# Guido s Guide to PROC FREQ A Tutorial for Beginners Using the SAS System Joseph J. Guido, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Guido s Guide to PROC FREQ A Tutorial for Beginners Using the SAS System Joseph J. Guido, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY"

## Transcription

1 Guido s Guide to PROC FREQ A Tutorial for Beginners Using the SAS System Joseph J. Guido, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY ABSTRACT PROC FREQ is an essential procedure within BASE SAS used primarily for counting, displaying and analyzing categorical type data. It is such a powerful procedure that you will find it documented not only in BASE SAS but also in SAS /STAT documentation. This Beginning Tutorial will touch upon both the uses of PROC FREQ in BASE SAS and SAS/STAT. Don t worry, I promise that you do not need a statistical background to understand this procedure. This tutorial will teach you the basics of PROC FREQ and give you a framework to build upon and extend your knowledge of the SAS System. INTRODUCTION According to the paper by Carrie Mariner entitled Answering the Right Question with the Right PROC, PROC FREQ answers the question How many?, PROC MEANS answers the question How much? and PROC REPORT will answer Can you produce a report that looks like this? We are going to answer the question How many? as we work through some basic PROC FREQ examples in this paper. The Version 9 SAS Procedure Manual states, The FREQ procedure produces one-way to n-way frequency and cross tabulation (contingency) tables. For two-way tables, PROC FREQ computes tests and measures of association. For n-way tables, PROC FREQ does stratified analysis, computing statistics within, as well as across, strata. Frequencies and statistics can also be output to SAS data sets. We will begin with the very basics and consider the one-way frequency tables. These are used by SAS Programmers and Analysts all the time without giving the matter a second thought. What I mean is that if one is counting, doing error checking of the data or categorizing data, then PROC FREQ is the usual choice. The variables in the dataset can be either character or numeric. The following statements are used in PROC FREQ according to the SAS Procedure Manual: PROC FREQ < options > ; TABLES requests < / options > ; BY variables ; WEIGHT variable < / option > ; TEST options ; EXACT statistic-options < / computation-options > ; OUTPUT < OUT=SAS-data-set > options ; I have underlined the 4 statements in PROC FREQ which I will be discussing in this paper. The PROC FREQ statement is the only required statement for the FREQ procedure. If you specify the following statements, PROC FREQ produces a one-way frequency table for each variable in the most recently created data set. PROC FREQ; 1

2 DISCUSSION Using the dataset Trial.sas7bdat from the Glenn Walker book Common Statistical Methods for Clinical Research with SAS Examples" used in the SAS courses that I teach will illustrate an example. In this fictitious dataset there are 100 patients, and we want to know how many are males and how many are females. We also want to know how many males are over age 55. Notice that the two questions ask how many and so we know that PROC FREQ is the procedure of choice. We begin by asking SAS for frequencies (one-way) on each of the variables of interest SEX and AGE. On the TABLES statement we list both variables separated by a space. Example 1 PROC FREQ Data=Trial; TABLES Sex Age; [See Example 1 Output in Appendix] While these results are informative they do not give us the desired end which is How many males are over the age of 55. We have the number of males and females and we have the age distribution but we don t have an answer to our question. We know there are 44 males and we know that there are 18 patients over the age of 55. So we decide to use a WHERE statement to select only those patients who are male. Example 2 PROC FREQ Data=Trial; TABLES Age; WHERE Sex= M ; [See Example 2 Output in Appendix] So while we can answer the questions about how many males are over the age of 55 (there are 8 males over the age of 55), we may want to reshape our data into meaningful groupings in case there are other similar questions that arise at a later time (e.g. How many females are aged 46-55?). So we will create groupings of the ages using a PROC FORMAT statement. Example 3 PROC FORMAT; VALUE Age_Fmt Low-15= Less than 16 years 16-25= years 26-35= years 36-45= years 46-55= years 56-High= Over 55 years ; 2

