1 THE DEMOGRAPHY OF POPULATION AGEING Barry Mirkin and Mary Beth Weinberger* An inevitable consequence of the demographic transition and the shift to lower fertility and mortality has been the evolution in the age structure of the world population. Many societies, especially in the more developed regions, have already attained older population age structures than have ever been seen in the past. Many developing countries in the midst of the demographic transition are experiencing rapid shifts in the relative numbers of children, working-age population and older persons. DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS The number of persons aged 6 years or older in the world is estimated to be 65 million in 2. This number is projected to grow to nearly 2 billion by 25, at which time it will be as large as the population of children (-14 years). This historic crossover of an increasing share of older persons and a declining share of children will mark the first time that the number of children and older persons are the same. Persons aged 6 or older currently comprise 1 per cent of the world population (see table 1). The percentage is much higher in the more developed regions (2 per cent) than in the less developed regions (8 per cent), which are at an earlier stage of the demographic transition. It is especially low in the least developed countries (5 per cent). Among individual countries, the most aged are Greece and Italy, where 24 per cent of the population is aged 6 or older in 2. Many European countries, as well as Japan, have percentages nearly as high. By 25, the older ages will make up a projected 22 per cent of the world population 33 per cent in the more developed regions, 21 per cent in the less developed regions and 12 per cent in the least developed countries. (TABLE 1 HERE) In terms of major regions, the majority of the world s older persons (53 per cent) reside in Asia, while Europe has the next largest share, 24 per cent (see table 2 and figure I). Asia s share of the older population will increase to 63 per cent by 25, while the share of Europe will show the greatest relative decrease of any region, shrinking from 24 per cent to 11 per cent. *Population Division, United Nations Secretariat. 41
2 (TABLE 2 HERE) (FIGURE I HERE) The oldest old, persons aged 8 years or older, currently number 7 million, the majority of whom live in more developed regions. Thirty-three million are estimated to be living in less developed regions. They make up about 1 per cent of the world s population and 3 per cent of the population of the more developed regions. This oldest age group is the fastest growing segment of the older population. By 25, the number of the oldest old is projected to be five times as large as at present. By that date, the oldest old will be 4 per cent of the total world population, and in the more developed regions, one person out of 11 is projected to be aged 8 or older. In the less developed regions, 3 per cent of the population will be 8 years or older. It is necessary to look beyond 25 to see the full consequences for population ageing of ongoing trends towards lower fertility and mortality rates. A range of alternative scenarios presented in the United Nations long-range population projections (United Nations, 1999a) show that future populations will reach a significantly older age structure than the populations of the present, or even of the populations of 25. Figure II shows projected trends in the proportion of the world s population aged 6 or older through the year 215, from the medium fertility scenario, which assumes that fertility in all major areas will stabilize at replacement level around 25, and that mortality rates will continue to improve. By 215, persons aged 6 or older are projected to number 3. billion, nearly one person out of every three alive at that time. Over 1.2 billion people, or one in every 1 persons, will be aged 8 or older. Only 18 per cent of the population will be children aged under 15 years, as compared to 3 per cent at present. (FIGURE II HERE) Speed of ageing The growth of the older population often receives attention in connection with the developed countries. However, the tempo of ageing is more rapid in the less developed regions than in the more developed regions (see figure III). Because rapid changes in age structure may be more difficult for societies to adjust to than change that is spread over a longer time horizon, the speed of population ageing has important implications for government policies, such as pension schemes, health care and economic growth. Figure IV shows, for selected countries, the dates when the population reached, or is expected to reach, the point when 7, 14 and 21 per cent of the population was aged 65 or older. (Currently, 6.9 per cent of the world s population is aged 65 or older.) Typically, the transition from 7 to 14 per cent took longer for countries that reached the 7 per cent 42
