# Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings

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1 Int Jr. of Mathematical Sciences & Applications Vol. 4, No.1, January-June 2014 Copyright Mind Reader Publications ISSN No: Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings Neelima C.A. Department of Mathematics and Statistics SNM College Maliankara Ernakulam (Dt.) , Kerala, India Paul Isaac Centre for Post Graduate Studies and Research Department of Mathematics Bharata Mata College Thrikkakara Kochi , Kerala, India Abstract In this paper, we shall introduce the concept of rough semi-prime ideal, rough bi-ideal and give some properties of anti-homomorphism on these rough ideals. Key words: rough ring, rough ideal, rough semi-prime ideal, rough bi-ideal, rough ring antihomomorphism AMS (2010) Subject Classification: 13Axx, 08A72 1 Introduction The theory of Rough set was proposed by Z. Pawlak in 1982 [8]. It is emerging as a powerful mathematical tool for imperfect data analysis. The rough set theory is an extension of set theory in which a subset of universe is approximated by a pair of ordinary sets, called upper and lower approximations. A key concept in Pawlak rough set model is an equivalence relation, which are the building blocks for the upper and lower approximations. Combining the theory of rough set with abstract algebra is one of the trends in the theory of rough set. Some authors studied the concept of rough algebraic structures. On the other hand, some authors substituted an algebraic structure for the universal set and studied the roughness in algebraic structure. Biswas and Nanda introduced All correspondence to this author only 29

2 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac 2 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac the notion of rough subgroups. The concept of rough ideal in a semigroup was introduced by Kuroki in [7]. And then B. Davvaz [2] studied relationship between rough sets and ring theory and considered ring as a universal set and introduced the notion of rough ideals of a rings. Further studies in this direction is done by Osman Kazanci and B. Davaaz in [6]. The authors investigated the concepts of rough subrings and rough ideals in [5, 4]. Some rough anti-homomorphic properties of a rough group is available in [1]. Anti-homomorphic properties of rough prime ideals and rough primary ideals are studied in [3]. In this paper, we shall introduce the concept of rough semi-prime ideal and rough bi-ideal and explore some properties of homomorphism and anti-homomorphism on these rough ideals. In section 2 we give the basic concepts of a rough Section 3 deals with the concepts of a rough semi-prime In section 4 we define rough bi-ideal and prove some related results. 2 Rough Ideal Throughout this paper R is a ring and θ is an equivalence relation on R. 2.1 Definition. Let θ be an equivalence relation on R, then θ is called a full congruence relation if (a, b) θ implies(a + x, b + x), (ax, bx), (xa, xb) θ for all x R. A full congruence relation θ on R is called complete if [ab] θ = { xy R : x [a] θ,y [b] θ } = [a] θ [b] θ 2.2 Definition. Let θ be a full congruence relation on R and A a subset of R. Then the sets θ (A) = { x R : [x] θ A} and θ (A) = {x R : [x] θ A φ} are called, respectively, the θ - lower and θ - upper approximations of the set A. θ(a) = (θ (A), θ (A)) is called a rough set with respect to θ if θ (A) θ (A). 2.3 Theorem. [6] Let φ be a homomorphism of a ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let θ 2 be a full congruence relation on R 2. Let A be a subset of R 1. Then 1. θ 1 = {(a, b) : (φ(a), φ(b)) θ 2 } is a full congruence relation on R φ(θ1 (A)) = θ 2 (φ(a)) 3. φ(θ 1 (A) θ 2 (φ(a)). If φ is one to one φ(θ 1 (A)) = θ 2 (φ(a)) 2.4 Theorem. Let φ be an anti-homomorphism of a ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let θ 2 be a full congruence relation on R 2. Let A be a subset of R 1. Then 1. θ 1 = {(a, b) : (φ(a), φ(b)) θ 2 } is a full congruence relation on R 1. 30

