# WATER EQUIVALENT OF THE CALORIMETER

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2 . Thermochemistry Experiment.. HEAT OF NEUTRALISATION OF STRONG ACID WITH STRONG BASE Aim: To determine the heat of neutralization of HCl with NaOH. Principle: Heat of neutralization is the heat liberated when mole of an acid (or base) is completely neutralized using a base (or acid). In the case of strong acids and bases, the heat of neutralization is found to be a constant, namely 3.7 kcal mol or 57.3 kj mol. This is equal to the heat of reaction between H + and OH to form H O. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 each of exactly N HCl and NaOH by quantitative dilution from standardized solutions of higher concentration. Determine the water equivalent of the flask (as in experiment.). Wash the flask with cold water and drain. Measure exactly 00 cm 3 of N HCl solution into the flask using a burette. Insert thermometer and stirrer and close the lid. Stir well and note the constant reading T on the thermometer. (Do not remove this thermometer from the calorimeter). Measure out exactly 00 cm 3 of N NaOH into a clean 50 cm 3 beaker using the burette. Note its temperature T using a second thermometer. Then pour all of this alkali solution into the flask, close lid and start stirring. Note the temperature every ten seconds for about two minutes. Draw a graph of temperature readings against time (in seconds) and obtain the maximum temperature T 3 attained. Result: Heat of neutralization of strong acid with strong base = kj mol. (Data, time-temperature plot and calculations for determining water equivalent are expected; see experiment.) Water equivalent of the calorimeter = g. Time in seconds Temperature C T = C. T = C. T 3 = C. Heat liberated when 00 cm 3 of N acid is neutralized = 00 W )( T T ) 00( T ) ( 3 3 T Heat liberated when 000 cm 3 of N acid is neutralized = 00 W )( T T ) 00( T T ) 0 = A cal mol. ( 3 3 = A 4.86 = B J mol = B/000 = kj mol.

3 . Thermochemistry Experiment.3. HEAT OF IONISATION OF A WEAK ACID Aim: To determine the heat of ionisation of acetic acid. Principle: Heat of neutralization of a weak acid like acetic acid with a strong base will be somewhat less than that for strong acid strong base neutralization. While strong acids and bases are completely ionized in solution, some energy has to be used to ionize the weak acid before it can be neutralized. This energy is taken up from the heat of neutralization. The difference between the heats of neutralization for strong acid strong base and that for weak acid strong base gives the heat of ionisation of the weak acid. Procedure: Determine the water equivalent of the flask and heat of neutralization for strong acid strong base (as in experiments. and.). Prepare 50 cm 3 of exactly N acetic acid by quantitative dilution from standardized solution of higher concentration. Determine the heat of neutralization of acetic acid using 00 cm 3 of N acetic acid solution and 00 cm 3 of N NaOH (as in experiment.). Result: Heat of ionisation of acetic acid = kj mol. (Data, time-temperature plot and calculations for determining water equivalent and both heats of neutralization are expected; see experiments. and.) Water equivalent of the calorimeter = g. Heat of neutralization for strong acid strong base (H ) = kj mol. Heat of neutralization for the given weak acid (H ) = kj mol. Heat of ionization of the weak acid = (H H ) = kj mol.

4 . Thermochemistry Experiment.4. DETERMINATION OF THE NORMALITY OF THE GIVEN STRONG ACID Aim: To determine the normality of the given HCl solution of unknown concentration. Principle: Determine the heat of neutralization using (known) N HCl and N NaOH. Also determine the heat of neutralization using the given (unknown) acid using N NaOH. If the unknown concentration is N, then both determinations should give the same value. If the unknown concentration is less than N, the value will be less, such that: unknown normality known normality H(unknown) H(known) Procedure: Determine the water equivalent of the flask and heat of neutralization for strong acid strong base using 00 cm 3 each of exactly N HCl and N NaOH (as in experiments. and.). Also determine the heat of neutralization using 00 cm 3 of the given (unknown) HCl solution and N NaOH. Result: Normality of the given acid solution =. (Data, time-temperature plot and calculations for determining water equivalent and both heats of neutralization are expected; see experiments and ) Water equivalent of the calorimeter = g. Heat of neutralization for strong acid strong base using N HCl (H ) = kj mol. Heat of neutralization for the given acid (H ) = kj mol. unknown normality H H Unknown normality =.

