Metropolitan Locations in International High-Tech Networks

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1 Metropolitan Locations in International High-Tech Networks Collaboration and Exchange of Creative Labour as a Basis for Advanced Socio-Economic Development 1

2 Contents 1. Localisation and Networking in High Technology: Creative Labour, Public Policies and Collaboration 1. High technology-based development 2. Participation in Innovation: Competition vs. Complementarity 3. Networking: An Opportunity for Innovation at Small Locations 4. High Technology as Means for Metropolitan Industrial Development 2. Islands of Innovation and Selective Participation: Synergy of Collaborative Networks and Exchange of Innovative Labour 1. The Emergence of Islands of Innovation 2. Networking of Collaboration in Research and Economic Exploitation 3. Exchange of Labour among Islands of Innovation 3. Continuing Concentration of Knowledge Production and New Opportunities for Participation in Network Activities 4. Conclusions 2

3 1. Localisation and Networking in High Technology: Creative Labour, Public Policies and Collaboration 1. High technology-based development 2. Participation in Innovation: competition vs. complementarity 3. Networking: an opportunity for innovation at small locations 4. High technology as means for metropolitan industrial development 3

4 1.1 High technology-based Development Research facilities: where innovation is born Public funding: how innovation is made possible University trained labour: how the process becomes lively Collaboration: when synergy is generated continuingly 4

5 1.2 Participation in Innovation: Competition vs. Complementarity Localization: Islands of Innovation Networking: specialization and generation of synergy across borders Continentalisation: mutual strengthening of participating locations and Islands of Innovation Participation and change: integration into high level development and new structures 5

6 1.3 Networking: An Opportunity for Innovation at Small Locations Specialization Exchange of knowledge Areas of synergy Windows of opportunities 6

7 1.4 High technology as Means for Metropolitan Industrial Development Space: less territory for manufacturing and research and development Skills: agglomeration of jobs and knowledge workers Structures: mix of research, high level services and manufacturing Less space consumption, less disturbing noise, less pollution of air, soil and water More value added, more international markets, more collaboration Higher average income, higher standards of living, higher sustainability 7

8 2. Islands of Innovation and Synergy of Collaborative Networks: The Exchange of Ideas and Innovative Labour 1. The Emergence of Islands of Innovation 2. Networking of Collaboration in Research and Economic Exploitation 3. Exchange of Labour among Islands of Innovation 8

9 2.1 The Emergence of Islands of Innovation Scientific findings and the localization of innovation Concentration of research and funding Stability and continuation of Islands of Innovation over more than a decade Need for collaboration in new areas of research and the building of research networks Participation of new locations in existing networks 9

10 Distribution of Biotechnology Research Funding, USA Period Funding NIH to US Islands of Innovation in million Dollars Funding NIH to US Islands of Innovation in % Total NIH funding in million Dollars ,9 75,8 482, ,9 75, , ,3 64, ,8 10

11 Distribution of Biotechnology Research Funding, Germany Period Funding BMBF to German Islands of Innovation in million DM/ Euro Funding BMBF to German Islands of Innovation in % Total BMBF funding in million DM/ Euro ,14 77, , ,67 73, , ,95 68, ,18 11

12 2.1 The Emergence of Islands of Innovation Public policies are fundamental for Islands of Innovation Locations of new areas of scientific research are established Jobs and labour markets for knowledge workers, researchers and academics are created Centres of excellence are mutually identified and linked in collaboration and generation of scientific findings 12

13 2.2 Networking of Collaboration in Research and Economic Exploitation Selection of partners and places Dominant positions of Islands of Innovation Mutual strengthening and contribution to local development based on network participation Networks of joint economic exploitation follows to networks of collaboration in research 13

14 Networks of collaboration in research among enterprises 14

15 Networks of collaboration in economic exploitation among enterprises 15

16 2.2 Networking of Collaboration in Research and Economic Exploitation Concentration and distribution of economic opportunities Participation through concentration Scientific excellence as basis for high value added network-economy among selected places 16

17 2.3 Exchange of Labour among Islands of Innovation Jobs and regional innovative labour markets concentrate at selected locations Recruitment of researchers and academics build networks Attractive jobs at Islands of Innovation introduce a migration among and towards these locations Networks of recruitment correlate with networks of collaboration, knowledge production and exchange of innovation knowledge 17

18 Recruitment of academics at Islands of Innovation 18

19 Recruitment of academics at Islands of Innovation by type of sending location 19

20 Recruitment of biotechnology firms at Islands of Innovation and research locations 20

21 Patterns of recruitment among Islands of Innovation 21

22 2.3 Exchange of Labour among Islands of Innovation Innovative labour concentrates at Islands of innovation Islands of Innovation attract additional innovative labour from other locations Such outstanding regions exchange labour to generate innovative synergy 22

23 3. Continuing Concentration of Knowledge Production and New Opportunities for Participation in such Network Activities Islands of innovation continue to be dominant Leading countries and continents continue their position New locations and new countries emerge in networks of collaborative knowledge production New metropolises are emerging as locations of knowledge production 23