3 Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings... Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings 3 2. φ(θ1 (A)) = θ 2 (φ(a)) 3. φ(θ 1 (A) θ 2 (φ(a)). If φ is one to one φ(θ 1 (A)) = θ 2 (φ(a)) Proof. The proof is similar to the proof of Theorem Theorem. [2] For every approximation space (U, θ) and every subsets A, B of U, we have, If A B, then θ (A) θ (B)) and θ (A) θ (B) 2.6 Theorem. For every subsets A, B of R and a full congruence θ in R, θ (A)θ (B) θ (AB). Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.2 in [7]. 2.7 Theorem. For every subsets A, B of R and complete congruence θ in R, θ (A)θ (B) θ (AB). Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.3 in [7]. 2.8 Theorem. [6] Let θ be a full congruence relation on R. If I is an ideal of R, then θ (I) is an ideal of R. 2.9 Theorem. [6] Let θ be a full congruence relation on R and I be an ideal of R. If θ (I) φ, then it is equal to I. Remark. From here onwards θ 1 denotes a full congruence relation on R 1 and θ 2 a full congruence relation on R Theorem. [6] Let φ : R 1 R 2 be a homomorphism from a ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let A be a subset of R 1. Then θ1 (A) is an ideal of R 1 if and only if θ2 (φ(a)) is an ideal of R Theorem. [6] Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 to a ring R 2 and let A be a subset of R 1. Then θ 1 (A) is an ideal of R 1 if and only if θ 2 (φ(a)) is an ideal of R 2. 3 Rough Semi-prime Ideal 3.1 Definition. An ideal P R is said to be semi-prime if for any ideal A in R A n P implies A P, for some positive integer n. A subset P of a ring R is an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R if θ (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R. A subset P of a ring R is a lower rough semi-prime ideal of R if θ (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R. Let P be a subset of a ring R and (θ (P ), θ (P )) a rough set. If θ (P ) and θ (P ) are semi-prime ideals of R, then we call (θ (P ), θ (P )) a rough semi-prime 3.2 Theorem. Let θ be a complete congruence relation on R. If P is a semi-prime ideal of R such that θ (P ) R, then it is an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R. 31

4 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac 4 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac Proof. First of all note that P is an ideal by definition of a semi-prime By Theorem 2.8, we have θ (P ) is an ideal of R. For any ideal A of R, assume A n θ (P ). Let x A. Then x n A n. This implies, x n θ (P ). Then [x n ] P = [x] n P φ. So there exists a y P which is of the form y = a n, a [x]. Since P is a semi-prime ideal of R, we have a P. Thus [x] P φ. So x θ (P ). This implies A θ (P ). Thus θ (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R. Therefore P is an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R. 3.3 Theorem. Let θ be a full congruence relation on R and P be a semi-prime ideal of R. If θ (P ) φ, then θ (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R. Proof. The proof is straightforward by theorem Corollary. If P is a semi-prime ideal of R and θ be a complete congruence relation on R, then P is a rough semi-prime ideal of R. Proof. This follows from Theorems 3.2 and Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be a subset of R 1. If θ1 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1, then φ(θ1 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2. Proof. By theorems 2.10 and 2.3, φ(θ1 (P )) is an ideal of R 2. Let A be an ideal in R 2 such that A n φ(θ1 (P )). Then φ 1 (A n ) θ1 (P ) (φ 1 (A)) n θ 1 (P ) φ 1 (A) θ 1 (P ) ( φ 1 is an homomorphism) ( θ 1 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal) A φ(θ1 (P )) Therefore, φ(θ1 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be a subset of R 1. If θ 1 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1, then φ(θ 1 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2. Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem Theorem. Isomorphic image of an upper rough semi-prime ideal is an upper rough semiprime Proof. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R 1. Then by definition, θ1 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1. By Theorem (3.5), φ(θ1 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2. By Theorem (2.3), θ 2 (φ(p )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2. Therefore, φ(p ) is an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R 2. Hence the theorem is proved. 3.8 Theorem. Isomorphic image of a lower rough semi-prime ideal is a lower rough semi-prime 32

