HE in Finland. Birgitta Vuorinen Counsellor of Education Department for Higher Education and Science

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1 HE in Finland Birgitta Vuorinen Counsellor of Education Department for Higher Education and Science Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

2 Changing environment

3 Challenging and changing environment Changing drivers of R&D&I&HEIpolicies: -Globalisation, emerging countries, emerging knowhow -Grand societal and Environmental Challenges -Financial crises -Need of a broad based innovation concept and multidisciplinary approach -National policies versus European policies? National versus regional policies? Local and organisational strategies? Lisbon Treaty Global environment Emerging economies, grand challenges, global networking EUROPE Financial crisis coherence and quality? EU/ ER(I)A Joint efforts such as JTIs, ETPs, JP, ERC, Horizon2020, Bologna process/european Higher Education Area POLICIES A Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth EU2020 Strategy Innovation Union flagship Budget Review, Financial Regulations Different actors and levels: European, national, regional, local, organisational Changing mechanisms in STI&HEI: - Researcher careers/ Tenure track -Research infrastructures -Modern universities and RTOs -Joint programmes and joint degrees -Distribution of knowledge -Joint pooling of funding (virtual common pots, real common pots, others) -Joint evaluation and assessment activities -Virtual learning

4

5 GDP, change in volume, per cent

6

7 Education in Finland

8 Ammattikorkeakoulut Perusaste Toinen aste Korkea-asete Lukiot Yliopistot 1 Ylempi ammattikorkeakoulututkint työkokemus o 3 v. 4 3 Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto 2 1 Erikoisammattitutkinto työkokemus Tohtorin tutkinto, lisensiaatin tutkinto Suomen koulutus- ja tutkintojärjestelmä Ylempi korkeakoulututkinto Alempi korkeakoulututkinto Ammattitutkinto Ylioppilastutkinto Lukion oppimäärä Peruskoulut Alakoulut, päiväkodit ym. Perusopetus (perusopetuksen oppimäärä) Esiopetus Ammatillinen perustutkinto Valmistavat ja valmentavat Ammatilliset oppilaitokset työkokemus/ osaaminen

9 Duration FORMAL EDUCATION IN FINLAND ISCED - classification 6 Doctoral degrees Licentiate - degrees Universities 5 A Master's degrees Bachelor's degrees Universities Polytechnic master's degrees Polytechnics Work experience 3 years Polytechnic bachelor's degrees Polytechnics in years Matriculation examination General upper secondary schools Special vocational qualifications * Vocational Further vocational qualifications * qualifications * Vocational institutions *Also available as apprenticeship training 2 & 1 Basic education, year -olds Comprehensive schools 0 Pre -primary education, 6 -year -olds ISCED -classification Pre -primary education 1 2 Primary education or lower secondary education 3 Upper secondary education 4 Post -secondary non -tertiary education 5 First stage of tertiary education 6 Second stage of tertiary education

10 Selected higher education facts about Finland Population of 5,4 million Higher education institution network covers the populated parts of the country 14 universities (four in the great Helsinki area) 25 polytechnics Student enrollment altogether ca University (blue) Polytechnic (green) Research institute (red)

11 The Finnish Higher Education System The Finnish higher education system comprises two parallel sectors University sector 14 research universities Student enrollment , ( FTE) of which doctoral students All institutions funded by the state Polytechnic sector [universities of applied sciences] (est. in the mid- 1990s) 25 institutions Student enrollment , ( FTE) Institutions partly funded by the state, partly by municipalities Regional development tasks Bachelor degrees (vocational and professional degrees) (Professional) Master s degrees in selected fields

12 EUA: University autonomy in Europe 2010 Finnish universities scores well in autonomy comparison: - organisational autonomy: highly autonomous (3.) - financial autonomy: medium low autonomy (15.) - staffing autonomy: highly autonomous (6.) - academic autonomy: highly autonomous (5.)

13 The Finnish Higher Education System - degrees by level

14 Steering and Funding of HEIs

15 Steering and funding of HEIs Legislation and norms Programme of the Finnish Government Education and research - Development Plan MoE steering Negotiations and performance agreements Information exchange State budget State funding for HEIs Universities 1,8 bn Polytechnics 0,9 bn + Public research funding allocated to universities (Academy of Finland & Tekes) 0,3 bn Tuition-free system

16 Performance Agreements Structure of the agreement between MoE and HEIs 1. Objectives set for the higher education system as a whole Verbal goals formulated in dialogue with HEIs Comprise the statutory duties, structural development, quality, competitiveness, effectiveness, internationalization, the viewpoint of staff and students, and the costeffectiveness and productivity of the activities. 2. Mission, Profile and Focus Areas of the HEI 3. Key Development Measures 1-5 projects per HEI linked to the implementation of the HEI's strategy 4. Financing The government core funding in total 5. Monitoring and Evaluation

17 Quantitative targets for universities UNIVERSITIES Target Bachelor s degrees Master s degrees PhDs Foreign degree students Exchange students (incoming & outgoing, > 3 months)

18 Quantitative targets for polytechnics POLYTECHNICS Target Polytechnic degrees Vocational teacher education Polytechnic Masters Foreign degree students Exchange students (incoming & outgoing, > 3 months)

19 Performance indicators (2) Universities Masters' degrees/ teaching and research personnel Doctoral degrees/ professors Scientific publications / teaching and research personnel Percentage of students who have passed more than 55 study credits Percentage of competive funding from the university total funding Staff international mobility / teaching and research personnel

