Objectives Upon successful completion of Chapter 1, you will have applicable knowledge of the following concepts: Statistics: An Overview and

More information

Association Between Variables

Association Between Variables Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi

More information

Introduction... 3. Qualitative Data Collection Methods... 7 In depth interviews... 7 Observation methods... 8 Document review... 8 Focus groups...

Introduction... 3. Qualitative Data Collection Methods... 7 In depth interviews... 7 Observation methods... 8 Document review... 8 Focus groups... 1 Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Quantitative Data Collection Methods... 4 Interviews... 4 Telephone interviews... 5 Face to face interviews... 5 Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI)...

More information

Chapter 2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research

Chapter 2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research 1 Chapter 2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research This chapter is our introduction to the three research methodology paradigms. A paradigm is a perspective based on a set of assumptions, concepts,

More information

Introduction to PhD Research Proposal Writing. Dr. Solomon Derese Department of Chemistry University of Nairobi, Kenya sderese@uonbai.ac.

Introduction to PhD Research Proposal Writing. Dr. Solomon Derese Department of Chemistry University of Nairobi, Kenya sderese@uonbai.ac. Introduction to PhD Research Proposal Writing Dr. Solomon Derese Department of Chemistry University of Nairobi, Kenya sderese@uonbai.ac.ke 1 Your PhD research proposal should answer three questions; What

More information

Non-random/non-probability sampling designs in quantitative research

Non-random/non-probability sampling designs in quantitative research 206 RESEARCH MET HODOLOGY Non-random/non-probability sampling designs in quantitative research N on-probability sampling designs do not follow the theory of probability in the choice of elements from the

More information

Developmental Research Methods and Design. Types of Data. Research Methods in Aging. January, 2007

Developmental Research Methods and Design. Types of Data. Research Methods in Aging. January, 2007 Developmental Research Methods and Design January, 2007 Types of Data Observation (lab v. natural) Survey and Interview Standardized test Physiological measures Case study History record Research Methods

More information

1. FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION

1. FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION W R I T I N G A R E S E A R C H G R A N T P R O P O S A L 1. FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION 1.1. Identify a broad area of interest through literature searches, discussions with colleagues, policy makers

More information

Biomedical Careers in Industry: A Few Tips for the Newcomer

Biomedical Careers in Industry: A Few Tips for the Newcomer Biomedical Careers in Industry: A Few Tips for the Newcomer By Robert A. Copeland, Ph.D. The desire to find practical solutions to problems of commercial interest has fueled key discoveries in the biochemical

More information

Study Guide for the Final Exam

Study Guide for the Final Exam Study Guide for the Final Exam When studying, remember that the computational portion of the exam will only involve new material (covered after the second midterm), that material from Exam 1 will make

More information

When fraudulent data are published, it is eventually discovered because others try to replicate the results.

When fraudulent data are published, it is eventually discovered because others try to replicate the results. Ethics in Psychological Research As behavioral scientists, there are two domains of ethical responsibility: 1. Truthfulness, integrity, etc. in the collection, interpretation and dissemination of data

More information

Social Survey Methods and Data Collection

Social Survey Methods and Data Collection Social Survey Social Survey Methods and Data Collection Zarina Ali June 2007 Concept of Survey & Social Survey A "survey" can be anything from a short paper- and-pencil feedback form to an intensive one-on

More information

Descriptive Statistics and Measurement Scales

Descriptive Statistics and Measurement Scales Descriptive Statistics 1 Descriptive Statistics and Measurement Scales Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample

More information

How to Measure a Loyalty Programme s Return on Investment. Managing information and transactions securely

How to Measure a Loyalty Programme s Return on Investment. Managing information and transactions securely How to Measure a Loyalty Programme s Return on Investment Managing information and transactions securely Introduction Successful programmes have longevity because the overall benefits clearly justify the

More information

Using the PRECEDE- PROCEED Planning Model PRECEDE-PROCEED P R E C E D E. Model for health promotion programming Best known among health scientists

Using the PRECEDE- PROCEED Planning Model PRECEDE-PROCEED P R E C E D E. Model for health promotion programming Best known among health scientists Using the PRECEDE- PROCEED Planning Model Dr. McKinley Thomas Associate Professor Department of Community Medicine Mercer University PRECEDE-PROCEED Model for health promotion programming Best known among

More information

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White

psychology the science of psychology CHAPTER third edition Psychology, Third Edition Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White psychology third edition CHAPTER 1 the science of psychology Learning Objectives LO 1.1 Definition and Goals of Psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and Functionalism LO 1.3 Early Gestalt, Psychoanalysis, and