3 level at an earlier date. For example, France and Sweden, which reached the 7 per cent point before 19, took 114 years and 82 years, respectively, to reach 14 per cent. That same transition required only 24 years in Japan, from 197 to Several developing countries shown in figure IV will also make a rapid transition from 7 to 14 per cent aged 65 or older. Brazil, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea and Tunisia are projected to make this transition in a time-span of under 25 years, and the two most populous countries, China and India, may require only 25 and 28 years, respectively. (FIGURE III HERE) In many cases, it will take substantially less time for the transition from 14 to 21 per cent aged 65 years or older than it took to move from 7 to 14 per cent (see figure IV). Although no country has yet reached the point where 21 per cent of the population is aged 65 or older, some countries, including Italy and Japan, are expected to reach that point before 215; in Japan, the transition from 14 to 21 per cent will have taken only 16 years, and in Italy, 23 years. At a later date, Canada and the United States of America are also expected to make a rapid transition from 14 to 21 per cent aged 65 or older as the large baby boom cohorts enter the higher ages. Thus, in the near future, some societies will be faced not only with older populations than have ever existed at the national level, but also with populations that are ageing at an extremely rapid pace. (FIGURE IV HERE) Ageing and gender Population ageing is, in basic demographic respects, not gender-neutral. The evolution to an older age structure changes the balance in numbers of men and women in the whole population. Men s higher mortality over the life course means that women typically outnumber men at older ages, and the difference is quite large among the oldest old (see table 3). At ages 6 or older, there were an estimated 81 men for every 1 women globally in 2, and at ages 8 or older there were only 53 men for every 1 women. The sex ratios of older age groups are lower in the more developed regions than in the less developed regions, since there are larger differences in life expectancy between the sexes in the more developed regions. In addition, the sex ratio in the oldest age groups in the more developed regions retains the effect of the heavy loss of males in some countries during the Second World War. (TABLE 3 HERE) Given the age patterns of the sex ratio, the rapid growth of the elderly population and the increase in the proportion in older age groups imply a decrease in the sex ratio for the total population and a greater increase 43
4 in the number of older women than of older men. Projected increases between 2 and 25 in the number of persons aged 6 or older are 636 million for men and 729 million for women in the world as a whole. Projected increases during the same period in the number of persons aged 8 or older are 116 million for men and 185 million for women. Concomitant with dramatic improvements in average lifespan has been the widening differential over time between male and female longevity. By , the female advantage in life expectancy at birth has grown to almost eight years in more developed regions and three years in less developed regions. The advantage, however, diminishes during the life course and by age 6, the male-female differential has narrowed to four years in more developed regions and to only two years in less developed regions. At current mortality rates (for ), almost 4 per cent of girls and about one quarter of boys born can expect to survive to the oldest old ages, 8 years or older. While the increased likelihood of surviving to older ages is obviously due to mortality declines at younger ages, recent decades have also seen significant mortality improvements among the older population, including the oldest old, and these trends so far have been more beneficial to women than to men (Kannisto, 1994). At older ages, women are less likely to be married and more likely to be widowed than are men, not only because they survive on average to higher ages, but also because most women marry men several years older than themselves. While more than three quarters (79 per cent) of older men are married, on a global basis, less than one half (43 per cent) of older women are married (United Nations, 1999b). The longer-term effect of gender differences in marriage age on later widowhood is only one of many ways in which demographic, as well as economic and social circumstances in early life have diverging ramifications for men and women in old age. Demographic causes of population ageing The process of population ageing is determined primarily by trends in fertility rates and secondarily by mortality rates. Any population with a long history of high fertility has a young age structure, similar in its general features to the present age structure for the group of least developed countries (see figure V). The average age of the population starts to rise when fertility rates decline. For the period , 61 countries in the world, representing 44 per cent of the world s population, are at or below replacement fertility. By 215, the world s population is projected to reach 7.2 billion, of which about two thirds will be living in countries at or below replacement fertility (United Nations, 1999c). The impact of mortality decline is more variable, depending on whether the decline in mortality operates mainly at younger or at older ages. In fact, the first stages of mortality decline have usually particularly benefited infants and children, and have often served to make the population younger. However, changes in mortality may assume a greater importance for 44
