# Lecture 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 September 7, 2005 p. 1 Lecture 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations 0. Preliminaries Basic Concepts of Set Theory Sets and elements Specification of sets Identity and cardinality Subsets Power sets Operations on sets: union, intersection More operations on sets: difference, complement...5 Homework 1 notes Preliminaries Aims of the course. Emphasis on math appreciation, aiming to be USEFUL, interesting, may or may not be fun (hope so.). Everything we cover should be doable if you work conscientiously. Creativity is important for really BEING a mathematician, and we ll include some optional problems that ask for creativity, but we ll try to avoid any questions that demand mathematical creativity. Course description: Introduction to some basic mathematical concepts and techniques central to linguistic theory. Set theory, logic and formal systems, modern algebra, automata theory, and model theory. Applications to syntax, phonology, semantics. No prior mathematics assumed. Not open to math majors. Prerequisite: LING 201 or 401 or consent of instructor. [See Syllabus for more.] Textbook: available from instructor, cost \$26.00 (Partee s cost direct from publisher with author s discount.) Payment due by next Wednesday, September 14. (Cash or check to Barbara H. Partee.) Sign for book on attendance sheet. Florian or I will give you a receipt when I receive payment. Student questionnaire, to be collected at end of class or next time. Introductions. Florian Schwarz will give some guest lectures when I m away. Reading: Chapter 1 ( ) of Partee-ter Meulen-Wall (MMiL), pp Also Preliminaries from Partee 1979, Fundamentals of Mathematics for Linguistics (xeroxed). 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory Sets and elements Set theory is a basis of modern mathematics, and notions of set theory are used in all formal descriptions. The notion of set is taken as undefined, primitive, or basic, so we don t try to define what a set is, but we can give an informal description, describe important properties of sets, and give examples. All other notions of mathematics can be built up based on the notion of set. Similar (but informal) words: collection, group, aggregate. Description: a set is a collection of objects which are called the members or elements of that set. If we have a set we say that some objects belong (or do not belong) to this set, are (or are not) in the set. We say also that sets consist of their elements.

2 September 7, 2005 p. 2 Examples: the set of students in this room; the English alphabet may be viewed as the set of letters of the English language; the set of natural numbers 1 ; etc. So sets can consist of elements of various natures: people, physical objects, numbers, signs, other sets, etc. (We will use the words object or entity in a very broad way to include all these different kinds of things.) A set is an ABSTRACT object; its members do not have to be physically collected together for them to constitute a set. The membership criteria for a set must in principle be well-defined, and not vague. If we have a set and an object, it is possible that we do not know whether this object belongs to the set or not, because of our lack of information or knowledge. (E.g. The set of students in this room over the age of 21 : a well-defined set but we may not know who is in it.) But the answer should exist, at any rate in principle. It could be unknown, but it should not be vague. If the answer is vague for some collection, we cannot consider that collection as a set. Another thing: If we have a set, then for any two elements of it, x and y, it should not be vague whether x = y, or they are different. (If they are identical, then they are not actually two elements of it; the issue really arises when we have two descriptions of elements, and we want to know whether those descriptions describe the same element, or two different elements.) For example: is the letter q the same thing as the letter Q? Well, it depends on what set we are considering. If we take the set of the 26 letters of the English alphabet, then q and Q are the same element. If we take the set of 52 upper-case and lower-case letters of the English alphabet, then q and Q are two distinct elements. Either is possible, but we have to make it clear what set we are talking about, so that we know whether or not q = Q. Sometimes we simply assume for the sake of examples that a description is not vague when perhaps for other purposes it would be vague e.g., the set of all red objects. Sets can be finite or infinite. There is exactly one set, the empty set, or null set, which has no members at all. A set with only one member is called a singleton or a singleton set. ( Singleton of a ) Notation: A, B, C, for sets; a, b, c, or x, y, z, for members. b A if b belongs to A (B A if both A and B are sets and B is a member of A) and c A, if c doesn t belong to A. is used for the empty set Specification of sets There are three main ways to specify a set: (1) by listing all its members (list notation); (2) by stating a property of its elements (predicate notation); (3) by defining a set of rules which generates (defines) its members (recursive rules). 1 Natural numbers: 0,1,2,3,4,5,.... No notion of positive or negative. The numbers used for counting. Integers: positive, negative, and 0. See xeroxed section Preliminaries from Partee 1979.