20 Performance indicators (2) Polytechnics Polytechnic degrees/ teaching and research personnel Percentage of students who have passed more than 55 study credits Study credits passed in R&D-projects / students Publications, public artistic and design activities, audiovisual material and ICT software / teaching and research personnel Staff international mobility / teaching and research personnel Percentage of external R&D-funding from the polytechnic total funding Percentage of chargeable services from the polytechnic total funding

21 Monitoring The HEIs must provide the information requested by the Ministry for the purpose of evaluation, development, statistics and other information needed for monitoring and steering insofar as this information is not otherwise available. The HEIs are expected to present correct information on their performance and finances in a way that enables their progress be evaluated against the set goals. Development is annually monitored through indicators which gauge effectiveness and quality The universities must manage their finances efficiently and use their resources to good effect From 2010 universities close the books according to the accounting legislation universities' financial statements are public documents The Ministry of Education gives feedback to the HEIs on their activities and development needs during the agreement period. The feedback procedure is used to steer and monitor the implementation of higher education policy objectives during the agreement period. Feedback is given during the intervening years between negotiations.

22 Evaluation The HEIs are responsible for the quality of their education, research and other activities, and for their continuous development and utilisation. The quality of performance is indirectly taken into account in the MoE indicator targets and in the monitoring of their attainment. Regular evaluations and external audits of quality assurance systems are undertaken to enhance the quality and impact of the educational, research and artistic activities of the universities. The evaluations are organised by the Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council (FINHEEC), and the Academy of Finland. The findings and reports of the evaluations are public The universities, the National Union of University Students in Finland (SYL) and the Ministry of Education and Culture are developing a national university student feedback system.

23 Developing HE

24 Higher Education Higher education network is still too fragmented, structural development to be continued starting in 2013, an art university was created though a merger of the Sibelius Academy, the Academy of Fine Arts and the Theatre Academy to enhance the quality and efficiency of higher education, measures will be taken to promote joint use of facility services and teacher resources across institutional boundaries Polytechnics to be reformed the steering of polytechnics based on financing and statutes will be reformed from the beginning of 2014 to expedite their structural reform and to improve the quality and impact of their operations. operating licences of polytechnics will be revised from the beginning of 2014 Quality education expedites entry into the labour market the reform of higher education admissions and study structures by the end of 2015 in order to expedite entry into higher education first-time applicants' chances of being admitted to be improved Promotion of researcher training and research careers the annual target for the number of doctorates is 1,600. universities will shift the focus from researcher training to the development of researcher careers (tenure tracks) Measures will be taken to improve conditions for basic research in universities and for innovation and product development in polytechnics Great emphasis on internationalisation of HEIs

25 University reform (2010) The Universities Act (558/2009) includes provisions on the mission, administration, operational funding and steering of universities, and matters relating to research and education, students and personnel universities became legal persons separate from the State, either as corporations under public law or foundations under the Foundations Act. Universities took the place of the State as employers The Ministry of Education and Culture ensures by means of steering that university activities conform to the higher education policy aims set by Parliament and the Government. Lighter and more strategic level performance agreement procedure between MoE and universities Evaluated short term results of the evaluation indicate improvements especially in strategic, economic and internal management and in co-operation with surrounding society

26 University reform (2010) Aims of the university reform Greater autonomy Stronger financial and administrative status: independent legal persons and supplied with sufficient capital. Greater latitude with finances: donations, income from capital and business activities As legal persons, the universities are better able to operate with the surrounding society. Having their own capital, the universities will have more scope for operating based on their own decisions. Stronger community relations e.g. external members of the board Reform did not change The freedom of research, art and education Self-government and academic decision-making Research and higher education remain as the main tasks of the universities Education leading to a degree free of charge The government continues to be responsible for funding the public duties of the universities

27 Universities' core funding formula reform 2013 Joint working group of the Ministry and Finnish universities proposal published November 2011, act passed by government April 2012 Vision 2020 for the Finnish universities Improved quality Deeper internationalisation Clearer profiles Greater efficiency Stronger impact New core funding formula from 2013 A step towards the vision Improved steering effect Limited number of indicators Enhanced transparency Funding allocated to universities in a lump sum

28 Universities core funding from 2013

29 Universities' core funding formula review 2015 Review of the 2013 funding formula Aim is to improve quality aspect of the model Essentially the same joint working group which made proposition for 2013 funding formula Data from the new quality-based Publication Forum will be included to the funding formula Federation of Finnish Learned Societies has completed the Publication Forum Project at the initiative of the Universities Finland (UNIFI) Data from new student feedback system will be included to the funding formula In January 2012, Universities Finland (UNIFI) set up a working group to prepare a national student feedback survey for universities Funding formula revision will come into effect 2015

30 The polytechnic reform Aims of the Polytechnic Reform To give the polytechnics a stronger position to meet the changes and challenges of the working life, society and regions As independent legal persons polytechnics will have more independent status and more flexibility to better react and response to the needs of the surrounding society To enhance the quality and effectiveness of teaching and RDI To strengthen their role within the system of innovation To ensure international competitiveness of the polytechnic system Efforts will be made to gain the commitment of other actors in society to support the polytechnics' mission

31 Timetable and stages The polytechnic reform The 1st strage of the reform is expected to take effect on 1 January 2014 (amendments to legislation) concerning: new funding model new operating licenses updated educational responsibilities amendments currently discussed in the parliament In later stage: transferring the polytechnic financing from local authorities to the government change of the legal personality of polytechnics

32 Polytechnics core funding from 2014 (draft)

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