5 population ageing later in the demographic transition. In countries where mortality rates at young ages are already low, further declines have tended to affect mainly the adult and older ages, and have contributed to population ageing. For example, Caselli and Vallin (199) have demonstrated the growing impact of mortality change in population projections of France and Italy. They concluded that even if Italian fertility remained at a very low level of 1.4 children per woman through the year 24, more than half the increase in the proportion of the population aged 6 or older would be due to mortality change, and less than half to the earlier fertility trends. (FIGURE V HERE) Trends in dependency ratios Demographic dependency ratios are used as approximate indicators of the relative sizes of the nonworking-age and working-age populations. The youth-dependency ratio (the number of children per 1 persons of labour force age, ages years) and the elderly-dependency ratio (the number aged 65 years or older per 1 persons of labour force age) indicate the dependency burden on workers and how the type of dependency shifts from children to older persons during the demographic transition. The potential economic implications of falling or rising burdens of demographic dependency have been an area of active research. Since 197, the youth-dependency ratio has been declining in all regions, while the over-65 dependency ratio is rising (see table 4). Trends for the total ratio in different countries and regions depend upon the relative size and speed of these countervailing trends in the older and younger components. In general, the total dependency burden declined between 197 and 2. In the more developed regions, the total dependency ratio decreased over that period from 56 to 48 dependent-aged persons per 1 aged 15 to 64. The ratio will increase between the present and 225 and is projected to rise further, to 7, by 25. In the less developed regions, the overall dependency ratio in 197 was 84, much higher than in the more developed regions, but it decreased rapidly to 6 by 2, is projected to decline further to 5 by 225 and then to increase slightly between 225 and 25. The impact of demographic ageing is clearly visible in the old-age dependency ratio, which is increasing in both more and less developed regions during the period from 197 to 25. Between 2 and 25, the old-age dependency ratio will double in more developed regions and almost triple in less developed regions. (TABLE 4 HERE) The amount and pace of change in demographic dependency ratios varies greatly between countries. Large swings in dependency ratios are typically initiated or accentuated by rapid fertility declines, but those 45
6 effects take many years to play out. Four examples are shown in figure VI to illustrate a range of situations and trends: Argentina has experienced a gradual fertility decline, with relatively minor fluctuations over a long period. It is projected to experience only minor changes in the total dependency ratio, which will remain near 6 over the entire period from 197 to 25. In Italy, the total fertility rate plummeted after the mid-197s to reach the unprecedentedly low level of 1.2 by the early 199s. The total dependency ratio initially declined, but increases in the over-65 dependency ratio will dominate the trend into the future, and will produce an especially rapid rise in demographic dependency after 22. The Republic of Korea experienced a rapid fertility decline after 197, and the total dependency ratio fell to an unusually low level of 39 by 2. The overall ratio will not begin to rise appreciably until after 215, but it will then increase rapidly. Kenya shows an extremely high child-dependency ratio, with a total dependency ratio of 115 in 198. Kenya had one of the highest levels of fertility in the world, estimated at 8.1 children per woman during the period from 196 to 198, before beginning a rapid fertility decline, which is projected to continue. By 2, Kenya s under-15 and over-65 ratios were similar to those seen in the Republic of Korea 3 years earlier. (FIGURE VI HERE) Urbanization Consistent with the global trend of urbanization, the older population is becoming more concentrated in urban areas. By 2, the majority of the world s older persons (51 per cent) will live in urban areas; by 225, this is expected to climb to 62 per cent of older persons (United Nations, 1993). These figures, however, mask the large divergence between more and less developed regions. In the more developed regions, 74 per cent of older persons are urban dwellers, while in the less developed regions, which remain predominantly rural, slightly more than one third (37 per cent) of the elderly reside in urban areas. Despite the increasing urbanization of the older population, rural areas remain disproportionately older than urban areas in many countries as a result of migration of young persons to urban areas and the return migration of older persons to rural areas (Martin and Kinsella, 1994). 46