5 . Two component systems Experiment.. PHASE DIAGRAM OF THE NAPHTHALENE BIPHENYL SYSTEM Aim: To draw the phase diagram of naphthalene biphenyl system, which is a simple eutectic system, and to determine its eutectic composition and eutectic temperature. Principle: Addition of a second component into a pure substance lowers its melting (or freezing) point. There is a particular composition of the mixture for which the freezing point is the lowest. The composition of this mixture is called the eutectic composition, and its freezing point is called the eutectic temperature. Procedure: Take two clean dry boiling-tubes fitted with corks carrying a thermometer and ring-stirrer. About 5 grams of naphthalene is accurately weighed into one of the boiling-tubes. The tube is then placed in a water bath (use a 50 cm 3 beaker half full of water as the bath) and heated till it melts completely. The thermometer and stirrer are inserted into the melt. When completely melted, the tube is taken out of the water bath and placed in an air jacket (a small wide-mouthed bottle) and stirred continuously. The temperature is noted every 30 seconds till it solidifies completely, and then for two minutes more. A time-temperature graph is plotted. At the freezing point, the temperature remains steady for a few readings. This temperature is the freezing point. (If super cooling occurs, the temperature may rise up slightly before dropping again. This maximum is the freezing point.) The solid is again melted in the water bath and the thermometer and stirrer removed carefully, without losing any material. About gram of biphenyl is accurately weighed into the same tube. Melt the mixture on the water bath and determine the freezing point of the mixture as before. The process is repeated, each time adding gram of biphenyl, till a total of 5 grams is added. Now, about 5 grams of biphenyl is accurately weighed into the second boiling-tube and the freezing point determined as before. Repeat five more times, each time adding about gram (accurately weighed) of naphthalene into the tube. Finally, calculate the percentage of naphthalene and biphenyl in each of the ten mixtures (both mass and mol %). Plot the freezing points against composition to get phase diagram of naphthalene biphenyl system. Result: Eutectic composition of naphthalene-biphenyl system = % naphthalene.(mass, mol) Eutectic temperature of naphthalene-biphenyl system = C. Time in seconds Temperature C S.No Mass of naphthalene Mass of biphenyl Naphthalene mass% mol% Biphenyl mass% mol% Freezing point, C

6 . Two component systems Experiment.. COMPOSITION OF THE GIVEN MIXTURE Aim: To determine the percentage composition of the given mixture of naphthalene and biphenyl from the phase diagram of the simple eutectic system. Principle: The composition of the given mixture of naphthalene and biphenyl can be determined by finding its freezing point and comparing it with the phase diagram for this system. There can be two possible compositions corresponding to a freezing point, on the two arms of the curve, except for the eutectic composition. The correct composition can then be determined by adding a small amount of either naphthalene or biphenyl, and checking whether the freezing point moves up or down in the phase diagram. Procedure: Construct the phase diagram for the naphthalene-biphenyl system (as explained in experiment.). Also determine the freezing point of the given mixture. Note the two possible compositions corresponding to this freezing point from the phase diagram. Now add about 0.5 gram of any one of the components to the given mixture, and again determine its freezing point. Note whether the new freezing point is higher or lower than the earlier one to decide which of the two is the correct composition. Result: Composition of the given mixture = % naphthalene, % biphenyl. (mass%) = % naphthalene, % biphenyl. (mol%) (Data, cooling curves and phase diagram as in the earlier experiment are expected) Time in seconds Temperature C S.No Given Given Mass of naphthalene unknown unk + 0.5g Mass of biphenyl unknown unknown Naphthalene mass% mol% Biphenyl mass% mol% Freezing point, C

7 . Two component systems Experiment.3. MOLAL DEPRESSION CONSTANT AND LATENT HEAT OF FUSION OF A SOLID SOLVENT Aim: To determine the latent heats of fusion of naphthalene and biphenyl from the phase diagram. Tf Mw Principle: The molal depression constant K f is given by the equation K f, where T f is 000w the depression in freezing point, w is the mass of solvent, w is the mass of solute and M is the molecular mass of the solute. Then latent heat of fusion L f of the solvent is given by the equation RT Lf, where R is the gas constant (8.34 JK mol ) and T is the freezing point of the 000Kf solvent in Kelvin. Procedure: Construct the phase diagram for the naphthalene-biphenyl system (as explained in experiment.). From the phase diagram, locate the freezing point corresponding to 5% (mass) of biphenyl and 95% naphthalene. This corresponds to a mixture of 5g (w ) biphenyl in 95g (w ) naphthalene. Calculate T f using the freezing point of pure naphthalene and that of this mixture. Use the data to calculate K f and L f of naphthalene. Again, locate the freezing point corresponding to 5% (mass) of naphthalene and 95% biphenyl. This corresponds to a mixture of 5g (w ) naphthalene in 95g (w ) biphenyl. Then calculate K f and L f of biphenyl as above. Results: Molal depression constant of naphthalene = K mol. Molal depression constant of biphenyl = K mol. Latent heat of fusion of naphthalene = J. Latent heat of fusion of biphenyl = J. (Data, cooling curves and phase diagram as in the earlier experiment are expected) For naphthalene as solvent, Freezing point of naphthalene, T = C. Freezing point of naphthalene containing 5% biphenyl = C. Therefore T f = C. Mass of naphthalene, w = g. Mass of biphenyl, w = g. Molar mass of biphenyl = g mol. K f = L f = For biphenyl as solvent, Freezing point of biphenyl, T = C. Freezing point of biphenyl containing 5% naphthalene = C. Therefore T f = C. Mass of biphenyl, w = g. Mass of naphthalene, w = g. Molar mass of naphthalene = g mol. K f = L f =