3 Note that each original group of values used to create a format (called a range) is found on the left of the equal sign; and on the right of the equal sign we assign text that describes the group. The and Low and High symbols in the original values need some explanation. To use these, note that any value next to a symbol (called a range indicator) is included in the range. The keyword Low means the lowest numeric value in a given dataset (which may be less than zero or missing). The keyword High means the highest numeric value in a given dataset. Once we have our format created, we need to apply the format we created with a FORMAT statement in PROC FREQ. We also add a LABEL statement to further describe the variables in our report. Finally, rather than limiting the report to only Males, we create a two-dimensional table using the asterisk between the Age and Sex variables. Because PROC FREQ will by default add several unwanted statistics to the table when we define two dimensions, we also add the NOCOL, NOROW, and PERCENT options to remove those statistics. Example 4 PROC FREQ Data=Trial; TABLES Age*Sex / nocol norow nopercent; FORMAT Age Age_Fmt.; LABEL Age= Age of Patient Sex= Sex of Patient ; [See Example 4 Output in Appendix] Well believe it or not we actually got through one-way and two-way tables with PROC FREQ based on Example 4 above. To take things one step further (stratification) we introduce the three-way table. In this case we may want to know the output of Example 4 above by each Center in our study. There are actually several different ways to accomplish this task and I am going to demonstrate the two most common. In the first case we can simple add another dimension to our TABLES statement to accomplish this task. With a two-way table the first dimension is the ROW and the second dimension is the COLUMN. If we have a three-way crosstab then the first dimension is the STRATA, the second dimension is the ROW and the third dimension is the COLUMN. Example 5 PROC FREQ Data=Trial; TABLES Center*Age*Sex / nocol norow nopercent; FORMAT Age Age_Fmt.; LABEL Age= Age of Patient Sex= Sex of Patient Center= Study Center ; [See Example 5 Output in Appendix] Another way to accomplish the same thing as Example 5 is to use a BY statement. However when we use a BY statement we must ALWAYS sort the SAS dataset by the Key Variable or Variables. In this case we would sort the dataset Trial by the variable Center. 3

4 Example 6 PROC SORT Data=Trial Out=TrialSorted; BY Center; Now that we have sorted the dataset Trial by the variable Center and created a new dataset called TrialSorted using the Out= option on PROC SORT we are ready to proceed. Example 7 PROC FREQ Data=TrialSorted; TABLES Age*Sex / nocol norow nopercent; FORMAT Age Age_Fmt.; LABEL Age= Age of Patient Sex= Sex of Patient Center= Study Center ; BY Center; [See Example 7 Output in Appendix] You will note that while Example 5 and Example 7 give the same numeric results, the appearance is slightly different. Example 7 puts each table on a separate page and begins with a dashed line followed by Study Center = N where N is 1, 2 or 3 and then the dashed line continues. Now we are ready for some simple statistical computations using PROC FREQ. We will look at the calculation of the Chi-square statistic and McNemar s statistic. The first statistic is used on independent groups in the data (Males and Females). We compare these two groups by a variable called RESP which indicates response (0=No, 1=Yes). Without even knowing much about statistics we conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the response variable for men and women. This is determined because the Chi-square statistic of 5.18 has an associated probability (p-value) of This means that there is a less than 1/20 chance that this finding is due to chance alone. Example 8 PROC FREQ Data=Trial; TABLES Sex*Resp / CHISQ; LABEL Sex= Sex of Patient Resp= Response of Patient ; [See Example 8 Output in Appendix] 4

6 CONCLUSION PROC FREQ is a very powerful but simple and necessary procedure in SAS. This Beginning Tutorial has just scratched the surface of the functionality of PROC FREQ. The author s hope is that these several basic examples will serve as a guide for the user to extend their knowledge of PROC FREQ and experiment with other uses for their specific data needs. REFERENCES SAS Institute, Inc. (2002). Base SAS 9 Procedures Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc. Walker, Glenn A. (2002). "Common Statistical Methods for Clinical Research with SAS Examples", 2 nd Edition, SAS Institute: Cary, NC. Mariner, Carrie (2006). Answering the Right Question with the Right PROC, SouthEast SAS Users Group 2006 Proceedings. The Scholars Digital Library of Analytics (Beta) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SAS and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. indicates USA registration. Other brand and product names are trademarks of their respective companies. CONTACT INFORMATION Your comments and questions are valued and encouraged. Contact the author at: Joseph J Guido, MS University of Rochester Medical Center Department of Community and Preventive Medicine Division of Social and Behavioral Medicine 120 Corporate Woods, Suite 350 Rochester, New York Phone: (585) Fax: (585)

7 APPENDIX Example 1 SEX Frequency Percent SEX Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Percent F M

8 AGE AGE Frequency Percent Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Percent

9 AGE Cumulative Cumulative AGE Frequency Percent Frequency Percent

10 Example 2 AGE AGE Frequency Percent Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Percent

11 Example 4 Table of AGE by SEX AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total

12 Example 5 Table 1 of AGE by SEX Controlling for CENTER=1 AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total Table 2 of AGE by SEX Controlling for CENTER=2 AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total Table 3 of AGE by SEX Controlling for CENTER=3 AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total

13 Example 7 Study Center = 1 Table of AGE by SEX AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total Study Center = 2 Table of AGE by SEX AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years years Over 55 years Total