7 CONCLUSIONS There can be little doubt that changes in age distribution have complex social and economic implications at the societal and individual levels. An excess supply of workers could for instance turn into an acute shortage of new entrants within a few years. Likewise, the departure of older workers from the labour force is a source of serious pressure on national economies through its impact on pension schemes. An important issue is the question of how best to allocate limited resources among public sectors. Accordingly, planning may have to reflect greater sensitivity to expected demographic changes. This is especially important in the light of an increasingly competitive and integrated international economic environment, as well as a re-examination of the limitations of the welfare state. Conventional wisdom is that if change is slow, countries can more easily adapt. As the experience of developed countries has shown, despite an ageing process that has occurred over many years, adjustment to the challenges posed by population ageing has not been smooth. Given that large shifts in age structure are being compressed into a relatively short period in developing countries, these countries will have less time than the developed countries to adapt to the problems posed by the changing age structure. On the individual level, the goal is to enable older persons to maintain their dignity, self-esteem and physical and mental well-being in order to facilitate their continued participation in society and recognize their valuable contribution to their families and communities. The challenge for countries and communities is to provide conditions that promote quality of life and enhance the ability of older persons to work and live independently as long as possible. 47
8 REFERENCES Caselli, Graziella and Jacques Vallin (199). Mortality and population ageing. European Journal of Population, (Amsterdam, Netherlands), vol. 6, No. 1, pp Kannisto, Vaino (1994). Development of Oldest-Old Mortality, : Evidence from 28 Developed Countries. Odense, Denmark: Odense University Press. Martin, Linda and Kevin Kinsella (1994). Research on the demography of aging in developing countries. In: Demography of Aging, Linda Martin and Samuel Preston, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. United Nations (1993). Urban and rural areas by sex and age: the 1992 revision. ESA/P/WP/12. (1999a). Long-range world population projections, based on the 1998 revision. ESA/P/WP/153. (1999b). Population Ageing, Sales No. E.99.XIII.11. (1999c). World Population Prospects: The 1998 Revision, vol. II, Sex and Age. Sales No. E.99.XIII.8. United States Bureau of the Census (1992). An Aging World II. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. International population reports, P95/
9 TABLE 1. ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION IN SELECTED AGE GROUPS, BY REGION Region Children: under age 15 World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Youth: ages World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Older persons: ages 6 or over World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Oldest old: ages 8 or over World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
10 TABLE 2. ESTIMATED AND PROJECTED REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION AGED UNDER 15 YEARS AND THE POPULATION AGED 6 YEARS OR OVER - 197, 2 AND 25 (Percentage) Under age 15 Aged 6 or over Region World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Eastern Asia China South-eastern Asia South Central Asia India Western Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
11 TABLE 3. SEX RATIOS BY AGE IN THE MORE AND LESS DEVELOPED REGIONS, 2 (Men per 1 women) More Less developed developed Age World regions regions For broad age groups Total < For 5-year groups, ages 6 or over Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8).
12 TABLE 4. TRENDS IN AGE-DEPENDENCY RATIOS, BY REGION-197 TO 25 (Percentage) Region Dependency ratio: total World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Under age 15 World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Ages 65 or over World total More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Note: The ratios show the ratio of the numbers of persons aged under 15 years and over 65 years to the number aged 15 to 64 years, expressed as a percentage. Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
13 Figure I. Geographic distribution of the population aged under 15 and 6 or over, 2 and 25 Under age 15 in 2 (1,8 million) Ages 6+ in 2 (65 million) Asia (61%) Africa (19%) Asia (53%) Europe (7%) Oceania (.4%) Northern America (4%) Latin America and the Caribbean (9%) Europe (24%) Africa (6%) Oceania (1%) Northern America (8%) Latin America and the Caribbean (7%) Under age 15 in 25 (1,746 million) Ages 6+ in 25 (1,97 million) Asia (57%) Africa (24%) Asia (63%) Africa (11%) Europe (5%) Oceania (.5%) Northern America (4%) Latin America and the Caribbean (9%) Europe (11%) Oceania (1%) Northern America (6%) Latin America and the Caribbean (9%) Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
14 Figure II. Percentage of world population by age group, medium scenario, Percentage Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, Long-range world population projections, based on the 1998 revision (ESA/P/WP.153), 1999.