8 3. Rast s method Experiment 3.. MOLAL DEPRESSION CONSTANT OF A SOLID SOLVENT Aim: To determine the molal depression constant of a solid solvent like naphthalene, biphenyl, or diphenylamine. Principle: The molal depression constant K f is the depression in freezing point caused by a molal Tf Mw solution. It is given by the equation K f, where T f is the depression in freezing point, w is 000w the mass of solvent, w is the mass of solute and M is the molecular mass of the solute. Procedure: Take a clean boiling tube fitted with a cork carrying a sensitive (0 C) thermometer and stirrer. Weigh about 0 g (w ) of naphthalene accurately into it. Heat the tube in a water bath till the naphthalene melts, and fix the thermometer and stirrer such that the bulb of the thermometer is fully immersed in the melt. Heat to about 85 C and transfer the tube into an air jacket (a small wide-mouthed bottle) and stirred continuously. The temperature is noted every 30 seconds till the temperature falls below 75 C. A time-temperature graph is plotted. At the freezing point, the temperature remains steady for a few readings. This temperature is the freezing point (T ). (If super cooling occurs, the temperature may rise up slightly before dropping again. This maximum is the freezing point.) The solid is again melted in the water bath and the thermometer and stirrer removed carefully, without losing any material. About 0. gram (w ) of biphenyl is accurately weighed into the same tube. Melt the mixture on the water bath and determine the freezing point of the mixture as before (T ). A second addition of 0. gram of biphenyl is made and the freezing point is again noted as before to serve as a duplicate determination. Results: Molal depression constant of naphthalene (K f ) = () K mol. () K mol. Time in seconds Temperature C S.No Mass of naphthalene Mass of biphenyl 0 Freezing point, C Freezing point of naphthalene, (T ) = C. Freezing point of naphthalene containing w g biphenyl (T )= C. Therefore T f = C. Mass of naphthalene, w = g. Mass of biphenyl, w = g. Molar mass of biphenyl (M ) = g mol. K f Tf Mw = K mol. 000w

9 3. Rast s method Experiment 3.. MOLECULAR MASS OF THE GIVEN SOLUTE Aim: To determine the molecular mass of the given solute from freezing point measurements. Principle: The molal depression constant K f is the depression in freezing point caused by a molal solution. Using known masses of solute and solvent, the molality of the solution can be calculated. From the molality, molecular mass can be obtained. Procedure: Determine freezing point (T ) of the solvent (naphthalene) as in experiment 3.. The solid is again melted in the water bath and the thermometer and stirrer removed carefully, without losing any material. About 0. gram (w ) of the given solute is accurately weighed into the same tube. Melt the mixture on the water bath and determine the freezing point of the mixture as before (T ). A second addition of 0. gram of solute is made and the freezing point is again noted as before to serve as a duplicate determination. Using the K f of naphthalene determined in experiment 3., calculate molecular mass of the given solute using the formula M K f.000. w. T w Results: Molar mass of the given solute = () g mol. () g mol. Time in seconds Temperature C f S.No Mass of naphthalene Mass of solute 0 Freezing point, C Freezing point of naphthalene, (T ) = C. Freezing point of naphthalene containing w g biphenyl (T ) = C. Therefore T f = C. Mass of naphthalene, w = g. Mass of biphenyl, w = g. Molar mass of biphenyl (M ) = g mol. M K f.000. w = g mol. T w f

10 3. Rast s method Experiment 3.3. MOLAL DEPRESSION CONSTANT OF A SOLID SOLVENT (GRAPHICAL METHOD) Aim: To determine the molal depression constant of a solid solvent like naphthalene, biphenyl, or diphenylamine using graphical method. Principle: The molal depression constant K f is the depression in freezing point caused by a molal solution. The depression in freezing point is directly proportional to the molality of the solution, where K f is the proportionality constant. T f = K f. molality. This equation is of the form y = mx + c, where c = 0. Therefore, a plot of T f against molality must give a straight line with slope = K f and passing through the origin. Procedure: Determine freezing point (T ) of the solvent (naphthalene) as in experiment 3.. The solid is again melted in the water bath and the thermometer and stirrer removed carefully, without losing any material. About 0. gram (w ) of a known solute (biphenyl, M = 54) is accurately weighed into the same tube. Melt the mixture on the water bath and determine the freezing point of the mixture as before (T ). A second addition of 0. gram of solute is made and the freezing point is again noted as before. This is repeated three more times to obtain a total of five different values for w and T. The molality of the solution and T f in each case is calculated and plotted on a graph paper. The slope of the line gives K f. Result: Molal depression constant of naphthalene (K f ) = () K mol. S.No. Mass of naphthalene w Mass of solute w Freezing point, C Molality = 000. w T f M w K f = slope =