14 Study Center = 3 Table of AGE by SEX AGE(Age of SEX(Sex of Frequency F M Total years years years Over 55 years Total

15 Example 8 SEX(Sex of Table of SEX by RESP RESP(Response of Frequency Percent Row Pct Col Pct 0 1 Total F M Total Statistic DF Value Prob Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square Continuity Adj. Chi-Square Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square Phi Coefficient Contingency Coefficient Cramer's V Fisher's Exact Test Cell (1,1) Frequency (F) 17 Left-sided Pr <= F Right-sided Pr >= F Table Probability (P) Two-sided Pr <= P Sample Size =

16 Example 10 Pre(Initial Response of Table of Pre by Post Post(Response of Patient after Intervention) Frequency Percent Row Pct Col Pct Yes No Total Yes No Total Statistics for Table of Pre by Post McNemar's Test Statistic (S) DF 1 Pr > S <.0001 Simple Kappa Coefficient Kappa ASE % Lower Conf Limit % Upper Conf Limit Sample Size =

### Guido s Guide to PROC MEANS A Tutorial for Beginners Using the SAS System Joseph J. Guido, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY

Guido s Guide to PROC MEANS A Tutorial for Beginners Using the SAS System Joseph J. Guido, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY ABSTRACT PROC MEANS is a basic procedure within BASE SAS

### PROC FREQ IS MORE THAN JUST SIMPLY GENERATING A 2-BY-2 TABLE

PROC FREQ IS MORE THAN JUST SIMPLY GENERATING A 2-BY-2 TABLE Wuchen Zhao, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA ABSTRACT The FREQ procedure is one of the most commonly-used statistical procedures

### Beginning Tutorials. PROC FREQ: It s More Than Counts Richard Severino, The Queen s Medical Center, Honolulu, HI OVERVIEW.

Paper 69-25 PROC FREQ: It s More Than Counts Richard Severino, The Queen s Medical Center, Honolulu, HI ABSTRACT The FREQ procedure can be used for more than just obtaining a simple frequency distribution

### The general form of the PROC MEANS statement is

Describing Your Data Using PROC MEANS PROC MEANS can be used to compute various univariate descriptive statistics for specified variables including the number of observations, mean, standard deviation,

### VI. Introduction to Logistic Regression

VI. Introduction to Logistic Regression We turn our attention now to the topic of modeling a categorical outcome as a function of (possibly) several factors. The framework of generalized linear models

### We know from STAT.1030 that the relevant test statistic for equality of proportions is:

2. Chi 2 -tests for equality of proportions Introduction: Two Samples Consider comparing the sample proportions p 1 and p 2 in independent random samples of size n 1 and n 2 out of two populations which

### FREQ-OUT: An Applied Presentation of the Options and Output of the FREQ Procedure. Pamela Landsman MPH, Merck & Co., Inc, West Point, PA

FREQ-OUT: An Applied Presentation of the Options and Output of the FREQ Procedure Pamela Landsman MPH, Merck & Co., Inc, West Point, PA Abstract: Have you ever been told compare the rate of death by gender,

### Salary. Cumulative Frequency

HW01 Answering the Right Question with the Right PROC Carrie Mariner, Afton-Royal Training & Consulting, Richmond, VA ABSTRACT When your boss comes to you and says "I need this report by tomorrow!" do

### Abbas S. Tavakoli, DrPH, MPH, ME 1 ; Nikki R. Wooten, PhD, LISW-CP 2,3, Jordan Brittingham, MSPH 4

1 Paper 1680-2016 Using GENMOD to Analyze Correlated Data on Military System Beneficiaries Receiving Inpatient Behavioral Care in South Carolina Care Systems Abbas S. Tavakoli, DrPH, MPH, ME 1 ; Nikki

### Statistical Analysis The First Steps Jennifer L. Waller Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia

Statistical Analysis The First Steps Jennifer L. Waller Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia ABSTRACT For both statisticians and non-statisticians, knowing what data look like before more rigorous

### How to Perform and Interpret Chi-Square and T-Tests Jennifer L. Waller, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, Georgia

Paper HW-05 How to Perform and Interpret Chi-Square and T-Tests Jennifer L. Waller, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, Georgia ABSTRACT For both statisticians and non-statisticians, knowing what

### Basic Statistical and Modeling Procedures Using SAS

Basic Statistical and Modeling Procedures Using SAS One-Sample Tests The statistical procedures illustrated in this handout use two datasets. The first, Pulse, has information collected in a classroom