3 September 7, 2005 p. 3 List notation. The first way is suitable only for finite sets. In this case we list names of elements of a set, separate them by commas and enclose them in braces: Examples: {1, 12, 45}, {George Washington, Bill Clinton}, {a,b,d,m}. Three-dot abbreviation : {1,2,..., 100}. (See xeroxed preliminaries, pp xxii-xxiii) {1,2,3,4, } this is not a real list notation, it is not a finite list, but it s common practice as long as the continuation is clear. Note that we do not care about the order of elements of the list, and elements can be listed several times. {1, 12, 45}, {12, 1, 45,1} and {45,12, 45,1} are different representations of the same set (see below the notion of identity of sets). Predicate notation. Example: {x x is a natural number and x < 8} Reading: the set of all x such that x is a natural number and is less than 8 So the second part of this notation is a property the members of the set share (a condition or a predicate which holds for members of this set). Other examples: { x x is a letter of Russian alphabet} {y y is a student of UMass and y is older than 25} General form: { x P(x)}, where P is some predicate (condition, property). The language to describe these predicates is not usually fixed in a strict way. But it is known that unrestricted language can result in paradoxes. Example: { x x x}. ( Russell s paradox ) -- see the historical notes about it on pp 7-8. The moral: not everything that looks on the surface like a predicate can actually be considered to be a good defining condition for a set. Solutions type theory, other solutions; we won t go into them. (If you re interested, see Chapter 8, Sec 2.) Recursive rules. (Always safe.) Example the set E of even numbers greater than 3: a) 4 E b) if x E, then x + 2 E c) nothing else belongs to E. The first rule is the basis of recursion, the second one generates new elements from the elements defined before and the third rule restricts the defined set to the elements generated by rules a and b. (The third rule should always be there; sometimes in practice it is left implicit. It s best when you re a beginner to make it explicit.) 1.3. Identity and cardinality Two sets are identical if and only if 2 they have exactly the same members. So A = B iff for every x, x A x B. For example, {0,2,4} = {x x is an even natural number less than 5} 2 Be careful about if and only if ; its abbreviation is iff. See Preliminaries, p. xxiii.

4 September 7, 2005 p. 4 From the definition of identity follows that there exists only one empty set; its identity is fully determined by its absence of members. Note that empty list notation {} is not usually used for the empty set, we have a special symbol for it. The number of elements in a set A is called the cardinality of A, written A. The cardinality of a finite set is a natural number. Infinite sets also have cardinalities but they are not natural numbers. We will discuss cardinalities of infinite sets a little later (Chapter 4) Subsets A set A is a subset of a set B iff every element of A is also an element of B. Such a relation between sets is denoted by A B. If A B and A B we call A a proper subset of B and write A B. (Caution: sometimes is used the way we are using.) Both signs can be negated using the slash / through the sign. Examples: {a,b} {d,a,b,e} and {a,b} {d,a,b,e}, {a,b} {a,b}, but {a,b} {a,b}. Note that the empty set is a subset of every set. A for every set A. Why? Be careful about the difference between member of and subset of ; the homework gives lots of chance for practice Power sets The set of all subsets of a set A is called the power set of A and denoted as (A) or sometimes as 2 A. For example, if A = {a,b}, (A) = {, {a}, {b}, {a,b}}. From the example above: a A; {a} A; {a} (A) A; A; (A); (A) Be careful with exercise 4 in Homework 1! Pay close attention to the definitions and it should come out all right. But if you don t pay close attention to the definitions, it s easy to make mistakes. Make sure you understand these examples before you try it. (But do try; and if you don t get something right the first time, we give you a chance to redo it.) 1.6. Operations on sets: union, intersection. We define several operations on sets. Let A and B be arbitrary sets. The union of A and B, written A B, is the set whose elements are just the elements of A or B or of both. In the predicate notation the definition is A B = def { x x A or x B} Examples. Let K = {a,b}, L = {c,d} and M = {b,d}, then K L = {a,b,c,d} K M = {a,b,d} L M = {b,c,d}

5 September 7, 2005 p. 5 (K L) M = K (L M) = {a,b,c,d} K K = K K = K = K = {a,b}. There is a nice method for visually representing sets and set-theoretic operations, called Venn diagrams. Each set is drawn as a circle and its members represented by points within it. The diagrams for two arbitrarily chosen sets are represented as partially intersecting the most general case as in Figure 1 1 p.13. The region designated 1 contains elements which are members of A but not of B; region 2, those members in B but not in A; and region 3, members of both B and A. Points in region 4 outside the diagram represent elements in neither set. The Venn diagram for the union of A and B is shown in Figure 1 2, p.13 The results of operations in this and other diagrams are shown by shading areas. --- The intersection of A and B, written A B, is the set whose elements are just the elements of both A and B. In the predicate notation the definition is A B = def { x x A and x B} Examples: K L = K M = {b} L M = {d} (K L) M = K (L M) = K K = K K = K =. The general case of intersection of arbitrary sets A and B is represented by the Venn diagram of Figure 1 3, p.14. The intersection of three arbitrary sets A,B and C is shown in the Venn diagram of Figure 1 4, p More operations on sets: difference, complement Another binary operation on arbitrary sets is the difference A minus B, written A B, which subtracts from A all elements which are in B. [Also called relative complement: the complement of B relative to A.] The predicate notation defines this operation as follows: A B = def { x x A and x B} Examples: (using the previous K, L, M) K L = {a,b} K M = {a} L M = {c} K K = K = K K =.