11 3. Rast s method Experiment 3.4. MASS OF THE GIVEN SOLID SOLVENT GRAPHICAL METHOD Aim: To determine the mass of the given solid solvent like naphthalene, biphenyl, or diphenylamine using graphical method. Principle: The depression in freezing point is directly proportional to the molality of the solution, where K f is the proportionality constant. T f = K f. molality. This equation is of the form y = mx + c, where c = 0. Therefore, a plot of T f against molality must give a straight line with slope = K f and passing through the origin. Instead of molality, mole fraction of solute may be used on the X-axis. By determining T f for any given mixture, its mole fraction can be obtained from the graph. Knowing the molar mass of solvent and solute, the mass of solvent can be calculated. Procedure: Determine freezing point (T ) of the solvent (naphthalene, M = 30) as in experiment 3.. Determine freezing points for five different additions of a known solute (biphenyl, M = 54) as explained in experiment 3.3. The mole fraction of solute and T f in each case is calculated and plotted on a graph paper. To the given solid solvent (which is the same as that used to construct the graph), add a known mass (between 0.3 to 0.8 g) of solute and determine its freezing point. Calculate T f. Obtain mole fraction corresponding to this value from the graph and calculate mass of solvent. Result: Mass of the given solid solvent = g. S.No Mass of naphthalene w unknown Mass of solute w Freezing point, C Mole fraction = M. w M w T f Mole fraction of solute obtained from graph = But mole fraction ( ) = M M. w w Mass of the solvent = w = M M. w = g.

12 3. Rast s method Experiment 3.5. MOLAL DEPRESSION CONSTANT OF A SALT HYDRATE Aim: To determine the molal depression constant of a salt hydrate like sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate or sodium acetate trihydrate. Principle: The molal depression constant K f is the depression in freezing point caused by a molal solution. A water soluble solute such as glucose or urea is used in the case of a salt hydrate. Procedure: Take a clean boiling tube fitted with a cork carrying a sensitive (0 C) thermometer and stirrer. Weigh about 0 g (w ) of crystalline Na S O 3.5H O accurately into it. Heat the tube in a water bath till the salt melts, and fix the thermometer and stirrer such that the bulb of the thermometer is fully immersed in the melt. Heat to about 55 C and transfer the tube into an air jacket (a small wide-mouthed bottle) and stirred continuously. The temperature is noted every 30 seconds till the temperature falls below 40 C. A time-temperature graph is plotted. At the freezing point, the temperature remains steady for a few readings. This temperature is the freezing point (T ). (If super cooling occurs, the temperature may rise up slightly before dropping again. This maximum is the freezing point.) The salt hydrate is again melted in the water bath and the thermometer and stirrer removed carefully, without losing any material. About 0. gram (w ) of glucose is accurately weighed into the same tube. Melt the mixture on the water bath and determine the freezing point of the mixture as before (T ). A second addition of 0. gram of glucose is made and the freezing point is again noted as before to serve as a duplicate determination. Results: Molal depression constant of sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate (K f ) = () K mol. () K mol. Time in seconds Temperature C S.No Mass of Na S O 3.5H O Mass of glucose Freezing point, C Freezing point of sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate, (T ) = C. Freezing point of sodium thiosulphate containing w g glucose (T )= C. Therefore T f = C. Mass of sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate, w = g. Mass of glucose, w = g. Molar mass of glucose (M ) = g mol. K f Tf Mw = K mol. 000w

13 4. CST Experiment 4.. CRITICAL SOLUTION TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL-WATER SYSTEM Aim: To determine the CST or upper consolute point of phenol-water system. Principle: Two partially miscible liquids may become completely miscible at a higher temperature since solubility increases with temperature generally. This miscibility temperature is different for different compositions of the mixture. The highest miscibility temperature is called the critical solution temperature or CST. Above this temperature, all compositions of this mixture are completely miscible. Procedure: Take a clean boiling tube fitted with a cork carrying a sensitive (0 C) thermometer and stirrer. Measure 5 ml of phenol into the boiling tube. Fill a burette with water and add ml water into the boiling tube containing phenol. Fix the thermometer and stirrer and heat slowly on a water bath, stirring continuously. Note the temperature at which turbidity just disappears. Take out from the water bath and allow the tube to cool slowly while stirring. Note the temperature at which turbidity reappears. Then add ml more of water into the same boiling tube and repeat the experiment. Continue like this till a total of 30 ml water is added. Plot the average miscibility temperatures against percentage of phenol on a graph paper. The maximum point in the curve is the CST of phenol-water system. Results: CST of phenol-water system = C. Critical composition = % phenol, % water. Vol. of phenol ml Vol. of water ml % of phenol Miscibility temperature Disappear Appear Average 5 5 4

14 4. CST Experiment 4.. EFFECT OF ADDING NaCl ON THE CST OF PHENOL-WATER SYSTEM AND DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN CONCENTRATION Aim: To study the effect of adding NaCl on the CST of phenol-water system and thus determine the concentration of the given NaCl solution. Principle: The CST of a system is usually increased when a solute soluble in only one of the component liquids is added. Thus when NaCl or KCl, which are soluble only in water and not in phenol, is added, the CST of phenol-water system is found to increase with concentration. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 of 0. molar NaCl solution. Transfer 0, 0, 30, 40 and 50 cm 3 of this solution into five different 00 cm 3 volumetric flasks and make up with distilled water to get 0.0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.0 molar solutions of NaCl respectively. Determine the CST of phenol-water system using each of these solutions in the place of water (as explained in experiment 4.). Also determine the CST using the given solution of unknown concentration. Result: Concentration of the given NaCl solution = M. (Tables and plots for the determination of CST in all six cases are expected. See experiment 4.)