### Customizing FREQ Procedure Output in SAS 9.2

Technical Paper Customizing FREQ Procedure Output in SAS 9.2 Introducing the new crosstabulation table template for multi-way tables and SAS ODS Graphics options Table of Contents Introduction...1 The

### PharmaSUG Paper CC19

PharmaSUG 2014 - Paper CC19 Let Chi-Square Pass Decision to Fisher s Programmatically Linga Reddy Baddam, inventiv Health Clinical, Hyderabad, India Sudarshan Reddy Shabadu, inventiv Health Clinical, Hyderabad,

### Some Issues in Using PROC LOGISTIC for Binary Logistic Regression

Some Issues in Using PROC LOGISTIC for Binary Logistic Regression by David C. Schlotzhauer Contents Abstract 1. The Effect of Response Level Ordering on Parameter Estimate Interpretation 2. Odds Ratios

### Statistics for Clinical Trial SAS Programmers 1: paired t-test Kevin Lee, Covance Inc., Conshohocken, PA

Statistics for Clinical Trial SAS Programmers 1: paired t-test Kevin Lee, Covance Inc., Conshohocken, PA ABSTRACT This paper is intended for SAS programmers who are interested in understanding common statistical

### Nonparametric Statistics

Nonparametric Statistics J. Lozano University of Goettingen Department of Genetic Epidemiology Interdisciplinary PhD Program in Applied Statistics & Empirical Methods Graduate Seminar in Applied Statistics

### Statistics, Data Analysis & Econometrics

Using the LOGISTIC Procedure to Model Responses to Financial Services Direct Marketing David Marsh, Senior Credit Risk Modeler, Canadian Tire Financial Services, Welland, Ontario ABSTRACT It is more important

### Introduction to SUDAAN for survey data

Center for Studies in Demography & Ecology Anita Rocha alrocha@u.washington.edu David Chae Introduction to SUDAAN for survey data This course and other resources This is a course on how to begin using

### Bivariate Statistics Session 2: Measuring Associations Chi-Square Test

Bivariate Statistics Session 2: Measuring Associations Chi-Square Test Features Of The Chi-Square Statistic The chi-square test is non-parametric. That is, it makes no assumptions about the distribution

### MATH Chapter 23 April 15 and 17, 2013 page 1 of 8 CHAPTER 23: COMPARING TWO CATEGORICAL VARIABLES THE CHI-SQUARE TEST

MATH 1342. Chapter 23 April 15 and 17, 2013 page 1 of 8 CHAPTER 23: COMPARING TWO CATEGORICAL VARIABLES THE CHI-SQUARE TEST Relationships: Categorical Variables Chapter 21: compare proportions of successes

### Testing Hypotheses using SPSS

Is the mean hourly rate of male workers \$2.00? T-Test One-Sample Statistics Std. Error N Mean Std. Deviation Mean 2997 2.0522 6.6282.2 One-Sample Test Test Value = 2 95% Confidence Interval Mean of the

### Chi-Square Test (χ 2 )

Chi Square Tests Chi-Square Test (χ 2 ) Nonparametric test for nominal independent variables These variables, also called "attribute variables" or "categorical variables," classify observations into a

### Common Univariate and Bivariate Applications of the Chi-square Distribution

Common Univariate and Bivariate Applications of the Chi-square Distribution The probability density function defining the chi-square distribution is given in the chapter on Chi-square in Howell's text.

### PROC LOGISTIC: Traps for the unwary Peter L. Flom, Independent statistical consultant, New York, NY

PROC LOGISTIC: Traps for the unwary Peter L. Flom, Independent statistical consultant, New York, NY ABSTRACT Keywords: Logistic. INTRODUCTION This paper covers some gotchas in SAS R PROC LOGISTIC. A gotcha

### Chi Square Test. PASSS Research Question 4: Chi Square Test

Chi Square Test Is there a statistically significant relationship between a student s Year 11 truancy and his or her enrolment in full time education after secondary school? A chi-square test is a statistical

### Agenda a. Examin Exam e In dividual Var iab Var le Distr le D istr ution Continuous us data: ii. Categorical da ta: Examin Exam e Re lation

Using SAS to Analyze Data Nadia Akseer MSc. Candidate Brock University Agenda a. Examine Individual Variable Distributions i. Continuous data: ii. Proc Univariate distributions, tests for normality, plots

### Two Correlated Proportions (McNemar Test)

Chapter 50 Two Correlated Proportions (Mcemar Test) Introduction This procedure computes confidence intervals and hypothesis tests for the comparison of the marginal frequencies of two factors (each with