15 Figure III. Growth in population size and age-specific annual growth rates, for the child, youth and older populations, Number of people: Average annual growth rate of the population: 2 Child: under age 15 5 Child: under age 15 Population (millions) Percentage World More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Period 2 Youth: years 5 Youth: years Population (millions) Percentage Period 2 Older: 6 years or over 5 Older: 6 years or over Population (millions) Percentage Period 4 Oldest old: 8 years or over 5 Oldest old: 8 years or over Population (millions) Percentage Period Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
16 Figure IV. Time when the percentage of the population aged 65 or over reached or will reach 7, 14 and 21 per cent: selected countries Japan United Kingdom Poland Hungary Italy Canada United States Australia Sweden France Tunisia Rep. of Korea Indonesia Brazil China India Argentina More developed regions Less developed regions Percentage 65 or over: Period from 7% to 14% Period from 14% to 21% Note: For countries where the percentage aged over 65 years will reach 21 per cent after 25, only the period between attainment of the 7 and 14 per cent points is shown. Sources: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8); United States Bureau of the Census, An Aging World II, International Population Reports, P95/92-3 (Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1992).
17 Figure V. Population pyramids: age and sex distribution, 2 and 25 Age Age Age Age Males Percentage of population Percentage of population 2 Females Percentage of population Percentage of population World Males More developed regions Less developed regions Least developed countries Percentage of population Percentage of population 25 Females Percentage of population Percentage of population Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
18 Figure VI. Estimated and projected trends in age-dependency ratios in selected countries (Persons aged under 15 or over 65 years per 1 persons aged years) Argentina Italy Dependency ratio Total Under Kenya Republic of Korea Dependency ratio Source: The Sex and Age Distribution of the World Populations: the 1998 Revision, Volume II: Sex and Age (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.99.XIII.8), medium variant projections.
1. TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION This chapter provides a brief overview of global and regional patterns and trends in international migration since 199. It also describes selected characteristics of
PRESS RELEASE Embargoed until 12:00 PM, 11 March, 2009 WORLD POPULATION TO EXCEED 9 BILLION BY 2050: Developing Countries to Add 2.3 Billion Inhabitants with 1.1 Billion Aged Over 60 and 1.2 Billion of
Projections of the Size and Composition of the U.S. Population: to Population Estimates and Projections Current Population Reports By Sandra L. Colby and Jennifer M. Ortman Issued March 15 P25-1143 INTRODUCTION
An Aging Nation: The Older Population in the United States Population Estimates and Projections Current Population Reports By Jennifer M. Ortman, Victoria A. Velkoff, and Howard Hogan Issued May 2014 P25-1140
Definitions and methodology CO1.2: at birth at birth is the average number of years a newborn can expect to live if he or she experienced the age-specific mortality rates prevalent in a particular year.
Short Analytical Web Note 3/2015 This analytical web-note contains an extensive update of the main demographic trends for the EU and a labour-market supplement which outlines the potential consequences
Ending CHILD MARRIAGE Progress and prospects UNICEF/BANA213-182/Kiron The current situation Worldwide, more than 7 million women alive today were married before their 18th birthday. More than one in three
GermanY'S Population by 2060 Results of the 12th coordinated population projection Federal Statistisches Statistical Bundesamt Office GERMANY S POPULATION BY 2060 Results of the 12th coordinated population
Open Doors 2011 Report on International Educational Exchange Produced by the Institute of International Education with support from the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department
Consumer Credit Worldwide at year end 2012 Introduction For the fifth consecutive year, Crédit Agricole Consumer Finance has published the Consumer Credit Overview, its yearly report on the international
From: Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag_highlights-2012-en How many students study abroad and where do they go? Please cite this chapter
AN ILO NOTE TO THE G20 TASK FORCE ON EMPLOYMENT 1 SEPTEMBER 2012 This note reviews the latest available data on youth employment in G20 countries. It then makes a number of suggestions as to issues the
Immigration in the Long Run: The education and earnings mobility of second generation Canadians Miles Corak Graduate School of Public and International Affairs Two questions to motivate the presentation