5 Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings... Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings 5 Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem Theorem. Isomorphic image of a rough semi-prime ideal is a rough semi-prime Proof. This follows from Theorems 3.7 and Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be a subset of R 2. If θ2 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2, then φ 1 (θ2 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1. Proof. By theorems 2.9 and 2.3, φ 1 (θ2 (P )) is an ideal of R 1. Let A be an ideal in R 1 such that A n φ 1 (θ2 (P )). Then φ(a n ) θ2 (P ) (φ(a)) n θ 2 (P ) φ(a) θ 2 (P ) ( φ is a homomorphism) ( θ 2 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal) A φ 1 (θ2 (P )) Therefore, φ 1 (θ2 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from a ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be a subset of R 2. If θ 2 (P ) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2, then φ 1 (θ 2 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1. Proof. The proof is similar to the proof of Theorem Theorem. Isomorphic pre-image of an upper rough semi-prime ideal is an upper rough semi-prime Proof. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be an isomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let P be an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R 2. Then by definition, θ2 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 2. By Theorem 3.10, φ 1 (θ2 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1. By Theorem (2.3), θ1 (φ 1 (P )) is a semi-prime ideal of R 1. Therefore, φ 1 (P ) is an upper rough semi-prime ideal of R 1. Hence the theorem is proved Theorem. Isomorphic pre-image of a lower rough semi-prime ideal is a lower rough semiprime Proof. The proof is similar to the proof of Theorem Theorem. Isomorphic pre-image of a rough semi-prime ideal is a rough semi-prime Proof. This follows from Theorems 3.13 and The following theorems can be proved in a similar way as the corresponding theorems with homomorphism. 33

6 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac 6 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac 3.15 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic image of an upper rough semi-prime ideal is an upper rough semi-prime 3.16 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic image of a lower rough semi-prime ideal is a lower rough semiprime 3.17 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic image of a rough semi-prime ideal is a rough semi-prime 3.18 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic pre-image of an upper rough semi-prime ideal is an upper rough semi-prime 3.19 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic pre-image of a lower rough semi-prime ideal is a lower rough semi-prime 3.20 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic pre-image of a rough semi-prime ideal is a rough semi-prime 4 Rough Bi-Ideal 4.1 Definition. A subring A of a ring R is called a bi-ideal of R if ARA A. A subset A of a ring R is an upper rough bi-ideal of R if θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. A subset A of a ring R is an lower rough bi-ideal of R if θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. Let A be a subset of a ring R and (θ (A), θ (A)) a rough set. If θ (A) and θ (A) are bi-ideals of R, then we call (θ (A), θ (A)) a rough bi- 4.2 Theorem. Let θ be a full congruence relation on R. If A is a bi-ideal of R, then it is an upper rough bi-ideal of R. Proof. Let A be a bi-ideal of R. Then ARA A. By Theorem 2.5, we have θ (ARA) θ (A). Now θ (A)Rθ (A) = θ (A)θ (R)θ (A). By theorem 2.6, we get θ (A)Rθ (A) θ (ARA). This implies θ (A)Rθ (A) θ (A). Thus θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. Therefore A is an upper rough bi-ideal of R. 4.3 Theorem. Let θ be a complete congruence relation on R. If A is a bi-ideal of R, then θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. Proof. Let A be a bi-ideal of R. Then ARA A. By Theorem 2.5, we have θ (ARA) θ (A). Now θ (A)Rθ (A) = θ (A)θ (R)θ (A). By theorem 2.7, we get θ (A)Rθ (A) θ (ARA). This implies θ (A)Rθ (A) θ (A). Thus θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. 4.4 Corollary. If A is a bi-ideal of R and θ a complete congruence relation on R, then A is a rough bi-ideal of R. Proof. This follows from Theorems 4.2 and