### SUGI 29 Statistics and Data Analysis

Paper 194-29 Head of the CLASS: Impress your colleagues with a superior understanding of the CLASS statement in PROC LOGISTIC Michelle L. Pritchard and David J. Pasta Ovation Research Group, San Francisco,

### Directions for Chi-Square for One and for Two Variables Datasets: One_way_chi_square.sav and Two_way_Chi_square.sav. One-way Chi-square

Directions for Chi-Square for One and for Two Variables Datasets: One_way_chi_square.sav and Two_way_Chi_square.sav One-way Chi-square 1. Open the dataset containing the already grouped frequency of student

Chapter 8 Hypothesis Tests Chapter Table of Contents Introduction...157 One-Sample t-test...158 Paired t-test...164 Two-Sample Test for Proportions...169 Two-Sample Test for Variances...172 Discussion

### Descriptive Statistics Categorical Variables

Descriptive Statistics Categorical Variables 3 Introduction... 41 Computing Frequency Counts and Percentages... 42 Computing Frequencies on a Continuous Variable... 44 Using Formats to Group Observations...

### Can SAS Enterprise Guide do all of that, with no programming required? Yes, it can.

SAS Enterprise Guide for Educational Researchers: Data Import to Publication without Programming AnnMaria De Mars, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA ABSTRACT In this workshop, participants

### Using Stata for Categorical Data Analysis

Using Stata for Categorical Data Analysis NOTE: These problems make extensive use of Nick Cox s tab_chi, which is actually a collection of routines, and Adrian Mander s ipf command. From within Stata,

### Module 9: Nonparametric Tests. The Applied Research Center

Module 9: Nonparametric Tests The Applied Research Center Module 9 Overview } Nonparametric Tests } Parametric vs. Nonparametric Tests } Restrictions of Nonparametric Tests } One-Sample Chi-Square Test

### Paper PO06. Randomization in Clinical Trial Studies

Paper PO06 Randomization in Clinical Trial Studies David Shen, WCI, Inc. Zaizai Lu, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals ABSTRACT Randomization is of central importance in clinical trials. It prevents selection

### SAS/STAT. 9.2 User s Guide. Introduction to. Nonparametric Analysis. (Book Excerpt) SAS Documentation

SAS/STAT Introduction to 9.2 User s Guide Nonparametric Analysis (Book Excerpt) SAS Documentation This document is an individual chapter from SAS/STAT 9.2 User s Guide. The correct bibliographic citation

### Analysing Questionnaires using Minitab (for SPSS queries contact -) Graham.Currell@uwe.ac.uk

Analysing Questionnaires using Minitab (for SPSS queries contact -) Graham.Currell@uwe.ac.uk Structure As a starting point it is useful to consider a basic questionnaire as containing three main sections:

### An introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics

An introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Entering your data... 2 3 Preparing your data for analysis... 10 4 Exploring your data: univariate analysis... 14 5 Generating descriptive

### Survey Analysis: Options for Missing Data

Survey Analysis: Options for Missing Data Paul Gorrell, Social & Scientific Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD Abstract A common situation researchers working with survey data face is the analysis of missing

### The SURVEYMEANS Procedure

SAS/STAT 9.2 User s Guide The SURVEYMEANS Procedure (Book Excerpt) SAS Documentation This document is an individual chapter from SAS/STAT 9.2 User s Guide. The correct bibliographic citation for the complete

### Analyzing tables. Chi-squared, exact and monte carlo tests. Jon Michael Gran Department of Biostatistics, UiO

Analyzing tables Chi-squared, exact and monte carlo tests Jon Michael Gran Department of Biostatistics, UiO MF9130 Introductory course in statistics Thursday 26.05.2011 1 / 50 Overview Aalen chapter 6.5,

### General Guidelines about SPSS. Steps needed to enter the data in the SPSS

General Guidelines about SPSS The entered data has to be numbers and not letters. For example, in the Gender section, we can not write Male and Female in the answers, however, we must give them a code.

### The Chi-Square Test. STAT E-50 Introduction to Statistics

STAT -50 Introduction to Statistics The Chi-Square Test The Chi-square test is a nonparametric test that is used to compare experimental results with theoretical models. That is, we will be comparing observed

### Counting the Ways to Count in SAS. Imelda C. Go, South Carolina Department of Education, Columbia, SC

Paper CC 14 Counting the Ways to Count in SAS Imelda C. Go, South Carolina Department of Education, Columbia, SC ABSTRACT This paper first takes the reader through a progression of ways to count in SAS.

