# Salary. Cumulative Frequency

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1 HW01 Answering the Right Question with the Right PROC Carrie Mariner, Afton-Royal Training & Consulting, Richmond, VA ABSTRACT When your boss comes to you and says "I need this report by tomorrow!" do you know what SAS PROC to choose? Starting with the most basic reports (FREQ and MEANS), and working up to more complex topics (REPORT), this paper will help you choose your PROC based on understanding the real question and how to answer it. The basics of reporting syntax will be covered for each PROC. INTRODUCTION Whether you just started with SAS or have been programming for years, there are times when you need a report, but are not sure which PROC to use. The first step is to think about the real question you are trying to answer, since the question itself will lead you to the most appropriate PROC. The most common questions are 1) How many are there? 2) How much is there? 3) Can you make a report that looks like this? Once you identify the question that is really being asked, it becomes easier to choose a correct PROC and move on to making your report more sophisticated and better looking. HOW MANY ARE THERE? The question how many is usually easy to identify, although it can be hidden in layers of detail. A simple example would be How many employees work for our company? Only slightly more complex is How many employees are in each department? When the question gets hidden it often looks like this In the Human Resources department, how many employees are paid over \$50,000 per year? Notice that the phrase how many is normally still in there somewhere. An example without the key phrase would be Are there more employees in Human Resources or in Sales? When you stop to think about this, however, you will realize that you need to know how many are in each department first. And once you find how many in your reporting question, you can turn to PROC Freq. PROC FREQ Let s say that the question is In the Human Resources department, how many employees are paid over \$50,000 per year? Since we recognize the how many aspect, we start our investigation with PROC Freq. At first, we simply ask for frequency tables of the two variables we are interested in, department (Dept) and. On the TABLES statement, we list the names of those two variables, separated by a space. tables Dept;

2 Dept Dept HR Operations Sales This is helpful, but doesn t contain the vital information we need. We now know that there are three employees in Human Resources, and that only one employee is paid over \$50,000, but we don t know if that employee is in Human Resources. We could choose to look at both variables in one table by inserting an asterisk (*) between the variable names. However, given the distribution of salaries, the resulting table wouldn t look very nice or be very easy to interpret. Instead, we decide to limit the table to only the department of interest using a WHERE statement. tables ; where Dept='HR'; Now we can see that there aren t any employees in HR who make more than \$50,000. This report may be good enough in some cases, since it does answer the question that was asked. However, it is often wise to provide slightly more information than you were asked for, to cut down on those pesky follow up questions which require follow up reports! And it is also wise to make your reports look nicer than is really required, since this makes you look better, too. In this case, it would be nice to have our salaries come out in groups rather than as individual values, which we can accomplish by creating a format especially for the salary variable using PROC Format. Proc Format; Value Money low-<40000='less Than \$40,000' ='\$40,000 to \$50,000' 50000<-high='More Than \$50,000'; Notice that for each original group of values (called a range) on the left of the equals sign, we assign a label that describes the group. The and < symbols in the original values beg for further explanation. To use these, remember that any value next to a symbol (called a range indicator) is included in the range, while any value next to a < symbol is not included in the range. Thus in our example, both and are included in the middle category, while is not included in the last category. Once we have our format created, we can work on the details of our PROC Freq step. We need to apply the format we created with a format statement (remember the. after the format name to distinguish it from a variable name). We also add a label statement to further describe the variables for our report readers. Finally, rather than limiting the report to HR, we create a two-dimensional table using the asterisk between the and Dept variables. Because PROC Freq will by default add several unwanted statistics to the table when we define two dimensions, we also add the nocol, norow, and nopercent options to remove those statistics. tables *Dept/nocol norow nopercent; format money.; label =' Categories' Dept='Department'; The final results look like this. 2

3 ( Categories) Table of by Dept Dept(Department) HR Operations Sales Total Less Than \$40, \$40,000 to \$50, More Than \$50, Total HOW MUCH? The question how much can be a little harder to recognize than how many because of the many different aspects of measurement people use. The main difference between how many and how much is the type of analysis variable or at least the way we are using the analysis variable. For a variable that is discrete or logically groups itself into discrete categories for the report, how many and PROC Freq are natural. When we want to describe the amount of a variable (how much) we are normally dealing with a continuous variable which we don t plan to categorize. Examples of how much include How much are we paying our employees all together?, What s the average salary we pay?, and What s the lowest salary we are paying in each rank of our pay scale? Most how much questions can be answered with PROC Means. Of course, other PROCs such as PROC Summary would also work, but for most cases a simple PROC Means is sufficient. PROC MEANS Let s consider the question What s the lowest salary we are paying in each rank of our pay scale? We start with a simple PROC Means to investigate the variable salary. Proc Means data=employeeinfo; var ; Analysis Variable : N Mean Std Dev Minimum Maximum For our example, we need to modify the report by including only the minimum instead of the default statistics, which we can specify as min on the PROC Means statement. We also want to look at salary within categories of the variable. This could be done by first sorting the data by and then using a BY statement with the variable. However, PROC Means provides a simpler alternative, a Class statement. It produces the same statistics in a similar format, but does not require sorting first. Proc Means data=employeeinfo min; var ; class ; The final results look like this. Analysis Variable : N Obs Minimum

