Stages of Instructional Design V. Professional Development

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1 Stages of Instructional Design V. Professional Development Derived from Gagné, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers Stage 1: Define instructional goals. A goal may be defined as a general statement of desired accomplishment. It does not specify exactly all of the components or steps or how each step will be achieved on the road to accomplishing the goal. Stage 2: Conduct an instructional analysis Identify what learning steps will be involved in reaching the goal. This is done through a task analysis, which identifies each step and the skills needed in order to complete that step, and an information processing analysis, which identifies the mental operations the learner needs to employ in performing that skill. The task analysis is performed by asking "What are all of the things the student must know and/or be able to do to achieve the goal?" Stage 3: Identify entry behaviors/learner characteristics Having determined via the instructional analysis which steps and skills the learner must accomplish, it is now necessary to identify the knowledge and skill level that the learner possesses at the outset. Although there may be pronounced differences from learner to learner in in their knowledge and skill levels, the instruction must be targeted as much as possible to the level of the learners' needs. Stage 4: Develop performance objectives. At this stage, it is necessary to translate the needs and goals into objectives that are sufficiently specific to guide the instructor in teaching and the learner in studying. In addition, these objectives form the blueprint for testing as a means of evaluating both the instruction and the learning that has occurred. Example: The student will be able to explain the role of the Krebs cycle to thermogenesis. Stage 5: Select an instructional method. The purpose of selecting an instructional method is to identify and employ teaching strategies and techniques that most effectively achieve the performance objectives. Current educational theory and research support the use of instructional methods that make students active learners (e.g., lecture, lab, small group discussion, case-based study, simulations, independent study, etc.). Stage 6: Assemble instructional material. Once the instructional methodologies have been identified for each objective or unit of content, it is important to assemble the necessary instructional materials. The materials may be in various forms: print, computer, audio, audio-video, etc. Although the necessary instructional materials may already exist, they may need improvement or revision. For example, slides that have been used in the past but that have been problematic, need to be modified. The danger of settling on preexisting instructional materials is that some instructors may allow the materials to determine the direction of the instruction rather than vice versa. Currently, more instructors are using the Web as a way of making didactic information available to students, rather than using lectures or transcripts.

2 Stage 7: Plan and conduct formative evaluation. Formative evaluation, evaluation that occurs from feedback while the instruction is in progress, provides data for revising and improving the instructional materials that were used and those that are yet to be used. It is important to remember that sometimes the plans that look so good on paper actually fail in practice. When possible, test instructional materials with one or a small group of students to determine how students use the materials, how much assistance they need, etc. Considering the teaching methods implemented and the course materials provided, are students learning what they should be? Stage 8: Plan and conduct summative evaluation. Summative evaluation, evaluation that occurs at the end of the instructional effort (unit, course, etc.), provides data on the effectiveness of the instructional effort as a whole. This is the evaluation that provides information on how the whole instructional unit enabled the learner to achieve the objectives that were established at the outset. Selection and Development Criteria for Professional Development A. APPROPRIATENESS OF GENERAL CONTENT 1. Content is aligned with the learning goals. Content of the professional development and supporting materials is based on the findings of a needs assessment. Content of the professional development and supporting materials reflects the program goals. Content of the professional development and supporting materials reflects Federal or State mandates. 2. Content is aligned with State and/or district standards. Materials identify the standards with which they are aligned. Where standards are not identified specifically, the materials are presented in a manner that the user can readily identify. 3. Content contributes to or enhances the knowledge base. Objectives are clearly stated, hypotheses are tested and sound methodology is employed. Resources help to integrate the literature, for example by synthesizing findings across various disciplines. Materials clarify educational theory related to the content. Materials provide an impetus for further research. The nature of the materials is balanced and unbiased. B. APPROPRIATENESS OF DESIGN AND DELIVERY 4. Materials are culturally and ethnically sensitive, free of bias, and reflect diverse audiences. Language reflects focus on inclusivity. Instructional strategies are broad enough to be culturally adaptive. Materials address needs of audiences with varying abilities.