### Part 3. Comparing Groups. Chapter 7 Comparing Paired Groups 189. Chapter 8 Comparing Two Independent Groups 217

Part 3 Comparing Groups Chapter 7 Comparing Paired Groups 189 Chapter 8 Comparing Two Independent Groups 217 Chapter 9 Comparing More Than Two Groups 257 188 Elementary Statistics Using SAS Chapter 7 Comparing

### ebook -The Chi-Square Test Common Business Analytics Applications

ebook -The Chi-Square Test Common Business Analytics Applications Contents Business Analytics Applications for Chi-Square Test 1 Background What is the chi-square test? 2 When can the chi-square test be

### Introduction to Stata

Introduction to Stata September 23, 2014 Stata is one of a few statistical analysis programs that social scientists use. Stata is in the mid-range of how easy it is to use. Other options include SPSS,

### Taming the PROC TRANSPOSE

Taming the PROC TRANSPOSE Matt Taylor, Carolina Analytical Consulting, LLC ABSTRACT The PROC TRANSPOSE is often misunderstood and seldom used. SAS users are unsure of the results it will give and curious

### SAS Software to Fit the Generalized Linear Model

SAS Software to Fit the Generalized Linear Model Gordon Johnston, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC Abstract In recent years, the class of generalized linear models has gained popularity as a statistical modeling

### IBM SPSS Complex Samples 22

IBM SPSS Complex Samples 22 Note Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in Notices on page 51. Product Information This edition applies to version 22, release 0,

### EXST SAS Lab Lab #4: Data input and dataset modifications

EXST SAS Lab Lab #4: Data input and dataset modifications Objectives 1. Import an EXCEL dataset. 2. Infile an external dataset (CSV file) 3. Concatenate two datasets into one 4. The PLOT statement will

### Chi-Square Tests. In This Chapter BONUS CHAPTER

BONUS CHAPTER Chi-Square Tests In the previous chapters, we explored the wonderful world of hypothesis testing as we compared means and proportions of one, two, three, and more populations, making an educated

### Hypothesis Testing for a Proportion

Math 122 Intro to Stats Chapter 6 Semester II, 2015-16 Inference for Categorical Data Hypothesis Testing for a Proportion In a survey, 1864 out of 2246 randomly selected adults said texting while driving

### Association Between Variables

Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi

### Swap the DATA Step for PROC TRANSPOSE Katie Joseph, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC

Swap the DATA Step for PROC TRANSPOSE Katie Joseph, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC ABSTRACT Anyone who has spent an unspeakable amount of time using arrays and do loops in a DATA step

### Strategies for Developing and Delivering an Effective Online SAS Programming Course Justina M. Flavin, Independent Consultant, San Diego, CA

Strategies for Developing and Delivering an Effective Online SAS Programming Course Justina M. Flavin, Independent Consultant, San Diego, CA ABSTRACT Teaching online courses is very different from teaching

### Chi-square test Fisher s Exact test

Lesson 1 Chi-square test Fisher s Exact test McNemar s Test Lesson 1 Overview Lesson 11 covered two inference methods for categorical data from groups Confidence Intervals for the difference of two proportions

### CHI-Squared Test of Independence

CHI-Squared Test of Independence Minhaz Fahim Zibran Department of Computer Science University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Email: mfzibran@ucalgary.ca Abstract Chi-square (X 2 ) test is a nonparametric

### The Chi Square Test. Diana Mindrila, Ph.D. Phoebe Balentyne, M.Ed. Based on Chapter 23 of The Basic Practice of Statistics (6 th ed.

The Chi Square Test Diana Mindrila, Ph.D. Phoebe Balentyne, M.Ed. Based on Chapter 23 of The Basic Practice of Statistics (6 th ed.) Concepts: Two-Way Tables The Problem of Multiple Comparisons Expected

Chapter 12 Nonparametric Tests Chapter Table of Contents OVERVIEW...171 Testing for Normality...... 171 Comparing Distributions....171 ONE-SAMPLE TESTS...172 TWO-SAMPLE TESTS...172 ComparingTwoIndependentSamples...172

### Row vs. Column Percents. tab PRAYER DEGREE, row col

Bivariate Analysis - Crosstabulation One of most basic research tools shows how x varies with respect to y Interpretation of table depends upon direction of percentaging example Row vs. Column Percents.