6 September 7, 2005 p. 6 The Venn diagram for the set-theoretic difference is shown in Figure 1 5, p.16. A B is also called the relative complement of B relative to A. This operation is to be distinguished from the complement of a set A, written A, which is the set consisting of everything not in A. In predicate notation A = def { x x A} It is natural to ask, where do these objects come from which do not belong to A? In this case it is presupposed that there exists a universe of discourse and all other sets are subsets of this set. The universe of discourse is conventionally denoted by the symbol U. Then we have A = def U A The Venn diagram with a shaded section for the complement of A is shown in Figure1 6, p.16 Homework 1 notes. 1. Be careful with problem 4! 2. Strategy for problem 5e, p. 25. In general, when any problem is confusing or difficult, try to break it into smaller steps and SHOW the STEPS. In fact more generally, if it CAN be broken into steps, it usually SHOULD be. So to compute Pow(Pow({a,b})), FIRST compute Pow({a,b}). (It should have 4 members.) Then figure out some systematic way to write down all the subsets of Pow({a,b}), which will be the members of Pow(Pow({a,b})). I think it works best to group them by numbers of members: all the 0-member subsets, all the 1-member subsets, all the 2-member subsets, then 3, then 4. (Hint: there should be 16 in all, including 6 2-member subsets.)

### Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations

March 1, 2006 p. 1 Basic Concepts of Set Theory, Functions and Relations 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory...1 1.1. Sets and elements...1 1.2. Specification of sets...2 1.3. Identity and cardinality...3

### The Language of Mathematics

CHPTER 2 The Language of Mathematics 2.1. Set Theory 2.1.1. Sets. set is a collection of objects, called elements of the set. set can be represented by listing its elements between braces: = {1, 2, 3,

### CmSc 175 Discrete Mathematics Lesson 10: SETS A B, A B

CmSc 175 Discrete Mathematics Lesson 10: SETS Sets: finite, infinite, : empty set, U : universal set Describing a set: Enumeration = {a, b, c} Predicates = {x P(x)} Recursive definition, e.g. sequences

### (Refer Slide Time: 1:41)

Discrete Mathematical Structures Dr. Kamala Krithivasan Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture # 10 Sets Today we shall learn about sets. You must

### Sets. A set is a collection of (mathematical) objects, with the collection treated as a single mathematical object.

Sets 1 Sets Informally: A set is a collection of (mathematical) objects, with the collection treated as a single mathematical object. Examples: real numbers, complex numbers, C integers, All students in

### Sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.4

SETS Sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.4 Chapter Summary Sets The Language of Sets Set Operations Set Identities Introduction Sets are one of the basic building blocks for the types of objects considered in discrete

### A set is an unordered collection of objects.

Section 2.1 Sets A set is an unordered collection of objects. the students in this class the chairs in this room The objects in a set are called the elements, or members of the set. A set is said to contain

### Applications of Methods of Proof

CHAPTER 4 Applications of Methods of Proof 1. Set Operations 1.1. Set Operations. The set-theoretic operations, intersection, union, and complementation, defined in Chapter 1.1 Introduction to Sets are

### Basic Set Theory. 1. Motivation. Fido Sue. Fred Aristotle Bob. LX 502 - Semantics I September 11, 2008

Basic Set Theory LX 502 - Semantics I September 11, 2008 1. Motivation When you start reading these notes, the first thing you should be asking yourselves is What is Set Theory and why is it relevant?