15 4. CST Experiment 4.3. EFFECT OF ADDING SUCCINIC ACID ON THE CST OF PHENOL-WATER SYSTEM AND DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN CONCENTRATION Aim: To study the effect of adding succinic acid on the CST of phenol-water system and thus determine the concentration of the given succinic acid solution. Principle: The CST of a system usually decreases when a solute soluble in both the component liquids is added. Thus when succinic acid, which is soluble both in water and phenol, is added, the CST of phenol-water system is found to decrease with concentration. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 of 0. molar succinic acid solution. Transfer 0, 0, 30, 40 and 50 cm 3 of this solution into five different 00 cm 3 volumetric flasks and make up with distilled water to get 0.0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.0 molar solutions of succinic acid respectively. Determine the CST of phenol-water system using each of these solutions in the place of water (as explained in experiment 4.). Also determine the CST using the given solution of unknown concentration. Result: Concentration of the given succinic acid solution = M. (Tables and plots for the determination of CST in all six cases are expected. See experiment 4.)

16 4. CST Experiment 4.4. EFFECT OF ADDING KCl ON THE MISCIBILITY OF PHENOL AND WATER AND DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN CONCENTRATION Aim: To study the effect of adding KCl on the miscibility of phenol and water and thus determine the concentration of the given KCl solution. Principle: The miscibility temperature of phenol-water system is usually increased when a solute soluble in only one of the component liquids is added. Thus when NaCl or KCl, which are soluble only in water and not in phenol, is added, the miscibility temperature of phenol-water system is found to increase with concentration. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 of 0. molar KCl solution. Transfer 0, 0, 30, 40 and 50 cm 3 of this solution into five different 00 cm 3 volumetric flasks and make up with distilled water to get 0.0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.0 molar solutions of KCl respectively. Determine the miscibility temperature using 5 cm 3 of phenol and 5 cm 3 of 0.0 molar KCl solution. Similarly repeat the determination using 5 cm 3 of fresh phenol and 5 cm 3 of each of the other concentrations, and also using the unknown solution. Result: Concentration of the given KCl solution = M. Conc unknown Misc. temp.

17 4. CST Experiment 4.5. EFFECT OF ADDING SUCCINIC ACID ON THE MISCIBILITY OF PHENOL AND WATER AND DETERMINATION OF UNKNOWN CONCENTRATION Aim: To study the effect of adding succinic acid on the miscibility of phenol and water and thus determine the concentration of the given succinic acid solution. Principle: The miscibility temperature of phenol-water system is usually decreased when a solute soluble in both the component liquids is added. Thus when succinic acid, which is soluble in both water and phenol, is added, the miscibility temperature of phenol-water system is found to decrease with concentration. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 of 0. molar succinic acid solution. Transfer 0, 0, 30, 40 and 50 cm 3 of this solution into five different 00 cm 3 volumetric flasks and make up with distilled water to get 0.0, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.0 molar solutions of succinic acid respectively. Determine the miscibility temperature using 5 cm 3 of phenol and 5 cm 3 of 0.0 molar succinic acid solution. Similarly repeat the determination using 5 cm 3 of fresh phenol and 5 cm 3 of each of the other concentrations, and also using the unknown solution. Result: Concentration of the given succinic acid solution = M. Conc unknown Misc. temp.

18 5. Three component systems Experiment 5.. PHASE DIAGRAM OF A THREE-COMPONENT SYSTEM Aim: To construct the phase diagram of nitrobenzene-acetic acid-water system. Principle: For a three-component system, four degrees of freedom are possible (F = C-P+ = 3-+ = 4). These are the pressure, temperature and concentration of any two components. In order to simplify the graphical representation, pressure and temperature are kept constant, while the two concentration terms can be represented on a planar diagram. Triangular diagrams are most commonly used. The pure components are represented by the corners of an equilateral triangle. Since the sum of the distances from a point inside the triangle drawn parallel to the sides is always the same (and equal to one side), the composition of a mixture of three liquids can be represented by any point inside the triangle, taking the side as 00% (percentage composition by mass) or as (mole fraction). Any side will then represent two components and the apex, one component. A known mixture of any two miscible liquids are taken and titrated against the third from a burette, till turbidity just appears, to determine the full-miscibility range. Procedure: Three burettes are washed with water and all water drained off. They are then rinsed twice with small amounts of acetone and allowed to dry. Fill pure nitrobenzene, acetic acid and water respectively in the burettes and clamp them vertically. Take a clean, dry 00 cm 3 conical flask and weigh accurately. Measure 0 cm 3 of nitrobenzene into it from the burette and again weigh. Calculate density of nitrobenzene from these measurements. Similarly calculate densities of glacial acetic acid and water also. After weighing, pour the liquids back into their respective burettes. Take nine clean, dry 00 cm 3 conical flasks and label them. Measure 9 cm 3 of nitrobenzene and cm 3 of acetic acid into flask, 8 cm 3 of nitrobenzene and cm 3 of acetic acid into flask, 7 cm 3 of nitrobenzene and 3 cm 3 of acetic acid into flask 3, etc. Titrate each of them carefully using water till a faint turbidity appears, and note the volumes of water used in each case. Clean and dry the labeled conical flasks. Measure 9 cm 3 of water and cm 3 of acetic acid into flask, 8 cm 3 of water and cm 3 of acetic acid into flask, 7 cm 3 of water and 3 cm 3 of acetic acid into flask 3, etc. Titrate each of them carefully using nitrobenzene till a faint turbidity appears, and note the volumes of nitrobenzene used in each case. Calculate the mass % of nitrobenzene, acetic acid and water in each case and tabulate them. Plot the values on a triangular graph (nitrobenzene and water on the base and acetic acid on the apex) to obtain the phase diagram of the system. Result: Phase diagram of nitrobenzene-acetic acid-water system was constructed. Mass of 0 cm 3 of nitrobenzene = g. Density of nitrobenzene = Mass of 0 cm 3 of acetic acid = g. Density of acetic acid = Mass of 0 cm 3 of water = g. Density of water =