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this
Bulletin 126 NOVEMBER 2014 Healthy life expectancy in Australia: patterns and trends 1998 to 2012 Summary bulletin 126 Life expectancy measures how many years on average a person can expect to live, if
Open Doors 2015 Report on International Educational Exchange Produced by the Institute of International Education In partnership with the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs U.S. Department of State
A special report from The Economist Intelligence Unit www.eiu.com Contents Overview 2 Top ten economies in 5 at market exchange rates 3 The rise of Asia continues 4 Global dominance of the top three economies
What is an intergenerational report? An intergenerational report assesses the long term sustainability of Commonwealth finances. It examines the impact of current policies and trends, including population
NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD January 30, 2014 Attitudes about Aging: A Glo bal Perspective In a Rapidly Gray ying World, Japanese Are Worried, Americans Aren t FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON
Marriage rates Definitions and methodology SF3.1: Marriage and divorce rates The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages formed each year as a ratio to 1 000 people. This measure disregards other
Indicator to Which fields of education are students attracted? Women represent the majority of students and graduates in almost all OECD countries and largely dominate in the fields of education, health
PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY Johanna Avato Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor The World Bank Background study March 2008 The Italian Social Security
Chapter 2 Education and Human Resource Development for Science and Technology 2.1 Evironment for Basic Human Resource Development... 53 2.1.1 Science education in primary and secondary schools... 53 2.1.2
Education 2009 Adult Education Survey 2006, European comparison Adults in the Nordic countries actively participate in education and training Persons aged 25 to 64 who live in the Nordic countries (Finland,
Living longer: products, problems and possibilities John Piggott and Renuka Sane Australian Institute for Population Aging Research University of New South Wales Sydney, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org
Tracking Healthcare as a Priority Issue (Spring ) A Twenty-Four Country Comparison and Drill-Down into Canada, US, UK, Australia and France Visit www.ipsos.com for information about all of our products
National Population Projections 2008-based: Chapter 7 - Mortality To access full NPP reference volume: Series PP2 No 27 Editor: Steve Rowan Office for National Statistics 7 Mortality Past trends in life
A Context for Change Management in the Capital al District Future Population, Labour Force, Employment and Housing in the Capital al District URBAN FUTURES FINAL REPORT AUGUST 2009 A Context for Change
Career Capital 2014 Global Research Results International Women s Day 2014 1 Research Objectives Accenture conducted its global research study, Career Capital for release on International Women s Day to
E c o n o m i c & S o c i a l A f f a i r s WORLD POPULATION TO 2300 United Nations ST/ESA/SER.A/236 Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division WORLD POPULATION TO 2300 United Nations
Do not publish or DiStribute before 00:01 Gmt on tuesday 27 may 2014 Summary Developing with Jobs World of Work Report 2014 Developing with jobs Executive Summary INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION RESEARCH
Austria Belgium Czech Republic Tax credit of EUR 400 for low pension income up to EUR 17,000; the tax credit is fully phased out once pension income equals EUR 25,000. pension income of maximum EUR 1,901.19.
U.S. Trade Overview, 213 Stephanie Han & Natalie Soroka Trade and Economic Analysis Industry and Analysis Department of Commerce International Trade Administration October 214 Trade: A Vital Part of the
The spillover effects of unconventional monetary policy measures in major developed countries on developing countries Tatiana Fic National Institute of Economic and Social Research Objective The objective
The State of Social Media Online Marketing Institute London, Feb 2012 Mike Shaw Director, Marketing Solutions comscore s Innovative Approach Revolutionizes Measurement 2 Million Person Panel 360 View of
Earnings and Income of U.S. Women and Men The median annual earnings for full-time, year-round women workers in 2010 was $36,931 compared to men s $47,715. 1 In 2011, the median weekly earnings for full-time
Sell Globally in a Snap Supported Payment Methods Global In the global payments market, credit cards are the most popular payment method. However, BlueSnap expands the payment selection by including not
