THE HOPF RING FOR COMPLEX COBORDISM 1 BY DOUGLAS C. RAVENEL AND W. STEPHEN WILSON. Communicated by Edgar Brown, Jr., May 13, 1974


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1 BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 80, Number 6, November 1974 THE HOPF RING FOR COMPLEX COBORDISM 1 BY DOUGLAS C. RAVENEL AND W. STEPHEN WILSON Communicated by Edgar Brown, Jr., May 13, 1974 It is our purpose here to announce the results of our study of the homology of the spaces in the 2spectrum for complex cobordism and Brown Peterson cohomology. Let MU(n) be the standard Thorn complex. MU k = lim^^ ü, 2 ( n ~~ k )MU(n) is the 2k space in the 2spectrum for complex cobordism. We will consider the space MU hm n^_ 00 Iï ;>n MU f . We find this product easier to study than the separate factors, as will become apparent below. For a space X we have [X, MU] ~ U 2 *(X), the even degree part of the complex cobordism of X. Because MU is a multiplicative theory, U 2 *(X) is a ring and MU is a commutative ring with identity in the homotopy category. Thus we have that for any field k t H%(MU; k) is a commutative ring with identity in the category offccoalgebras,i.e., it is a "Hopf ring". In more common language, the homology has two products and a coproduct. o will denote the multiplicative product which comes from the ring structure on the spectrum, while * will denote the additive product coming from the loop structure (Ü, 2 MU MU). They obey the following distributive law: if \p(z) = 2 z z" is the coproduct, then z (x * j) = 2 (Z ' o x) * (z " o j/). We now describe the structure of H%(MU; R) where R is an algebra over a field k. Let C R (X)= be II H.(X;R): \jj(x)^x x,x*o\. ' i>0 f C R (MU) is a ring, and for each x 6 C R (X) we have a ring homomorphism X^: U 2 *{X) >C R (MU) defined by X x (u) = ujx) for u U 2 *{X). Let AMS (MOS) subject classifications (1970). Primary 55F40, 57D90, S7F25, S7F35; Secondary 57F05, 55F20, 16A24, 14L05, 18D35. Key word and phrases. Complex cobordism, homology, Hopf ring, formal group law, 12spectrum, EilenbergMoore spectral sequence, classifying space. *Both authors partially supported by NSF Copyright 1974, American Mathematical Society
2 1186 D. C. RAVENEL AND W. S. WILSON [November P n eh 2n (CP ;R) be the standard generator. 0(r) = Xp/ ec R (CP ) for rgr. U 2 *CP = f/*[[r] ], the power series ring on the canonical generator TE U 2 CP over the coefficient ring U* = Z[x 2, x 4, ], a polynomial algebra on negative evendimensional generators. We now have b(r) =Y,b/ = x m (T) e c R (uu). (In other words, if we represent T by a map ƒ: GP * WJ, /^(js^) = b n.) Note that?r 0 M /~ ir+mu^ U^ cz U~* 9 and any element a E {ƒ* or /. gives rise to an element [a] EH 0 MU. The [x 2i ] generate the Hopf ring H 0 MU. Under the standard multiplication CP x CP GP, T pulls back to S fl^r/ JT', where a /; G tf* O'/). The ^ are the coefficients of the formal group associated with complex cobordism (see [1]). We use the above multiplication to get our first theorem. THEOREM 1. In C R (MU\ b(r x +r 2 )= Z [arfbirjbfyj. i,j>0 The following is just a restatement of the theorem. THEOREM 1'. In HJWJ\R\ ftfri+' 2 )= * (["if] Hrjt b(r 2 r). V>o COROLLARY 2. log b(r x + r 2 ) = log b(r t ) + log b(r 2 ) in C R (MU) W>0 H If we are working over the integers we can rephrase this to: COROLLARY 2'. log b{r) = b t r in QHJ}AU\Q[r]). Let H R WJ denote the Hopf ring generated by the [x 2i ] b n subject to the relations implied by Theorem 1. and the THEOREM 3. The map H R WJ * H^(MU; R) is a Hopf ting isomorphism. This is still true if we replace R by Z.