19 Ser Volume (ml) Mass (g) (V d) Mass % No. PhNO HOAc H O PhNO HOAc H O PhNO HOAc H O

20 5. Three component systems Experiment 5.. DRAWING A TIE-LINE ON THE PHASE DIAGRAM OF A THREE-COMPONENT SYSTEM Aim: To draw a tie-line on the phase diagram of nitrobenzene-acetic acid-water system. Principle: Any mixture represented by a point within the miscibility curve of a three-component system will separate into two layers. One layer is a solution of C in A and the other is a solution of C in B. The compositions of these two layers will be points on the binodal curve of the system. The line joining these two points is called the tie-line. It is expected to pass through the point representing the original mixture taken. Procedure: Prepare and standardize 50 cm 3 of 0.5 N NaOH solution. Get about 60 cm 3 of a mixture of the three components from the instructor. Mix it well and pour into a small separating funnel. Allow the layers to separate. The bottom layer is a solution of acetic acid in nitrobenzene and the top layer is a solution of acetic acid in water. Collect the layers separately into two clean, dry 00 cm 3 beakers. Take two clean, dry 50 cm 3 conical flasks and weigh them accurately. Pipette out exactly cm 3 of nitrobenzene layer into one flask and cm 3 of aqueous layer into the other. Weigh again and calculate the mass of each layer. Add 0 cm 3 of water and a drop of phenolphthalein indicator into each and titrate against standard 0.5 N NaOH solution from the burette. Calculate the mass % of acetic acid in each layer. Mark the points corresponding to the percentages of acetic acid on the binodal curve obtained for nitrobenzene-water system earlier. Draw the tie-line connecting these two points. The line should, theoretically, pass through the point representing the composition of the original mixture given to you. Result: Mass % of acetic acid in the organic layer = Mass % of acetic acid in the aqueous layer = Tie-line passes through the point representing the composition of the given mixture. Nitrobenzene layer: Mass of conical flask = g. Mass of flask + cm 3 organic layer = g. Mass of cm 3 organic layer (W ) = g. Volume of NaOH solution used (V ) = cm 3. Normality of NaOH (N) =. Normality of organic layer (N )= (V N)/ =. Mass of acetic acid per litre = N 60. Mass of acetic acid in cm 3 organic layer (W ) = (N 60) (/000) = g. Mass % of acetic acid in the organic layer = (W /W ) 00 = Aqueous layer: Mass of conical flask = g. Mass of flask + cm 3 aqueous layer = g. Mass of cm 3 aqueous layer (W 3 ) = g. Volume of NaOH solution used (V ) = cm 3. Normality of NaOH (N) =. Normality of aqueous layer (N )= (V N)/ =. Mass of acetic acid per litre = N 60. Mass of acetic acid in 5 cm 3 aqueous layer (W 4 ) = (N 60) (/000) = g. Mass % of acetic acid in the aqueous layer = (W 4 /W 3 ) 00 =

21 5. Three component systems Experiment 5.3. COMPOSITION OF THE GIVEN MIXTURE Aim: To find out the mass percentage of acetic acid and water in the given mixture. Principle: Any mixture of acetic acid and water will fall on the edge joining acetic acid and water on the triangular graph of the three-component system. Adding just enough nitrobenzene to form a separate layer will bring the composition inward so as to be represented by a point on the bimodal curve. Procedure: Phase diagram for nitrobenzene-water-acetic acid is constructed as explained in experiment 5.. The unknown mixture of acetic acid and water is collected from the instructor in a dry, previously weighed 00 cm 3 conical flask. Weigh again and calculate the mass of the given mixture. It is titrated using nitrobenzene from the burette till a faint turbidity appears. Calculate the mass of nitrobenzene used from its volume and density. Calculate the mass percent of nitrobenzene in the mixture. Mark this point on the binodal curve. Draw a line from the corner representing 00% nitrobenzene to this point on the bimodal curve, and extend it to meet the opposite edge. The point where it meets the edge gives the mass percentage of acetic acid and water. Result: Mass percent of acetic acid in the given mixture =. Mass of conical flask = g. Mass of flask + mixture = g. Mass of mixture = g. Volume of nitrobenzene used = cm 3. Density of nitrobenzene =. Mass of nitrobenzene = g. Total mass = g. Mass % of nitrobenzene =. Mass % of acetic acid (from graph) =.

