EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR

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1 EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR by Steven Collins A Self-Study Course in Essential English Constructions Upper-Intermediate and Advanced ISBN X MONTSERRAT PUBLISHING

2 MONTSERRAT PUBLISHING Everyday English Grammar Copyright 2013 Steven Collins All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by trade or otherwise be lent, resold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher s prior consent in any form of binding or cover, other than that it is published and without a similar condition, including this condition, being imposed on a subsequent purchaser. First edition autumn 2013 Montserrat Publishing Illustrations Alex Stead Typesetting & Cover Design Naroa Lizar Redrado

3 This book is dedicated to the many thousands of lovely students I have taught from all over the world. Thank you. Steven Collins was born in London in He grew up in Harrow in Law at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. He then decided to make a he returned to London in 1993 to write this book and to open his own school in Central London, specialising in practical English for advanced students. However, in 2008 he retired from teaching to concentrate full time on writing and publishing

4 Other books by the same author: Everyday English Series with Audio CD By Steven Collins Vocabulary books for advanced students of English. Available at all good bookshops and online stores including Amazon Book 1 Book 2 Book 3

5 Introduction EVERYDAY ENGLISH GRAMMAR: A SELF-STUDY COURSE IN ESSENTIAL ENGLISH CONSTRUCTIONS UPPER-INTERMEDIATE AND ADVANCED This upper intermediate-level handbook of 25 essential English constructions mostly conjunctions, but with a few useful verbs and prepositions too- will provide you with a much deeper understanding of things you probably already know. It is not a reference book, but a self-study course. Read and study it from beginning to end. It should it, you will notice a big improvement in your understanding and use of some very important, everyday English constructions. The book is designed for upper intermediate students, but even if Everything contained within it can be found in other books and online, but not in as much detail, nor in such clear English. The detail is practical detail rather than academic or technical; the information given is not there to be clever, but to help you. It is information you really need to on negative constructions and typical mistakes. The material is equally suitable for students of both British and American English, and very (Please note that this is not an exam course book; I m just saying that it will help you in the free writing sections of these exams.) material is just as important and practical.

6 will test you on what you have learnt in each chapter. I hope you enjoy There are no games and fun things to do. The fun is that you will enjoy improving your use of English conjunctions and verbs, and feel much Good luck Steven Collins

7 Contents Chapter 1 For/Since 1 Providing/Provided that/as long as 3 Unless/Otherwise 6 In spite of/despite 7 To suggest 8 Chapter 1 In Use 11 Chapter 2 I would prefer/i would rather 14 Even 16 By the time 18 Hardly 20 To wish 22 Chapter 2 In Use 27 Chapter 3 To rely on/reliable 31 To look forward to 32 Worth 34 To succeed in/manage to 37 Would you mind? 37 Chapter 3 In Use 40

8 Chapter 4 In case 43 To warn 45 To get/be used to 46 To accuse of/blame on/for 50 So/Such 52 Chapter 4 In Use 55 Chapter 5 To steal/rob 58 Had better 61 Not only but also/even 62 Chapter 5 In Use 66

9 Chapter One For/Since 1a. We use for when we say how long the action has been in progress and since for the time at which the period began. I ve been waiting (present perfect continuous) here for an hour. since for since has felt (present perfect) that way for many years. since he was a child. Note that the present perfect and present perfect continuous tenses are generally used in sentence constructions with for and since. Typical mistakes: I m standing (present continuous) in this queue for over 45 minutes. since 2.15 I ve been standing (present perfect continuous) in this queue for over 45 minutes. I ve been standing in this queue since Remember: use the present continuous with for and since. 1

10 1b. Negative examples: haven t called your mother for nearly two months. haven t called your mother since May. haven t lived in London for 10 years. haven t lived in London since Note that the present perfect is generally used in a negative sentence with for and since and not the present perfect continuous. 2. How long are you here for? This may confuse you because it mean How long have you been here? It refers to the future. will you be here for? or will you be staying? I m here for 6 months. This mean I ve been here for 6 months I ll be here for 6 months. 3. Also take note of the following question with since is it since you last saw your brother? since I last saw my brother. The meaning is the same as my brother since, but the construction is quite different. Note that the since clause above begins with it is ( it s six

11 months since ) and the question starts with How long is it... The adverb last comes after since, but before the verb ( saw )( I last saw ) which is used rather that the present perfect ( I haven t seen ) or present perfect continuous ( I ve been waiting ). since since we last got to spend some time together. Providing/Provided that/as long as 1a. These conjunctions all mean only if. providing/ provided that/as long as I feel well. Providing/Provided that/as long as you don t Providing/Provided that/as long as you have Please note that the conjunctions providing and provided have no connection with the verb to provide ; a completely different meaning. 1b. Note that providing/provided that/as long as are, like most conjunctions, followed by the present simple or present perfect tense and not the future. Typical mistake: providing/ provided that/as long as we will have enough money. 3