### Bill Burton Albert Einstein College of Medicine william.burton@einstein.yu.edu April 28, 2014 EERS: Managing the Tension Between Rigor and Resources 1

Bill Burton Albert Einstein College of Medicine william.burton@einstein.yu.edu April 28, 2014 EERS: Managing the Tension Between Rigor and Resources 1 Calculate counts, means, and standard deviations Produce

### Quantitative Data Analysis: Choosing a statistical test Prepared by the Office of Planning, Assessment, Research and Quality

Quantitative Data Analysis: Choosing a statistical test Prepared by the Office of Planning, Assessment, Research and Quality 1 To help choose which type of quantitative data analysis to use either before

### Simulate PRELOADFMT Option in PROC FREQ Ajay Gupta, PPD, Morrisville, NC

ABSTRACT PharmaSUG 2015 - Paper QT33 Simulate PRELOADFMT Option in PROC FREQ Ajay Gupta, PPD, Morrisville, NC In Pharmaceuticals/CRO industries, table programing is often started when only partial data

### Chi-Square Test for Qualitative Data

Chi-Square Test for Qualitative Data For qualitative data (measured on a nominal scale) * Observations MUST be independent - No more than one measurement per subject * Sample size must be large enough

### Class 19: Two Way Tables, Conditional Distributions, Chi-Square (Text: Sections 2.5; 9.1)

Spring 204 Class 9: Two Way Tables, Conditional Distributions, Chi-Square (Text: Sections 2.5; 9.) Big Picture: More than Two Samples In Chapter 7: We looked at quantitative variables and compared the

### Lecture 19: Conditional Logistic Regression

Lecture 19: Conditional Logistic Regression Dipankar Bandyopadhyay, Ph.D. BMTRY 711: Analysis of Categorical Data Spring 2011 Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Medical University of South Carolina

### Data Mining: An Overview of Methods and Technologies for Increasing Profits in Direct Marketing. C. Olivia Rud, VP, Fleet Bank

Data Mining: An Overview of Methods and Technologies for Increasing Profits in Direct Marketing C. Olivia Rud, VP, Fleet Bank ABSTRACT Data Mining is a new term for the common practice of searching through

### How to set the main menu of STATA to default factory settings standards

University of Pretoria Data analysis for evaluation studies Examples in STATA version 11 List of data sets b1.dta (To be created by students in class) fp1.xls (To be provided to students) fp1.txt (To be

### Simple Linear Regression One Binary Categorical Independent Variable

Simple Linear Regression Does sex influence mean GCSE score? In order to answer the question posed above, we want to run a linear regression of sgcseptsnew against sgender, which is a binary categorical

### Using An Ordered Logistic Regression Model with SAS Vartanian: SW 541

Using An Ordered Logistic Regression Model with SAS Vartanian: SW 541 libname in1 >c:\=; Data first; Set in1.extract; A=1; PROC LOGIST OUTEST=DD MAXITER=100 ORDER=DATA; OUTPUT OUT=CC XBETA=XB P=PROB; MODEL

### Data Analysis for Marketing Research - Using SPSS

North South University, School of Business MKT 63 Marketing Research Instructor: Mahmood Hussain, PhD Data Analysis for Marketing Research - Using SPSS Introduction In this part of the class, we will learn

### Xinxin Guo, Quintiles, Cambridge, MA Zhaohui Su, Quintiles, Cambridge, MA

PharmaSUG 2015 - Paper SP06 Confidence Intervals Are a Programmer s Friend Xinxin Guo, Quintiles, Cambridge, MA Zhaohui Su, Quintiles, Cambridge, MA ABSTRACT A confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval

### Correctly Compute Complex Samples Statistics

SPSS Complex Samples 16.0 Specifications Correctly Compute Complex Samples Statistics When you conduct sample surveys, use a statistics package dedicated to producing correct estimates for complex sample

Answering Your Research Questions with Descriptive Statistics Diana Suhr, University of Northern Colorado Abstract Projects include a plan, outcomes, and measuring results. In order to determine the outcomes

### ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION THE DATA SET

Computing Hazard Ratios and Confidence Intervals for a Two-Factor Cox Model with Interaction Terms Jing Wang, M.S., Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA Marla Husnik, M.S., Fred Hutchinson

### PROC SUMMARY Options Beyond the Basics Susmita Pattnaik, PPD Inc, Morrisville, NC

Paper BB-12 PROC SUMMARY Options Beyond the Basics Susmita Pattnaik, PPD Inc, Morrisville, NC ABSTRACT PROC SUMMARY is used for summarizing the data across all observations and is familiar to most SAS

### Analyzing Research Data Using Excel

Analyzing Research Data Using Excel Fraser Health Authority, 2012 The Fraser Health Authority ( FH ) authorizes the use, reproduction and/or modification of this publication for purposes other than commercial

### Survey, Statistics and Psychometrics Core Research Facility University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Log-Rank Test for More Than Two Groups