More information

A Short Manual on How to Write Your Thesis for the MA in Psychology Programme

A Short Manual on How to Write Your Thesis for the MA in Psychology Programme ELTE Faculty of Education and Psychology Valid starting from 2010/2011 for students who began their studies in September 2008 or later A Short Manual on How to Write Your Thesis for the MA in Psychology

More information

Appendix A Protocol for E-Learning Heuristic Evaluation

Appendix A Protocol for E-Learning Heuristic Evaluation Appendix A Protocol for E-Learning Heuristic Evaluation This instrument and protocol are intended for use by instructional designers and other experts engaged in heuristic evaluations of e-learning programs.

More information

Lecture Notes Module 1

Lecture Notes Module 1 Lecture Notes Module 1 Study Populations A study population is a clearly defined collection of people, animals, plants, or objects. In psychological research, a study population usually consists of a specific

More information

SJSU Annual Program Assessment Form Academic Year 2014 2015

SJSU Annual Program Assessment Form Academic Year 2014 2015 SJSU Annual Program Assessment Form Academic Year 2014 2015 Department: Political Science Program: BA College: Social Sciences Website: http://www.sjsu.edu/polisci/ X_ Check here if your website addresses

More information

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3.

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE. Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements. EDU721 (3. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements EDU710 (3.0 credit hours) Ethical and Legal Issues in Education/Leadership This course is an intensive

More information

PROPOSED PENNSYLVANIA STATEWIDE PROGRAM-TO-PROGRAM ARTICULATION AGREEMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY

PROPOSED PENNSYLVANIA STATEWIDE PROGRAM-TO-PROGRAM ARTICULATION AGREEMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY PROPOSED PENNSYLVANIA STATEWIDE PROGRAM-TO-PROGRAM ARTICULATION AGREEMENT IN PSYCHOLOGY As required by Act 50 of 2009 and the Commonwealth s Transfer and Articulation Oversight Committee (TAOC), the Pilot

More information

Correlational Research. Correlational Research. Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP EDS 250. Descriptive Research 1. Correlational Research: Scatter Plots

Correlational Research. Correlational Research. Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP EDS 250. Descriptive Research 1. Correlational Research: Scatter Plots Correlational Research Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP California State University, Sacramento 1 Correlational Research A quantitative methodology used to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship

More information

UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE (ANCOVA)

UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE (ANCOVA) UNDERSTANDING ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE () In general, research is conducted for the purpose of explaining the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable, and the purpose of research design

More information

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative is a diverse field. Not a unified set of methods/philosophy like surveys and experiments. Grew out of many disciplines: sociology, anthropology, education, linguistics,

More information

CHAPTER 3. Research methodology

CHAPTER 3. Research methodology 39 CHAPTER 3 Research methodology 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the research methodology used in the study is described. The geographical area where the study was conducted, the study design and the

More information

University of Calgary Schulich School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

University of Calgary Schulich School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Calgary Schulich School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Area: Software Engineering Thesis Topics proposed by Dr. Dietmar Pfahl, Assistant Professor

More information

RESEARCH DESIGN PART 2. Experimental Research Design. Purpose

RESEARCH DESIGN PART 2. Experimental Research Design. Purpose Research Design Part II 1 RESEARCH DESIGN PART 2 Experimental Research Design Purpose The aim of the experimental research is to investigate the possible cause-andeffect relationship by manipulating one

More information

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODS

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODS CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODS 3.1. Introduction Advertising management has become a prominent organizational activity in public and private corporate houses in India and abroad. Advertising is practiced

More information

Performance Development and Review Template Guide

Performance Development and Review Template Guide Performance Development and Review Template Guide 1. OVERVIEW This guide has been developed to assist both staff and supervisor in the use of the Performance Development & Review template (PD&R) for the

More information

THE EFFECT OF USING FRAYER MODEL ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY. * Ellis EkawatiNahampun. ** Berlin Sibarani. Abstract

THE EFFECT OF USING FRAYER MODEL ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY. * Ellis EkawatiNahampun. ** Berlin Sibarani. Abstract THE EFFECT OF USING FRAYER MODEL ON STUDENTS VOCABULARY MASTERY * Ellis EkawatiNahampun ** Berlin Sibarani Abstract This study was conducted as an attempt to find out the effect of using Frayer Model on

More information