How Universal is Access to Reproductive Health? A review of the evidence Cover Copyright UNFPA 2010 September 2010 Publication available at: http://www.unfpa.org/public/home/publications/pid/6526 The designations
Lloyd Potter is the Texas State Demographer and the Director of the Texas State Data Center based at the University of Texas at San Antonio. 1 2 Texas population in 2014 was just under 27 million and was
Indicator How Many Students Finish Tertiary Education? Based on current patterns of graduation, it is estimated that an average of 46% of today s women and 31% of today s men in OECD countries will complete
Fall 2015 International Student Enrollment Prepared by The Office of International Affairs Nova Southeastern University Nova Southeastern University International Student Statistics Fall 2015 International
Full report - Women in the labour market Coverage: UK Date: 25 September 2013 Geographical Area: UK Theme: Labour Market Key points The key points are: Rising employment for women and falling employment
: Trends and Regional Dynamics in Population, Health, and Migration PONARS Eurasia Policy Memo No. 344 September 2014 Judy Twigg Virginia Commonwealth University Today s conflict in hinges on perceptions
Number, Timing, and Duration of Marriages and Divorces: 2009 Household Economic Studies Issued May 2011 P70-125 INTRODUCTION Marriage and divorce are central to the study of living arrangements and family
ANTICIPATING POPULATION AGEING CHALLENGES AND RESPONSES Peter Whiteford Social Policy Division, OECD www.oecd.org www.oecd.org/els Outline z z z What is the OECD and what does it do? Anticipating the challenges
Viewing U.S. Economic Prospects Through a Demographic Lens David E. Bloom and Jay W. Lorsch The Reporter, December 2012 Since World War II, the United States has experienced dramatic demographic and economic
Street Smart: Demographics and Trends in Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality In British Columbia, 1988 to 2000 by David Baxter 3-Year Moving Average Age Specific Motor Vehicle Accident Death Rates British
Surveys on internal and international migrations and on foreign population Domenico Gabrielli and Costanza Giovannelli National Institute of Statistics (Istat) - Italy Internal and international mobility:
19 November 2012 Population Projections for 2012 Current demographic trends are to lead Spain to lose one tenth of its population in the coming 40 years From 2018 onwards, there will be more deaths than
United Nations E/CN.9/2016/6 Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 27 January 2016 Advance unedited version Original: English Commission on Population and Development Forty-ninth session 11-15 April
Munich Re Economic Research May 2014 Premium growth is again slowly gathering momentum After a rather restrained 2013 (according to partly preliminary data), we expect growth in global primary insurance
G20 EMPLOYMENT WORKING GROUP COUNTRY SELF-REPORTING TEMPLATE ON IMPLEMENTATION OF G20 EMPLOYMENT PLANS Contents 1. Key economic and labour market indicators 2. Key policy indicators 3. Checklist of commitments
The International Migrant Stock: A Global View United Nations Population Division International migration is increasingly recognized as an important issue in the modern world where economic globalization
100 INDICATORS FOR THE WORLD'S LEADING ECONOMIES Includ acc to all tabl and graphs in Excel TM OECD Factbook 2006 Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics Population and migration Macroeconomic trends
Nigeria: Population and Demographic trends Bolatito Ogunbiyi Atlas Fellow, Population Action International Nigeria Beyond the Headlines: Population Health, Natural Resources, and Governance The Woodrow
The long term policy view: Shifting Wealth, Income Inequalities and Demography - The Ageing Report Per Eckefeldt European Commission Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs XXV Villa Mondragone
GLOBAL TRENDS IN HIGHER EDUCATION David Stockley Beijing May 2011 KEY TRENDS 1. Changing gglobal demographics 2. Increasing global student mobility 3. Higher education as a global market 4. Declining public
Doctors and romance: Not only of interest to Mills and Boon readers Paul Callister PhD (Social Policy); 1 Juthika Badkar MPH; 2 Robert Didham PhD (Asian Studies) 3 ABSTRACT Introduction: Internationally
EMPLOYMENT PAPER 2000/2 Ageing of the Labour Force in OECD Countries: Economic and Social Consequences Peter Auer Mariàngels Fortuny Employment Sector International Labour Office Geneva Foreword Because
ASPE RESOURCE SERIES 2011 Project Management Salary Survey The skills we teach drive real project success. Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Gender... 2 Region... 3 Regions within the United States...