Survey, Statistics and Psychometrics Core Research Facility University of Nebraska-Lincoln Log-Rank Test for More Than Two Groups Prepared by Harlan Sayles (SRAM) Revised by Julia Soulakova (Statistics)

### SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR MISSING VALUES

SCHOOL OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SCIENCES Using SPSS Topics addressed today: 1. Differences between groups 2. Graphing Use the s4data.sav file for the first part of this session. DON T FORGET TO RECODE YOUR

### Chi-Square Analysis (Ch.8) Purpose. Purpose. Examples

Chi-Square Analysis (Ch.8) Chi-square test of association (contingency) x tables rxc tables Post-hoc Interpretation Running SPSS Windows CROSSTABS Chi-square test of goodness of fit Purpose Chi-square

### Homework Questions? A Look at Categorical Variables. Math 140. Chapter 3 1. Two Types of Questions

Homework Questions? Two Types of Questions 1. Conceptual questions Answered in the beginning of class, as part of class Just ask. 2. HW questions on specific problems Answered during office hours Answered

### Factor B: Curriculum New Math Control Curriculum (B (B 1 ) Overall Mean (marginal) Females (A 1 ) Factor A: Gender Males (A 2) X 21

1 Factorial ANOVA The ANOVA designs we have dealt with up to this point, known as simple ANOVA or oneway ANOVA, had only one independent grouping variable or factor. However, oftentimes a researcher has

### Quick Start to Data Analysis with SAS Table of Contents. Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Chapter 2 SAS Programming Concepts 7

Chapter 1 Introduction 1 SAS: The Complete Research Tool 1 Objectives 2 A Note About Syntax and Examples 2 Syntax 2 Examples 3 Organization 4 Chapter by Chapter 4 What This Book Is Not 5 Chapter 2 SAS

### Lesson 1: Comparison of Population Means Part c: Comparison of Two- Means

Lesson : Comparison of Population Means Part c: Comparison of Two- Means Welcome to lesson c. This third lesson of lesson will discuss hypothesis testing for two independent means. Steps in Hypothesis

### Modeling Lifetime Value in the Insurance Industry

Modeling Lifetime Value in the Insurance Industry C. Olivia Parr Rud, Executive Vice President, Data Square, LLC ABSTRACT Acquisition modeling for direct mail insurance has the unique challenge of targeting

### Variables and Data A variable contains data about anything we measure. For example; age or gender of the participants or their score on a test.

The Analysis of Research Data The design of any project will determine what sort of statistical tests you should perform on your data and how successful the data analysis will be. For example if you decide

### 1. Confidence Intervals/Hypothesis tests:

SAS Project 2 (31.3 pts. + 4.2 Bonus) Due Dec. 8 Objectives Part 1: Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis tests 1.1) Calculation of t critical values and P-values 1.2) 1 sample t-test 1.3) 2 sample t-test

### Improved Interaction Interpretation: Application of the EFFECTPLOT statement and other useful features in PROC LOGISTIC

Paper AA08-2013 Improved Interaction Interpretation: Application of the EFFECTPLOT statement and other useful features in PROC LOGISTIC Robert G. Downer, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI ABSTRACT

### PUMFs and Pivot Tables: Using Excel to Create Cross-Tabulations from Public User Microdata Files

PUMFs and Pivot Tables: Using Excel to Create Cross-Tabulations from Public User Microdata Files Excel pivot tables are an excellent tool for summarizing categorical and ordinal data. A pivot table is

### 5. Ordinal regression: cumulative categories proportional odds. 6. Ordinal regression: comparison to single reference generalized logits

Lecture 23 1. Logistic regression with binary response 2. Proc Logistic and its surprises 3. quadratic model 4. Hosmer-Lemeshow test for lack of fit 5. Ordinal regression: cumulative categories proportional

### Unit 29 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test

Unit 29 Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test Objectives: To perform the chi-square hypothesis test concerning proportions corresponding to more than two categories of a qualitative variable To perform the Bonferroni

### Is it statistically significant? The chi-square test

UAS Conference Series 2013/14 Is it statistically significant? The chi-square test Dr Gosia Turner Student Data Management and Analysis 14 September 2010 Page 1 Why chi-square? Tests whether two categorical

### Chapter 6: t test for dependent samples

Chapter 6: t test for dependent samples ****This chapter corresponds to chapter 11 of your book ( t(ea) for Two (Again) ). What it is: The t test for dependent samples is used to determine whether the

### This can dilute the significance of a departure from the null hypothesis. We can focus the test on departures of a particular form.

One-Degree-of-Freedom Tests Test for group occasion interactions has (number of groups 1) number of occasions 1) degrees of freedom. This can dilute the significance of a departure from the null hypothesis.