24 6. Partition Experiment 6.3. DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION OF THE GIVEN KI SOLUTION Aim: To determine the concentration of the given KI solution using partition method. [KI3 ] Principle: Equilibrium constant =. Knowing the value of the equilibrium constant, the [KI][I ] equilibrium concentration [KI] can be calculated if [KI 3 ] and [I ] are known. These can be obtained by titration of the organic layer and aqueous layer as in experiment 6.. Since [KI] = original concentration of KI [KI 3 ], the original concentration can be calculated. Procedure: Take two stoppered 50 cm 3 iodine flasks E and F. Repeat the experiment exactly as in experiment 6., but using the given KI solution instead of the solution of known concentration. Result: Concentration of the given KI solution = () () [Table and calculations as in experiment 6. and 6. are expected. Add E & F to the table] Flask No. A B Volume of 0.N thio (V ) Volume of 0.0N thio (V ) Partition Coefficient K Flask No. C D E F Volume of 0.N thio (V ) Let N be the normality of thiosulphate, V the titre of CCl 4 layer and V the titre of aqueous layer. Let K be the partition coefficient and K eq be the equilibrium constant. V N N Normality of iodine in CCl 4 layer (N ) = Normality of I in aqueous layer (N ) = 5 K V N Normality of (I + KI 3 ) in aqueous layer (N 3 ) = Normality of KI 3 in aqueous layer (N 4 ) = (N 3 N ) 40 [KI3 ] [KI3 ] But = K eq. [KI] = But [KI] = Original concentration [KI 3 ] [KI][I ] K [I ] Original concentration of KI = [KI] + [KI 3 ] eq

25 7. Viscosity Experiment 7.. DETERMINING THE COEFFICIENT OF VISCOSITIES OF DIFFERENT LIQUIDS Aim: To determine the coefficient of viscosities of various liquids like benzene, nitrobenzene and acetic acid. Principle: Resistance to flow of a liquid is known as viscosity. The retarding force is proportional to the area of contact and the velocity gradient. The proportionality constant is the coefficient of πpr 4 t viscosity, and is characteristic of a liquid. When a liquid flows through a capillary tube, =, 8lV where P is the pressure head, r is the radius of the tube, t is the time of flow, l is the length of the tube and V is the volume of liquid. This is called absolute viscosity determination. But if the same volumes of two liquids are allowed to flow through the same tube, then we have the relation t, where is the density of the liquid. If the viscosity of one liquid is known, then the t other can be calculated. An Ostwald s viscometer is used to determine relative viscosity of liquids. Procedure: An Ostwald viscometer is cleaned by rinsing three times with small volumes of acetone and dried. The lower bulb is filled with distilled water and clamped vertically. A rubber bulb is attached to the tip of the narrow limb and the liquid drawn up to a level much above the upper mark. The rubber bulb is removed and the liquid allowed to flow down freely. A stop watch is started just as the liquid meniscus passes the upper mark and stopped when it passes the lower mark. The time of flow t is noted. Density of water is kg m 3 and for water is kg m s (8.00 millipoise) at 8 C. The viscometer is again cleaned and dried as before. It is then filled with the experimental liquid (benzene, nitrobenzene or glacial acetic acid as the case may be). Time of flow t is determined as in the case of water. The densities of the liquids may either be determined or taken from literature. The coefficient of viscosity of the liquid can be calculated. Result: Coefficient of viscosity of benzene = kg m s Coefficient of viscosity of nitrobenzene = kg m s Coefficient of viscosity of acetic acid = kg m s Liquid Density (kg m 3 ) Time of flow (s) Viscosity coefft.. Water. Benzene 3. Nitrobenzene 4. Acetic acid t = t