24 Contribution to Global Co-Publication on Bio-Tech Research, 2010 Countries: Top 20 Rank Country Total of Inst_Share Per cent of total Inst_Share ,2 100,0 1 UNITED STATES ,2 34,3 2 GERMANY 2.852,2 6,6 3 UNITED KINGDOM 2.665,1 6,2 4 JAPAN 2.432,2 5,6 5 CHINA 2.415,0 5,6 6 FRANCE 1.963,2 4,5 7 ITALY 1.666,5 3,9 8 CANADA 1.633,8 3,8 9 SPAIN 1.212,0 2,8 10 NETHERLANDS 1.169,8 2,7 24

25 Contribution to Global Co-Publication on Bio-Tech Research, 2010, continued Countries: Top 20 Rank Country Total of Inst_Share Per cent of total Inst_Share 11 AUSTRALIA 1.155,5 2,7 12 KOREA, REPUBLIC OF 914,7 2,1 13 SWITZERLAND 650,9 1,5 14 BRAZIL 604,9 1,4 15 SWEDEN 592,9 1,4 16 BELGIUM 513,3 1,2 TAIWAN, PROVINCE OF 17 CHINA 501,5 1,2 18 INDIA 477,0 1,1 19 DENMARK 385,1 0,9 20 ISRAEL 346,7 0,8 TOP 20 Countries ,6 90,3 25

26 Contribution to Global Co-Publication on Bio- Tech Research, Islands of Innovation Rank Region-Name Region-Type Total of Inst_Share Per cent of total Inst_Share 1 Boston Island of Innovation 1.299,6 3,0 2 Capitol Region Island of Innovation 1.202,9 2,8 3 London Island of Innovation 1.131,6 2,6 New York City 4 Conurbation Island of Innovation 1.130,0 2,6 5 Los Angeles-San Diego Island of Innovation 1.084,3 2,5 7 Bay Area Island of Innovation 836,7 1,9 8 Paris (Ile de France) Island of Innovation 769,9 1,8 Austin-Dallas-Houston- 9 San Antonio Island of Innovation 662,3 1,5 11 Amsterdam/ Rotterdam Island of Innovation 531,0 1,2 12 Philadelphia Island of Innovation 517,9 1,2 16 Chicago-Milwaukee Island of Innovation 469,0 1,1 Research Triangle Park 17 Region, NC Island of Innovation 462,2 1,1 26

27 Contribution to Global Co-Publication on Bio-Tech Research, Islands of Innovation (continued) Rank Region-Name Region-Type Total of Inst_Share Per cent of total Inst_Share 19 Rhine-Ruhr Island of Innovation 377,0 0,9 21 Milan Island of Innovation 372,9 0,9 24 Seattle Island of Innovation 349,8 0,8 27 Copenhagen/ Öresound Island of Innovation 323,8 0,8 28 Munich Island of Innovation 317,4 0,7 40 New Haven-Hartford Island of Innovation 248,1 0,6 Karlsruhe/ Heidelberg/ 46 Stuttgart Island of Innovation 229,9 0,5 50 Lyon-Grenoble Island of Innovation 202,7 0,5 52 Marseille Island of Innovation 191,3 0,4 91 Darmstadt-Frankfurt Island of Innovation 103,4 0,2 131 Torino Island of Innovation 76,4 0,2 Islands total ,2 29,9 27

28 Contribution to Global Co-Publication on Bio-Tech Research, Global Regions Continent Sub-region Total of Inst_Share Per cent of total Inst_Share Northern America ,6 38,1 Europe ,4 36,9 Eastern Europe 726,2 1,7 Northern Europe 4.385,7 10,2 Southern Europe 3.362,9 7,8 Western Europe 7.472,5 17,3 Asia 8.039,7 18,6 Eastern Asia 6.266,0 14,5 Oceania, Australia and New Zealand 1.303,7 3,0 Latin America and the Caribbean 1.060,3 2,5 Africa 354,5 0,8 Total ,2 100,0 28

29 3. Continuing Concentration of Knowledge Production and New Opportunities for Participation in Network Activities Islands of Innovation and leading countries can continue their position in high-technology New countries and metropolises can emerge and contribute to existing networks as contributors based on their competence in knowledge production Complementarity vs. competition both continuation of strong positions of Islands of Innovation in the US and western Europe and newly emerging contributors to the networks of collaboration are mutually building a larger body of knowledge network participation and contribution allows for a rich variety of development based on high-technology and scientific findings 29

30 4. Conclusions Open global networks of innovation allow for participation and contribution from a variety of locations. Islands of Innovation can be initiated and established at divergent locations. A strong participation in new technologies is clearly related with a window of opportunity. Latecomers still can benefit from strong engagement but will usually not fully catch up with leading locations; but they can build up competences which are noticed elsewhere.. A strong position in new technologies demands for highly creative academic labour, knowledge workers and engineers. Constant exchange with leading locations will provide access to external knowledge and competence which will allow for new synergy. Metropolises around the globe can participate and contribute to innovative networks once they manage to attract the labour required. A reputation as a highly innovative and competent location will enable to become recognised as innovative partner and establish a metropolis as an additional innovative location. 30

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