4 CAN YOU? There are many occasions when no simple how many or how much question is behind a reporting request. Instead, you are asked something like Can you produce a report that looks like this? The person requesting it may sketch a report on paper or show you an old report to duplicate. In these cases, you need a powerful and flexible reporting tool to let you create any rows and columns you need, containing whatever statistics are needed. The two powerhouses of SAS reporting are PROC Report and PROC Tabulate. PROC Report is fundamentally a columnbased tool, while PROC Tabulate is two dimensional at heart. That said, many reports can be generated with either tool, although some lend themselves more easily to one or the other. Because PROC Report is column based, it can be easier to learn when you are just starting, so we ll focus on PROC Report. PROC REPORT Let s suppose the requester hands you a report that looks like the following and asks you to recreate it using SAS. Dept Total Average Start Date Highest HR \$105,000 23NOV Operations \$122,000 26FEB Sales \$125,000 07JAN Because the columns contain information about four different variables, PROC Freq and PROC Means are clearly inappropriate for this task. The columns are defined by Dept,, StartDate, and. We start with the simplest PROC Report, only limiting the variables to be included with a keep= dataset option. Proc Report data=employeeinfo(keep= Dept StartDate ) NoWindows; Notice the NoWindows option on the PROC Report statement. It turns off the default report generating window, which will only get in the way of our programming. Dept StartDate HR APR HR MAR HR APR Sales JUL Sales DEC Sales AUG Operations MAR Operations JUL Operations SEP We successfully included the columns we needed, but we would like the rows to create summary statistics rather than giving us details as has happened. By default, PROC Report generates detail information when any character variable is included as a column. We need to change this, since Dept is a variable in our report and is character. To change any attribute of a column, or to change the way the variable is used to create the column (called usage ) we use a Define statement. The default usage for character variables is Listing, which looks like PROC Print. Our other choices here would be Order, which still gives us detail information but puts the rows in sort order, or Group, which both sorts and groups the data. We now add a define statement for Dept, to change usage to Group, and make it a bit prettier. A slash is necessary after the name of the column on the Define statement, and any text in quotes after the slash becomes the new column header. Proc Report data=employeeinfo(keep= Dept StartDate ) NoWindows; Define Dept/group Department ; 4

5 Department StartDate HR SEP Operations JUN Sales JAN We successfully created the department groups, and SAS gave us summaries of the other three variables, since they were numeric. By default, however, PROC Report wants to give us the Sum statistic for all our numeric variables, which certainly creates nonsense from our dates. We can override this with Column statements for each variable we want to change, defining the alternative statistic as appropriate. Proc Report data=employeeinfo NoWindows; Column Dept StartDate ; Define Dept /group "Department"; Define /"Total " format=dollar9.; Define StartDate /mean "Average Start Date"; Define /max "Highest "; This code also contains a Column statement to define the order of the columns, rather than using keep= and relying on the order of the variables in the data set. This change doesn t affect our report, but does give us additional control over the report if we need it. Department Total Average Start Date Highest HR \$105,000 23NOV Operations \$122,000 26FEB Sales \$125,000 07JAN We successfully recreated the original report, with a slight improvement of a nicer column header on the first column. Of course, it is wise to check with the requester to see whether any improvements will be appreciated or will cause trouble instead! CONCLUSION The better you understand what a reporting question really is, the easier it will be for you to decide which PROC is most appropriate. When the question is how many you can rely on PROC Freq, with customized formats to create categories if needed. When the question is how much PROC Means is a simple approach that will address your needs. When the question is Can you make a report like this? you may want PROC Report or PROC Tabulate, and most likely either one will be able to provide what you need, if you work hard enough! For most column-based report-duplicating tasks, PROC Report will be easier to understand and code. REFERENCES SAS Institute, Inc Base SAS 9 Procedures Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc. SAS Institute, Inc SAS Programming I: Essentials Course Notes. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc. CONTACT INFORMATION Your comments and questions are valued and encouraged. Contact the author at: Carrie Mariner Afton-Royal Training & Consulting Heathmere Crescent Midlothian, Virgina Web: SAS and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. in the USA and other countries. indicates USA registration. Other brand and product names are trademarks of their respective companies. 5

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