26 7. Viscosity Experiment 7.. DETERMINING THE COMPOSITION OF THE GIVEN MIXTURE Aim: To determine the composition of the given mixture of benzene and nitrobenzene. Principle: The viscosities of various mixtures of two non-interacting liquids will lie between those of the pure components. Since time of flow in the Ostwald viscometer varies linearly with viscosity (and hence with composition), the unknown composition can be obtained from the graph by measuring the time of flow. Procedure: Take five clean, dry stoppered bottles and label them to 5. Take 4 cm 3 of benzene and 6 cm 3 of nitrobenzene (= 0% benzene v/v) in bottle, 8 cm 3 of benzene and cm 3 of nitrobenzene (= 40% benzene v/v) in bottle, cm 3 of benzene and 8 cm 3 of nitrobenzene (= 60% benzene v/v) in bottle 3, 6 cm 3 of benzene and 4 cm 3 of nitrobenzene (= 80% benzene v/v) in bottle 4. Get the unknown mixture from the instructor in bottle 5. Mix the contents of each bottle well by gently swirling the contents. Measure the time of flow for each mixture using the Ostwald viscometer as explained in experiment 7.. Also determine the times of flow for pure benzene and nitrobenzene. Plot the times of flow against volume percentage of benzene on a graph paper (if weight percentages are required, they can be calculated knowing the densities of pure benzene and nitrobenzene). Get the composition corresponding to the time of flow of the unknown mixture from the graph. Result: The composition of the given mixture = % benzene, % nitrobenzene. Composition Pure nitrobenzene 0% benzene 40% benzene 60% benzene 80% benzene Pure benzene Unknown Time of flow (s)

27 7. Viscosity Experiment 7.3. TO VERIFY KENDALL S EQUATION Aim: To verify Kendall s equation by showing that a plot of log(fluidity) of the mixture against mole fraction is a straight line, and to calculate the viscosities of the pure components. Principle: For mixtures of two non-associated non-polar liquids like benzene and nitrobenzene, Kendall suggested the equation log = x log + x log, where x and x represents the mole fractions of the two liquids and, and represent fluidities of the mixture and pure liquids respectively (fluidity is the inverse of viscosity). Since x = ( x ), the equation may be rewritten as log = x (log log ) + log. Therefore a plot of log against x will give a straight line with slope = (log log ) and y-intercept = log. Procedure: Prepare four mixtures of benzene and nitrobenzene as in experiment 7.. Find the density of each mixture by weighing a known volume, or calculate densities using the densities of the pure liquids. Calculate mole fraction of benzene in each mixture. Set up the viscometer and measure the times of flow of the mixtures and that of pure water. Calculate the viscosity of each mixture relative to water as explained in experiment 7.. The inverse of each viscosity gives the fluidity. Plot log against mole fraction of benzene, and extend the line to cut the y-axis. From the y-intercept, calculate fluidity of nitrobenzene. From the slope, calculate fluidity of benzene. From the fluidities, calculate the viscosities of benzene and nitrobenzene. Result: () Plot of log against mole fraction of benzene gives a straight line, thus verifying Kendall s equation. () Viscosity of benzene calculated from graph = (3) Viscosity of nitrobenzene calculated from graph = (All calculations as in experiment 7. necessary for each mixture) Liquid Water 0% benzene 40% benzene 60% benzene 80% benzene Density (kg m 3 ) Mole fraction of benzene, x Time of flow (s) Viscosity coefft. Fluidity, = / log

28 8. Solubility Experiment 8.. TO DETERMINE THE SOLUBILITY OF AMMONIUM OXALATE IN WATER Aim: To determine the solubility of crystalline ammonium oxalate [(NH 4 ) C O 4.H O] in water at room temperature using analytical method. Principle: Solubility of a salt is the amount of salt present in a known volume of saturated solution of the salt in a specified solvent at a given temperature. It may be expressed in grams per 00 cm 3 of solution, or in grams per 000 cm 3 of solution. Ammonium oxalate in solution can be estimated by titrating a known volume against standard acidified potassium permanganate solution. Procedure: Prepare 50 cm 3 of approximately 0.N potassium permanganate solution and standardize it against hot standard oxalic acid solution after acidifying with 6N sulfuric acid. Take about 00 cm 3 of distilled water in a 50 cm 3 beaker. Add small quantities of crystalline ammonium oxalate and stir well till some salt remains undissolved even on prolonged stirring. Keep aside for about 30 minutes to make sure that no more salt dissolves. Note the temperature of the solution. Close the tip of a 0 cm 3 pipette with a short rubber tube plugged with cotton (to prevent the entry of any small crystals) and pipette out 0 cm 3 of solution into a 00 cm 3 volumetric flask and make up to the mark with distilled water. Titrate 0 cm 3 of the made up solution against the standard 0.N permanganate solution after adding an equal volume of 6N sulphuric acid solution and warming to C. Repeat titration to get concordant values. Calculate the mass of crystalline ammonium oxalate present in 00 cm 3 solution. This was originally present in 0 cm 3 of solution. Therefore calculate the mass of crystalline ammonium oxalate present in 000 cm 3 of original solution. Result: Solubility of crystalline ammonium oxalate in water = g per litre at C Temperature of the solution = C. [Give details of standardization of permanganate solution]. Normality of permanganate solution (N) = Volume of ammonium oxalate solution titrated (V ) = 0 cm 3. Volume of permanganate used (V ) = cm 3. VN Normality of ammonium oxalate solution (N ) = = V Equivalent mass of (NH 4 ) C O 4.H O = (molar mass) / = 7 Mass of crystalline ammonium oxalate in 00 cm 3 solution = But this was present in 0 cm 3 of original solution. N 7 Mass of crystalline ammonium oxalate in 000 cm 3 of original solution = 0 g N 7 00 = g. 0

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