12 providing/ provided that/as long as we have enough money. Remember use the future after providing/ provided that/as long as. 2. Please note that Providing/Provided that/as long as should only be used for positive or neutral situations and events; i.e. not negative ones. Typical mistake: providing/ provided that/ as long as I don t get a visa to stay here. if I don t get a visa to stay here. wrong because however, are correct even though a negative construction is situation. Providing/Provided that/as long as you don t see second example under 1.a above) providing/provided that/ as long as it doesn t rain. Don t mind waiting describes a neutral situation and doesn t rain is a positive event; so even though the construction is 4

13 3. Providing/Provided that/as long as can also be clause is in the conditional tense constructions, is in the past wouldproviding/provided that/ as long as I found a good job. Providing/Provided that/as long as I was I would marry someone a lot older than me. providing I found a good job. 5

14 Unless/Otherwise 1a. UnlessOtherwise means unless you study hard. will fail your exam if you don t study hard. ) otherwise you will fail your exam ( : or else you will fail your exam. ) unless I still have ( except if otherwise I won t be able to see you tomorrow. Note that unless is followed by what you have to do, in the present. Otherwise is followed by what will happen if you future. Typical mistake with unless unless you don t clean your room. unless you clean your room. negative. Unless unnecessary. 6

15 2. Otherwise can also mean apart from that otherwise very suitable for my needs. or, differently otherwise. In spite of/despite 1a. In spite of and despite mean the same as although, but the sentence construction is different. They must be not a verb. Although is followed by I was Although I was In spite of/despite being In spite of/despite my tiredness(not so common) in spite of/despite the fact (that) I was tired. in spite of/despite what her friends think ( although her friends don t think he does ) the same meaning. Typical mistake: In spite of/despite I have been learning French for 7

16 In spite of/despite the fact (that) I have been learning French for many years Remember: use a verbal construction directly after in spite of or despite. 1b. Note also in spite of and despite have the same meaning, but we use of after despite. So, despite of being tired is wrong. 1c. Negative examples: Although I wasn t In spite of/despite In spite of/despite (not so common) in spite of/despite the fact (that) I To suggest 1. To suggest means to propose an action. with this verb.) Typical mistake: suggest you to go home. suggest (that) you go home. or suggest you should go home 8 Remember: suggest, but subject + present simple.

17 suggest she does? (not what do you suggest her to do? ) suggests we look somewhere else for a house. (not suggests us to look ) 2a. Using suggest suggested I go to bed. suggested I should go to bed. suggested I went to bed. 2b. Negative examples suggest (that) you don t see him again. (not I suggest you not to see him again ) suggested we didn t go to that restaurant. (notnot to go... ) 3. and not wanting to confuse you; but if you are going to use suggest + a direct object pronoun, rather than a verb clause, you need to use to before the pronoun. suggest to me (not what can you suggest me )? suggest to to me. (not I could suggest you )

18 4. suggest. suggested going to the cinema. (= she suggested that we go ) suggests investing in Chinese companies in spite of what some experts advise. (= suggests that we invest ) suggests going out. (= suggests that we go out ) My dad suggests we look somewhere else for a house. (see page 9) 10

19 Chapter One in Use Dialogue CONVERSATION BETWEEN FATHER AND DAUGHTER ANNA: DAD: As long as I know where you re going. ANNA: I haven t seen them for a long time; since fact. I suggesteddespite what happened last time. DAD: ANNA: unless would be asked to leave. DAD: otherwise you might never be allowed to go back there again. ANNA: providing there are DAD: In spite of think the trains will still run. Enjoy yourself and be careful! 11

20 Chapter One: Answers on page providing/ unless/ otherwise) you work very hard. 2. I a (have known/ know/ knew) him b (since/ despite/ for) many years. 3. a (in spite of/ despite of/ although) the fact b (to stay/ staying/ we will stay) at home. 4. a (unless/ otherwise/ providing) you b (brought/ bring/ will bring) a bottle of wine with you.. 5. It s a very long time a (for/ unless/ since) I last b (went/ have been/ will be going) to that restaurant. 6. (Despite I have/ In spite having/ Despite having) many friends 7. speak to/ to speak to/ will speak to) the manager. 8. I would have a dog a (as long as/ unless/ since) I b (will have/ have/ had) enough time to look after it properly. 9. unless/ otherwise/ in spite of) you might catch a cold. 12

21 10. what to suggest b (him/ to him/ from him). Everything should be provided that/ as long/ despite) it doesn t snow. 13

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