3 1974] THE HOPF RING FOR COMPLEX COBORDISM 1187 The main result of [6], where the investigation of the homology of MU k was begun, is now an immediate corollary of Theorem 3. COROLLARY 4. HJ$AU k \ Z) has no torsion. PROOF. H R MU has only evendimensional elements. Theorem 3 is a total information result. Not only does it give a complete description of both products and the coproduct, but, using the results of Switzer [5] on the coaction of the dual of the Steenrod algebra on CP, we can compute the structure of H^MU; F ) as a comodule over the dual to the Steenrod algebra directly from our algebraic construction H R MU. The most difficult part of the proof of Theorem 3 is showing that the map is onto. To do this, we first replace MU by BP, the BrownPeterson spectrum [2], [3]. We can recover information about MU from BP by Quillen's result that U*(X\ p) ^ U* p) <8> Bp * BP*(X). There are, of course, analogues of Theorems 1 4 for the analogous space BP. We have H^MU; F p ) ~ H 0 (MU 9 F p ) H 0 (BP;F p ) #*(B^; F p ) and BP# cz TT^BP ^ Z^p) [v l9 v 2, ], where v s is a 2(p s  l)dimensional generator. From now on, all homology groups will have coefficients in F. An immediate consequence of Theorem 1 is that all the b ( can be expressed in terms of b n, which we denote by b, n y Note that these elements generate the stable homology H^BP. Define where I = (i 1, i 2, ) and / = (/ 0, j\, ) are sequences of nonnegative o ƒ integers, and b, n, denotes the j n th power of b^ or o product. DEFINITION. i/b J is called allowable if under the multiplicative / = paï + p 2 A 1r 4 + p n A Jr + J' (nonneg. seq.), k x < k 2 < < k n implies i n 0. (A k is the sequence with 1 in the kth place and zeros elsewhere.) Let BP( 0 ) denote the zero component of BP. H^BP^ is a Hopf algebra under the * product. Let Q and P denote the indécomposables and primitives respectively. We now have
4 1188 D. C. RAVENEL AND W. S. WILSON [November for THEOREM 5. (a) HJàP^ is a polynomial algebra. (b) The allowable u V (J ± 0) form a basis for QH^BP {oy (c) The v J b with v T b J allowable (J possibly zero) form a basis PH*BP (oy The proof of Theorem 5 is by induction on dimension, using Eilenberg Moore spectral sequences which go from H^BP,^ to H%ÇIBP, 0^ and back to H^BP^ using the periodicity O 2 BP (0) ^ BP and Theorem 6. H^BP is a BP+ module under the o product as BP*CH 0 (BP). We have the ideal (u l9 v 2, ) = / C BP^. The \p]sequence [p](x) can be defined by log^p [p]00 = P log^ppo Also, [p](t) is the image of T when pulled back by the pth power map CP > (CP ) P» CP in BI*CP^BP*[[T]]. (Note, b = b(l).) THEOREM 6. (a) \p] (b) = 0 in C F (BP). (b) Z» =1 N * (^0 = 0 in QH^BP/PQH^BP. The first statement follows from the fact that the pth power map is trivial in H^CP 00. (Recall that our coefficients are all F_.) The second statement follows from the fact that the coefficient of X? in the [p] sequence is a 2(p n l)dimensional generator in BP^. We now state some of the geometric corollaries which follow from our work. U^MU can be identified with the cobordism group of maps (with even codimension) of compact stably almost complex manifolds (see Stong [4] for the analogous statement in the unoriented case). From this point of view our main result is THEOREM 7. UJS/iU is a Hopf ring generated by maps to a point, identity maps, and linear embeddings b n \ CP n ~ l c+ QP n. COROLLARY 8. Any map of compact stably almost complex manifolds is cobordant to one of the form f: U. F t x V t > Af, where f\f t x V t is the composition of the projection F. x V i > V t and an embedding V i + M. REFERENCES 1. J. F. Adams, Quillen's work on formal groups and complex cobordism, Lecture Notes, University of Chicago, E. H. Brown, Jr. and F. P. Peterson, A spectrum whose Z cohomology is the algebra of reduced pth powers, Topology 5 (1966), MR 33 #719.
5 1974] THE HOPF RING FOR COMPLEX COBORDISM D. Quillen, On the formal group laws of unoriented and complex cobordism theory, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 75 (1969), MR 40 # R. E. Stong, Cobordism of maps, Topology 5 (1966), MR 33 # R. M. Switzer, Homology comodules, Invent. Math. 20 (1973), W. S. Wilson, The Slspectrum for BrownPeterson cohomology. I, Comment. Math. Helv. 48 (1973), DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, NEW YORK DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY, PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY Current address (both authors): School of Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540
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