### 2.1 Sets, power sets. Cartesian Products.

Lecture 8 2.1 Sets, power sets. Cartesian Products. Set is an unordered collection of objects. - used to group objects together, - often the objects with similar properties This description of a set (without

### A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor)

Chapter 4 Set Theory A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. (Georg Cantor) In the previous chapters, we have often encountered sets, for example, prime numbers form a set, domains

### Math 117 Chapter 7 Sets and Probability

Math 117 Chapter 7 and Probability Flathead Valley Community College Page 1 of 15 1. A set is a well-defined collection of specific objects. Each item in the set is called an element or a member. Curly

### A Little Set Theory (Never Hurt Anybody)

A Little Set Theory (Never Hurt Anybody) Matthew Saltzman Department of Mathematical Sciences Clemson University Draft: August 21, 2013 1 Introduction The fundamental ideas of set theory and the algebra

### Announcements. CompSci 230 Discrete Math for Computer Science Sets. Introduction to Sets. Sets

CompSci 230 Discrete Math for Computer Science Sets September 12, 2013 Prof. Rodger Slides modified from Rosen 1 nnouncements Read for next time Chap. 2.3-2.6 Homework 2 due Tuesday Recitation 3 on Friday

### Clicker Question. Theorems/Proofs and Computational Problems/Algorithms MC215: MATHEMATICAL REASONING AND DISCRETE STRUCTURES

MC215: MATHEMATICAL REASONING AND DISCRETE STRUCTURES Tuesday, 1/21/14 General course Information Sets Reading: [J] 1.1 Optional: [H] 1.1-1.7 Exercises: Do before next class; not to hand in [J] pp. 12-14:

### axiomatic vs naïve set theory

ED40 Discrete Structures in Computer Science 1: Sets Jörn W. Janneck, Dept. of Computer Science, Lund University axiomatic vs naïve set theory s Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory w/choice (ZFC) extensionality

### The Mathematics Driving License for Computer Science- CS10410

The Mathematics Driving License for Computer Science- CS10410 Venn Diagram, Union, Intersection, Difference, Complement, Disjoint, Subset and Power Set Nitin Naik Department of Computer Science Venn-Euler

### Sets, Relations and Functions

Sets, Relations and Functions Eric Pacuit Department of Philosophy University of Maryland, College Park pacuit.org epacuit@umd.edu ugust 26, 2014 These notes provide a very brief background in discrete

### 4.1. Definitions. A set may be viewed as any well defined collection of objects, called elements or members of the set.

Section 4. Set Theory 4.1. Definitions A set may be viewed as any well defined collection of objects, called elements or members of the set. Sets are usually denoted with upper case letters, A, B, X, Y,

### 4.1. Sets. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style

ets 4.1 Introduction If we can identify a property which is common to several objects, it is often useful to group them together. uch a grouping is called a set. Engineers for example, may wish to study

Some Definitions about Sets Definition: Two sets are equal if they contain the same elements. I.e., sets A and B are equal if x[x A x B]. Notation: A = B. Recall: Sets are unordered and we do not distinguish

### Notes. Sets. Notes. Introduction II. Notes. Definition. Definition. Slides by Christopher M. Bourke Instructor: Berthe Y. Choueiry.

Sets Slides by Christopher M. Bourke Instructor: Berthe Y. Choueiry Spring 2006 Computer Science & Engineering 235 Introduction to Discrete Mathematics Sections 1.6 1.7 of Rosen cse235@cse.unl.edu Introduction

### Sets and functions. {x R : x > 0}.

Sets and functions 1 Sets The language of sets and functions pervades mathematics, and most of the important operations in mathematics turn out to be functions or to be expressible in terms of functions.

### A brief history of type theory (or, more honestly, implementing mathematical objects as sets)

A brief history of type theory (or, more honestly, implementing mathematical objects as sets) Randall Holmes, Boise State University November 8, 2012 [notes revised later; this is the day the talk was

### LESSON SUMMARY. Set Operations and Venn Diagrams

LESSON SUMMARY CXC CSEC MATHEMATICS UNIT Three: Set Theory Lesson 4 Set Operations and Venn Diagrams Textbook: Mathematics, A Complete Course by Raymond Toolsie, Volumes 1 and 2. (Some helpful exercises

Set (mathematics) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A set in mathematics is a collection of well defined and distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. Sets are one of the most fundamental

### POWER SETS AND RELATIONS

POWER SETS AND RELATIONS L. MARIZZA A. BAILEY 1. The Power Set Now that we have defined sets as best we can, we can consider a sets of sets. If we were to assume nothing, except the existence of the empty

### Introduction to mathematical arguments

Introduction to mathematical arguments (background handout for courses requiring proofs) by Michael Hutchings A mathematical proof is an argument which convinces other people that something is true. Math

### Sets and set operations

CS 441 Discrete Mathematics for CS Lecture 7 Sets and set operations Milos Hauskrecht milos@cs.pitt.edu 5329 Sennott Square asic discrete structures Discrete math = study of the discrete structures used