Suicide: Global Insights and U.S. Insurance Analysis Global Research and Development Research Bulletin, July 2014 Yunke Chen, Julianne Callaway, and Taylor Pickett www.rgare.com Suicide is a tragic fatality
Income INTECH Global Income Managed Volatility Fund Australia 0.0066 0.0375 Austria 0.0045 0.0014 Belgium 0.0461 0.0138 Bermuda 0.0000 0.0059 Canada 0.0919 0.0275 Cayman Islands 0.0000 0.0044 China 0.0000
Definitions and methodology SF.: Ideal and actual number of children Childbearing preferences are difficult to measure since they depend on different factors, including social norms, personal circumstances,
VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 2 December 2014 Paris Seminar in Demographic Economics Falilou FALL Senior Economist OECD Economics Department 1 Introduction and outline Social institutions and the
Digital vs Traditional Media Consumption Summary Comparing time spent on traditional and digital media at a global level as well as analyzing behaviors between countries and across the age groups GWI Q3
The Borderless Workforce 2011 Australia and New Zealand Research Results Introduction Given the fact that neither Australia or New Zealand are facing problems, like high unemployment rates during the labour
ARE ENTREPRENEURS BORN OR MADE? AMWAY GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP REPORT AND UNITED STATES IN COMPARISON INTRO AND OBJECTIVES SURVEY DESIGN Fieldwork: April July 2014 Sample: 43.902 men and women aged 14-99
GWI Commerce Summary Q2 2014 GlobalWebIndex s quarterly report on the latest trends in e-, m- and t-commerce 1 Introduction GWI Commerce is where GlobalWebIndex presents the very latest figures for online
34 McKinsey on Payments September 2013 Global payments trends: Challenges amid rebounding revenues Global payments revenue rebounded to $1.34 trillion in 2011, a steep increase from 2009 s $1.1 trillion.
Munich Re Economic Research 2 May 2013 Global economic recovery provides stimulus to the insurance industry long-term perspective positive as well Once a year, MR Economic Research produces long-term forecasts
Global Education Office University of New Mexico MSC06 3850, Mesa Vista Hall, Rm. 220 Tel. 505 277 4032, Fax 505 277 867, email@example.com Report on International Students, Scholars and Study Abroad Programs
Education at a Glance 2008 NO MEDIA OR WIRE TRANSMISSION BEFORE 9 SEPTEMBER 2008, 11:00 PARIS TIME OECD Technical Note For Spain Governments are paying increasing attention to international comparisons
Indicator On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? In primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education combined, current accounts for an average of 92% of total spending in
Next generation insurance - insights into the behaviour and beliefs of the European consumer Dr John Schoonbee, Chief Medical Officer, EMEA, Swiss Re IAA Colloquium 2015, Oslo, Norway, 7-10th June 2015
Socio-economic implications of retiring baby boom generation people, shrinking workforce in the developed economy and proposed solution By Sonjai Kumar Abstract This paper talks about the socio-economic
A Study of Incidence Experience for Taiwan Life Insurance Jack C. Yue 1 and Hong-Chih Huang 2 ABSTRACT Mortality improvement has become a major issue in ratemaking for the insurance companies, and it is
Student Finance and Accessibility in an International Comparative Perspective D. Bruce Johnstone Pamela Marcucci International Comparative Higher Education Finance and Accessibility Project 1 The International
ARTICLE OCTOBER 2013 Marriage and divorce: patterns by gender, race, and educational attainment Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), this article examines s and divorces
CONNECTED IS A MATTER OF GEOGRAPHY By Matthew Zook firstname.lastname@example.org networker Vol. 5 No. 3. 13-17 In June 2001, the founder of the Wild Day Internet shopping site, Michael Jackson, announced his intention
BRIEFING Characteristics and Outcomes of Migrants in the UK Labour Market AUTHOR: CINZIA RIENZO PUBLISHED: 12/11/2014 NEXT UPDATE: 12/11/2015 3rd Revision www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk This briefing
Review of R&D Credit invitation for submissions Review of R&D Credit Invitation for Submissions February 2013 Economic and Fiscal Divisions Department of Finance Government Buildings, Upper Merrion Street,
Competitiveness and the Global Trends Roadmap: 2015-2050 IMD R&D Global Trends are an interesting pedagogical tool to open up the minds of IMD participants, and are commonly used early in an IMD program
Factors affecting the inbound tourism sector - the impact and implications of the Australian dollar 1 Factors affecting the inbound tourism sector - the impact and implications of the Australian dollar