3 Materials integrate multiple intelligences or talents. Visual materials (e.g., print and video) reflect the diversity of the audience. 5. Instructional strategies are appropriate to target audiences. Strategies reflect a variety of teaching and learning modes. Activities incorporate principles of adult learning. Activities are appropriate and relevant to adult learners activities and experiences. Video and audio images are of appropriate complexity for target audiences. 6. Goals and objectives are clear, challenging, and appropriate for the audience. Objectives are explicit and clearly stated. Goals include affective and cognitive objectives, as appropriate. Goals are based on current research and successful practices. Goals foster higher order thinking skills and problem solving. Ideas are logically developed and support the goals and objectives. Learning activities support the goals and objectives. B. APPROPRIATENESS OF DESIGN AND DELIVERY 7. Materials include a discussion of how new skills and knowledge can be applied to individual learning environments. Activities help training participants plan what they will do upon returning to their home sites. Suggestions or ideas are provided for alternative activities depending on the characteristics of the learners and the learning environment. Follow up is incorporated in the curriculum design (e.g., mentoring, multiple sessions) to provide opportunities for application and feedback and to reinforce learning. C. QUALITY OF RESEARCH BASE Evaluation of Adherence to Basic Research Principles 8. Research studies apply rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge. Study has a strong research design and follows an experimental or quasi-experimental design in which study subjects are divided into at least two groups (one group using the practice or program and the other not using it) based on random assignment or on strongly similar background characteristics. Study has reliable data (e.g., data measured consistently and repeated measurements under similar circumstances or over time produce similar results). Study has valid data (e.g., data measures what they were intended to measure). Study involves rigorous data analyses (e.g., researchers analyze the data using methods that are appropriate to the task). Study has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts that apply strict standards of scholarship to the work they review. 9. Content is knowledge-based. Materials were reviewed by external experts in the field and judge to be of high quality based on such indicators as scientifically based research theories, accuracy, social fairness, and implementation feasibility. There is a clear statement of authorship or responsibility for content. Authors are recognized in their field. 10. Module has been field-tested with target audiences in actual context. Modules state nature of field test. Modules document results of field test findings. 11. Module contains an evaluation plan that is linked to training objectives. The evaluation plan is appropriate for the audiences and resources available.

4 Modules contain suggested follow-up procedures to track participants as they put into practice what they have learned (e.g., self-assessment tool, follow-up survey). A feedback form is included for evaluation. D. EASE OF ADOPTION/ADAPTATION 12. Materials provide some evidence of effectiveness. Pre- and post-measures were provided of key indicators associated with such positive changes as changes in instructor behaviors, organizational policies and procedures, and student outcomes. Evidence is provided that shows materials contributed (causal) to the impacts claimed. 13. Materials or training curricula can be replicated in a variety of classrooms and learning environments. Replication is reasonable in terms of cost to potential users (e.g., money, staff, time or other required resources). Detailed and clear procedures are provided to replicate information (e.g., time allotments, specification of required materials, set up, instructor preparation, suggested resources). Materials clearly explain the links between the objectives and the activities. Materials can be used without the direct instructional involvement of the original developer. Permission is obtained for materials that have been adopted from other sources. 14. Information is well organized, easy to understand, and easy to use. Materials are well formatted, easy to navigate, and easy to understand by intended audience and diverse staff. Materials are formatted to be accessible to a wide audience of varying abilities and needs. Links are clearly labeled. A table of contents, preface, glossary, and index are present. Design and format respect adult learning principles. 15. Materials are well written. Sentences are active. Grammar, sentence structure and vocabulary are appropriate. Language is clear. Sentences are easy to understand on a first reading. 16. Layout is aesthetically pleasing to reader. Horizontal and vertical white space is used appropriately. Graphics and illustrations are used to break up the text. Headings and subheadings are used throughout the resource. 17. Text is legible and easy to read. Characteristics include typeface that is sufficiently large for narrative materials (11-12 point), avoidance of all capital and italicized letters, a serif font. Transparencies or PowerPoint presentations have fonts that are sufficiently large to read from all areas of a room; have a maximum of 7 lines with 7 words per line. Text is unjustified and limited to characters per line. There are consistent top, bottom and side margins.

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6 Five Levels of Professional Development Evaluation Level 1.Participants Reactions 2.Participants Learning 3.Organization Support & Change 4.Participants Use of New Knowledge and Skills What Questions Are Addressed How Will Information Be Gathered? What is Measured or Assessed? Did they like it? Questionnaires administered at the Initial satisfaction with the Was their time well spent? end of the session. experience Did the material make sense? Will it be useful? Was the leader knowledgeable and helpful? Were the refreshments fresh and tasty? Was the room the right temperature? Where the chairs comfortable? Did participants acquire the intended knowledge and skills What was the impact on the organization? Did it affect organizational climate and procedures? Was the support public and overt? Were problems addressed quickly and efficiently? Were sufficient resources made available? Were successes recognized and shared? Did participants effectively apply the new knowledge and skills? Paper and Pencil Simulations Demonstrations Participant reflections (oral and/or written? District and school records Minutes from follow-up meetings Questionnaires Structured interview with participants and district or school administrators Questionnaires Structured interviews with participants and their supervisors Participant reflections (oral and/or written Direct Observations Video or audio Tapes Student records School records Questionnaires Structured interviews with students, parents, teachers, and or administrators New knowledge and skills of participants The organization s advocacy, support, accommodation, facilitation, and recognition Degree and quality of implementation How Will information Be Used? To improve program design and delivery To improve program content, format, and organization To document and improve organizational support To inform future change efforts To document and improve the implementation of program content 5. Student Learning Outcomes What was the impact on students? Did it affect student performance or achievement? Are students more confident as learners? Is student attendance improving? Are dropouts decreasing? Student learning outcomes: Cognitive (Performance and Achievemnet) Affective (Attitudes & Dispositions) Psychomotor (Skills & To focus and improve all aspects of program design, implementation, and follow-up To demonstrate the overall impact of Behaviors professional development Guskey, T.R, (2000) Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Last Updated: Thursday, Feb 19, 2009

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