### MAT2400 Analysis I. A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions

MAT2400 Analysis I A brief introduction to proofs, sets, and functions In Analysis I there is a lot of manipulations with sets and functions. It is probably also the first course where you have to take

### Introduction Russell s Paradox Basic Set Theory Operations on Sets. 6. Sets. Terence Sim

6. Sets Terence Sim 6.1. Introduction A set is a Many that allows itself to be thought of as a One. Georg Cantor Reading Section 6.1 6.3 of Epp. Section 3.1 3.4 of Campbell. Familiar concepts Sets can

### Automata and Formal Languages

Automata and Formal Languages Winter 2009-2010 Yacov Hel-Or 1 What this course is all about This course is about mathematical models of computation We ll study different machine models (finite automata,

### THE LANGUAGE OF SETS AND SET NOTATION

THE LNGGE OF SETS ND SET NOTTION Mathematics is often referred to as a language with its own vocabulary and rules of grammar; one of the basic building blocks of the language of mathematics is the language

### 2.1 The Algebra of Sets

Chapter 2 Abstract Algebra 83 part of abstract algebra, sets are fundamental to all areas of mathematics and we need to establish a precise language for sets. We also explore operations on sets and relations

### What is a set? Sets. Specifying a Set. Notes. The Universal Set. Specifying a Set 10/29/13

What is a set? Sets CS 231 Dianna Xu set is a group of objects People: {lice, ob, Clara} Colors of a rainbow: {red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple} States in the S: {labama, laska, Virginia, } ll

### CHAPTER 2. Set, Whole Numbers, and Numeration

CHAPTER 2 Set, Whole Numbers, and Numeration 2.1. Sets as a Basis for Whole Numbers A set is a collection of objects, called the elements or members of the set. Three common ways to define sets: (1) A

### Lecture 12. More algebra: Groups, semigroups, monoids, strings, concatenation.

V. Borschev and B. Partee, November 1, 2001 p. 1 Lecture 12. More algebra: Groups, semigroups, monoids, strings, concatenation. CONTENTS 1. Properties of operations and special elements...1 1.1. Properties

### 2.1 Symbols and Terminology

2.1 Symbols and Terminology Definitions: set is a collection of objects. The objects belonging to the set are called elements, ormembers, oftheset. Sets can be designated in one of three different ways:

### INCIDENCE-BETWEENNESS GEOMETRY

INCIDENCE-BETWEENNESS GEOMETRY MATH 410, CSUSM. SPRING 2008. PROFESSOR AITKEN This document covers the geometry that can be developed with just the axioms related to incidence and betweenness. The full

### Lecture 4 -- Sets, Relations, Functions 1

Lecture 4 Sets, Relations, Functions Pat Place Carnegie Mellon University Models of Software Systems 17-651 Fall 1999 Lecture 4 -- Sets, Relations, Functions 1 The Story So Far Formal Systems > Syntax»

### Set Theory Basic Concepts and Definitions

Set Theory Basic Concepts and Definitions The Importance of Set Theory One striking feature of humans is their inherent need and ability to group objects according to specific criteria. Our prehistoric

### Mathematics for Computer Science

Mathematics for Computer Science Lecture 2: Functions and equinumerous sets Areces, Blackburn and Figueira TALARIS team INRIA Nancy Grand Est Contact: patrick.blackburn@loria.fr Course website: http://www.loria.fr/~blackbur/courses/math

### not to be republishe NCERT SETS Chapter Introduction 1.2 Sets and their Representations

SETS Chapter 1 In these days of conflict between ancient and modern studies; there must surely be something to be said for a study which did not begin with Pythagoras and will not end with Einstein; but

### Sets (DSLC 1.2) Intuitively, a set is a collection of things, called its elements, ormembers. To say that x is an element of S, wewrite

Sets (DSLC 1.2) Intuitively, a set is a collection of things, called its elements, ormembers. To say that x is an element of S, wewrite x 2 S. Other ways of saying this: x belongs to S, S contains x, x

### Grade 6 Math Circles. Binary and Beyond

Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 The Decimal System Grade 6 Math Circles October 15/16, 2013 Binary and Beyond The cool reality is that we learn to count in only one of many possible number

### Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata -

Formal Languages and Automata Theory - Regular Expressions and Finite Automata - Samarjit Chakraborty Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zürich March

### the lemma. Keep in mind the following facts about regular languages:

CPS 2: Discrete Mathematics Instructor: Bruce Maggs Assignment Due: Wednesday September 2, 27 A Tool for Proving Irregularity (25 points) When proving that a language isn t regular, a tool that is often