7 Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings... Rough Semi Prime Ideals and Rough Bi-Ideals in Rings Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be a homomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let A be a subset of R 1. If θ 1 (A) is a bi-ideal of R 1, then φ(θ 1 (A)) is a bi- ideal of R 2. Proof. Let θ 1 (A) be a bi-ideal of R 1. Then θ 1 (A)R 1θ 1 (A) θ 1 (A) φ(θ 1 (A)R 1θ 1 (A)) φ(θ 1 (A)) φ(θ1 (A))φ(R 1)φ(θ1 (A)) φ(θ 1 (A)) ( φ is a homomorphism) φ(θ1 (A))R 2φ(θ1 (A)) φ(θ 1 (A)) ( φ is a onto) Therefore, φ(θ1 (A)) is a bi- ideal of R Theorem. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be a homomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let A be a subset of R 1. If θ 1 (A) is a bi-ideal of R 1, then φ(θ 1 (A)) is a bi- ideal of R 2. Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem. Homomorphic image of an upper rough bi-ideal is an upper rough bi- Proof. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be a homomorphism from a ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let A be an upper rough bi-ideal of R 1. Then by definition, θ1 (A) is a bi-ideal of R 1. By Theorem 4.5, φ(θ1 (A)) is a bi-ideal of R 2. By Theorem 2.3, θ 2 (φ(a)) is a bi- ideal of R 2. Therefore, φ(a) is an upper rough bi-ideal of R 2, proving the theorem. 4.8 Theorem. Isomorphic image of a lower rough bi-ideal is a lower rough bi- Proof. The proof is similar to that of Corollary. Isomorphic image of a rough bi-ideal is a rough bi- Proof. This follows from Theorems 4.7 and Theorem. Homomorphic pre-image of an upper rough bi-ideal is an upper rough bi- Proof. Let φ : R 1 R 2 be a homomorphism from ring R 1 onto a ring R 2 and let A be an upper rough bi-ideal of R 2. Then θ2 (A ) is a bi-ideal of R 2. Then by definition, θ2 (A ) R 2 θ2 (A ) θ2 (A ). Now φ 1 (θ2 (A ))R 1 φ 1 (θ2 (A )) = φ 1 (θ2 (A )R 2 θ2 (A )). This implies φ 1 (θ2 (A ))R 1 φ 1 (θ2 (A )) φ 1 (θ2 (A )). Thus, φ 1 (θ2 (A )) is a bi-ideal of R 1. Hence the theorem is proved Theorem. Isomorphic pre-image of a lower rough bi-ideal is a lower rough bi- Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem. Isomorphic pre-image of a rough bi-ideal is a rough bi- 35

8 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac 8 Neelima C.A. & Paul Isaac Proof. This follows from Theorems 4.10 and The following theorems can be proved in similar way as the corresponding theorems in homomorphism Theorem. Anti-homomorphic image of an upper rough bi-ideal is an upper rough bi Theorem. Anti-isomorphic image of a lower rough bi-ideal is a lower rough bi Theorem. Anti-isomorphic image of a rough bi-ideal is a rough bi Theorem. Anti-homomorphic pre-image of an upper rough bi-ideal is an upper rough bi 4.17 Theorem. Anti-isomorphic pre-image of a lower rough bi-ideal is a lower rough bi Corollary. Anti-isomorphic pre-image of a rough bi-ideal is a rough bi Theorem. Every rough left (right) ideal is a rough bi- Proof. Let A be a rough left ideal of R. Then θ (A) and θ (A) are left ideals of R. Now θ (A) R θ (A) θ (A).θ (A). This implies θ (A) R θ (A) θ (A). Thus, θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. Similarly, θ (A) is a bi-ideal of R. Therefore, A is a rough bi-ideal of R. The proof of the other part is similar. References [1] Neelima C.A. and Paul Isaac. Rough anti-homomorphism on a rough group. Communicated. [2] B. Davvaz. Roughness in rings. Inform. Sci., 164: , [3] Paul Isaac and Neelima C.A. Anti-homomorphism on rough prime ideals and rough primary ideals. Communicated. [4] Paul Isaac and Neelima C.A. Rough ideals and their properties. Jl. Global Research in Math. Archives, 1(6):90 98, June [5] Paul Isaac and Neelima C.A. Rough subrings and their properties. Int. Jl. of Math. Sci., 12(3-4): , July-December [6] Osman Kazanci and B. Davvaz. On the structure of rough prime (primary) ideals and rough fuzzy prime (primary) ideals in commutative rings. Information Sciences, 178: , [7] Nobuaki Kuroki. Rough ideals in semigroups. Information Sciences, 100: , [8] Z. Pawlak. Rough sets. Int. Jl. Inform. Comput. Sci., 11: ,

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