### The set consisting of all natural numbers that are in A and are in B is the set f1; 3; 5g;

Chapter 5 Set Theory 5.1 Sets and Operations on Sets Preview Activity 1 (Set Operations) Before beginning this section, it would be a good idea to review sets and set notation, including the roster method

### Set operations and Venn Diagrams. COPYRIGHT 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

Set operations and Venn Diagrams Set operations and Venn diagrams! = { x x " and x " } This is the intersection of and. # = { x x " or x " } This is the union of and. n element of! belongs to both and,

### Math 582 Introduction to Set Theory

Math 582 Introduction to Set Theory Kenneth Harris kaharri@umich.edu Department of Mathematics University of Michigan January 7, 2009 Kenneth Harris (Math 582) Math 582 Introduction to Set Theory January

### CONTENTS 1. Peter Kahn. Spring 2007

CONTENTS 1 MATH 304: CONSTRUCTING THE REAL NUMBERS Peter Kahn Spring 2007 Contents 2 The Integers 1 2.1 The basic construction.......................... 1 2.2 Adding integers..............................

### CS 3719 (Theory of Computation and Algorithms) Lecture 4

CS 3719 (Theory of Computation and Algorithms) Lecture 4 Antonina Kolokolova January 18, 2012 1 Undecidable languages 1.1 Church-Turing thesis Let s recap how it all started. In 1990, Hilbert stated a

### Sets and Subsets. Countable and Uncountable

Sets and Subsets Countable and Uncountable Reading Appendix A Section A.6.8 Pages 788-792 BIG IDEAS Themes 1. There exist functions that cannot be computed in Java or any other computer language. 2. There

### Axiom A.1. Lines, planes and space are sets of points. Space contains all points.

73 Appendix A.1 Basic Notions We take the terms point, line, plane, and space as undefined. We also use the concept of a set and a subset, belongs to or is an element of a set. In a formal axiomatic approach

### SETS, RELATIONS, AND FUNCTIONS

September 27, 2009 and notations Common Universal Subset and Power Set Cardinality Operations A set is a collection or group of objects or elements or members (Cantor 1895). the collection of the four

### Discrete Mathematics Set Operations

Discrete Mathematics 1-3. Set Operations Introduction to Set Theory A setis a new type of structure, representing an unordered collection (group, plurality) of zero or more distinct (different) objects.

### 1 / Basic Structures: Sets, Functions, Sequences, and Sums - definition of a set, and the use of the intuitive notion that any property whatever there

C H A P T E R Basic Structures: Sets, Functions, Sequences, and Sums.1 Sets. Set Operations.3 Functions.4 Sequences and Summations Much of discrete mathematics is devoted to the study of discrete structures,

### Math 166 - Week in Review #4. A proposition, or statement, is a declarative sentence that can be classified as either true or false, but not both.

Math 166 Spring 2007 c Heather Ramsey Page 1 Math 166 - Week in Review #4 Sections A.1 and A.2 - Propositions, Connectives, and Truth Tables A proposition, or statement, is a declarative sentence that

### All of mathematics can be described with sets. This becomes more and

CHAPTER 1 Sets All of mathematics can be described with sets. This becomes more and more apparent the deeper into mathematics you go. It will be apparent in most of your upper level courses, and certainly

### Chapter 3. Cartesian Products and Relations. 3.1 Cartesian Products

Chapter 3 Cartesian Products and Relations The material in this chapter is the first real encounter with abstraction. Relations are very general thing they are a special type of subset. After introducing

### Database Management System Dr. S. Srinath Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture No.

Database Management System Dr. S. Srinath Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture No. # 2 Conceptual Design Greetings to you all. We have been talking

### 2.1.1 Examples of Sets and their Elements

Chapter 2 Set Theory 2.1 Sets The most basic object in Mathematics is called a set. As rudimentary as it is, the exact, formal definition of a set is highly complex. For our purposes, we will simply define

### Classical Sets and Fuzzy Sets Classical Sets Operation on Classical Sets Properties of Classical (Crisp) Sets Mapping of Classical Sets to Functions

Classical Sets and Fuzzy Sets Classical Sets Operation on Classical Sets Properties of Classical (Crisp) Sets Mapping of Classical Sets to Functions Fuzzy Sets Notation Convention for Fuzzy Sets Fuzzy

### In mathematics you don t understand things. You just get used to them. (Attributed to John von Neumann)

Chapter 1 Sets and Functions We understand a set to be any collection M of certain distinct objects of our thought or intuition (called the elements of M) into a whole. (Georg Cantor, 1895) In mathematics

### We give a basic overview of the mathematical background required for this course.

1 Background We give a basic overview of the mathematical background required for this course. 1.1 Set Theory We introduce some concepts from naive set theory (as opposed to axiomatic set theory). The

### This asserts two sets are equal iff they have the same elements, that is, a set is determined by its elements.

3. Axioms of Set theory Before presenting the axioms of set theory, we first make a few basic comments about the relevant first order logic. We will give a somewhat more detailed discussion later, but

### Finite Sets. Theorem 5.1. Two non-empty finite sets have the same cardinality if and only if they are equivalent.

MATH 337 Cardinality Dr. Neal, WKU We now shall prove that the rational numbers are a countable set while R is uncountable. This result shows that there are two different magnitudes of infinity. But we

### 13 Infinite Sets. 13.1 Injections, Surjections, and Bijections. mcs-ftl 2010/9/8 0:40 page 379 #385

mcs-ftl 2010/9/8 0:40 page 379 #385 13 Infinite Sets So you might be wondering how much is there to say about an infinite set other than, well, it has an infinite number of elements. Of course, an infinite

### SETS. Chapter Overview

Chapter 1 SETS 1.1 Overview This chapter deals with the concept of a set, operations on sets.concept of sets will be useful in studying the relations and functions. 1.1.1 Set and their representations

### Sets, Venn Diagrams & Counting

MT 142 College Mathematics Sets, Venn Diagrams & Counting Module SC Terri Miller revised January 5, 2011 What is a set? Sets set is a collection of objects. The objects in the set are called elements of

### Sets and Cardinality Notes for C. F. Miller

Sets and Cardinality Notes for 620-111 C. F. Miller Semester 1, 2000 Abstract These lecture notes were compiled in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics in the University of Melbourne for the use

### Computing Fundamentals 2 Lecture 4 Lattice Theory. Lecturer: Patrick Browne

Computing Fundamentals 2 Lecture 4 Lattice Theory Lecturer: Patrick Browne Partial Order (e.g. ) A binary relation on a set B is called a partial order on B if it is: reflexive, anti-symmetric, and transitive.

### SYLLABUS. Prerequisites: Completion of GE Analytical Reading/Expository Writing; either GE Mathematics or MATH 210.

SYLLABUS Course Title: Critical Reasoning Course Number: PHIL 200 Online (Spring 2011) Ticket Number: 12950 Prerequisites: Completion of GE Analytical Reading/Expository Writing; either GE Mathematics

### FROM DECIMALS TO FRACTIONS WARM UP!

FROM DECIMALS TO FRACTIONS LAMC INTERMEDIATE GROUP - 10/13/13 WARM UP! Deven was a bit curious about what the other instructors favorite numbers were. Unfortunately the Math Circle instructors are very

### Mathematics for Computer Science/Software Engineering. Notes for the course MSM1F3 Dr. R. A. Wilson

Mathematics for Computer Science/Software Engineering Notes for the course MSM1F3 Dr. R. A. Wilson October 1996 Chapter 1 Logic Lecture no. 1. We introduce the concept of a proposition, which is a statement

### Math 018 Review Sheet v.3

Math 018 Review Sheet v.3 Tyrone Crisp Spring 007 1.1 - Slopes and Equations of Lines Slopes: Find slopes of lines using the slope formula m y y 1 x x 1. Positive slope the line slopes up to the right.

### Solving and Graphing Inequalities

Algebra I Pd Basic Inequalities 3A What is the answer to the following questions? Solving and Graphing Inequalities We know 4 is greater than 3, so is 5, so is 6, so is 7 and 3.1 works also. So does 3.01

### Problems on Discrete Mathematics 1

Problems on Discrete Mathematics 1 Chung-Chih Li 2 Kishan Mehrotra 3 Syracuse University, New York L A TEX at January 11, 2007 (Part I) 1 No part of this book can be reproduced without permission from

### Database Management System Dr. S. Srinath Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture No.

Database Management System Dr. S. Srinath Department of Computer Science & Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Lecture No. # 8 Functional Dependencies and Normal Forms Two different kinds

### INTRODUCTORY SET THEORY

M.Sc. program in mathematics INTRODUCTORY SET THEORY Katalin Károlyi Department of Applied Analysis, Eötvös Loránd University H-1088 Budapest, Múzeum krt. 6-8. CONTENTS 1. SETS Set, equal sets, subset,

### Reading 13 : Finite State Automata and Regular Expressions

CS/Math 24: Introduction to Discrete Mathematics Fall 25 Reading 3 : Finite State Automata and Regular Expressions Instructors: Beck Hasti, Gautam Prakriya In this reading we study a mathematical model

### CS 341 Homework 9 Languages That Are and Are Not Regular

CS 341 Homework 9 Languages That Are and Are Not Regular 1. Show that the following are not regular. (a) L = {ww R : w {a, b}*} (b) L = {ww : w {a, b}*} (c) L = {ww' : w {a, b}*}, where w' stands for w

### Automata Theory. Şubat 2006 Tuğrul Yılmaz Ankara Üniversitesi

Automata Theory Automata theory is the study of abstract computing devices. A. M. Turing studied an abstract machine that had all the capabilities of today s computers. Turing s goal was to describe the

### Discrete Mathematics

Discrete Mathematics Chih-Wei Yi Dept. of Computer Science National Chiao Tung University March 16, 2009 2.1 Sets 2.1 Sets 2.1 Sets Basic Notations for Sets For sets, we ll use variables S, T, U,. We can

### The Set Data Model CHAPTER 7. 7.1 What This Chapter Is About

CHAPTER 7 The Set Data Model The set is the most fundamental data model of mathematics. Every concept in mathematics, from trees to real numbers, is expressible as a special kind of set. In this book,

### Grade 7/8 Math Circles Sequences and Series

Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Grade 7/8 Math Circles Sequences and Series November 30, 2012 What are sequences? A sequence is an ordered

### Lecture Note 1 Set and Probability Theory. MIT 14.30 Spring 2006 Herman Bennett

Lecture Note 1 Set and Probability Theory MIT 14.30 Spring 2006 Herman Bennett 1 Set Theory 1.1 Definitions and Theorems 1. Experiment: any action or process whose outcome is subject to uncertainty. 2.

### Regular Languages and Finite Automata

Regular Languages and Finite Automata 1 Introduction Hing Leung Department of Computer Science New Mexico State University Sep 16, 2010 In 1943, McCulloch and Pitts [4] published a pioneering work on a

### Lecture 4: Probability Spaces

EE5110: Probability Foundations for Electrical Engineers July-November 2015 Lecture 4: Probability Spaces Lecturer: Dr. Krishna Jagannathan Scribe: Jainam Doshi, Arjun Nadh and Ajay M 4.1 Introduction

### 2. Methods of Proof Types of Proofs. Suppose we wish to prove an implication p q. Here are some strategies we have available to try.

2. METHODS OF PROOF 69 2. Methods of Proof 2.1. Types of Proofs. Suppose we wish to prove an implication p q. Here are some strategies we have available to try. Trivial Proof: If we know q is true then

### Inf1A: Deterministic Finite State Machines

Lecture 2 InfA: Deterministic Finite State Machines 2. Introduction In this lecture we will focus a little more on deterministic Finite State Machines. Also, we will be mostly concerned with Finite State

### Mathematics of Cryptography

CHAPTER 2 Mathematics of Cryptography Part I: Modular Arithmetic, Congruence, and Matrices Objectives This chapter is intended to prepare the reader for the next few chapters in cryptography. The chapter

### To formulate more complex mathematical statements, we use the quantifiers there exists, written, and for all, written. If P(x) is a predicate, then

Discrete Math in CS CS 280 Fall 2005 (Kleinberg) Quantifiers 1 Quantifiers To formulate more complex mathematical statements, we use the quantifiers there exists, written, and for all, written. If P(x)

Mathematics 0N1 Solutions 1 1. Write the following sets in list form. 1(i) The set of letters in the word banana. {a, b, n}. 1(ii) {x : x 2 + 3x 10 = 0}. 3(iv) C A. True 3(v) B = {e, e, f, c}. True 3(vi)

### CHAPTER 5: MODULAR ARITHMETIC

CHAPTER 5: MODULAR ARITHMETIC LECTURE NOTES FOR MATH 378 (CSUSM, SPRING 2009). WAYNE AITKEN 1. Introduction In this chapter we will consider congruence modulo m, and explore the associated arithmetic called

### Definition. Proof. Notation and Terminology

ÌÖ Ò ÓÖÑ Ø ÓÒ Ó Ø ÈÐ Ò A transformation of the Euclidean plane is a rule that assigns to each point in the plane another point in the plane. Transformations are also called mappings, or just maps. Examples

### Math/Stats 425 Introduction to Probability. 1. Uncertainty and the axioms of probability

Math/Stats 425 Introduction to Probability 1. Uncertainty and the axioms of probability Processes in the real world are random if outcomes cannot be predicted with certainty. Example: coin tossing, stock

### Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised

CHAPTER 8 Proofs Involving Sets Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised by the extensive role that sets play and by the fact that most of the proofs they encounter are