1 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Developments & Challenges Prof. Dr. Mehmet Durman 1. International Conference on Cooperation in HE within EURAS Universities Union Istanbul Aydın University, Istanbul, May 09-10, 2013
2 2 OVERVIEW A Brief Introduction to the Higher Education in Turkey Bologna Issues and Current State of Developments in the Turkish Higher Education Further Steps & Challenges Beyond 2013
3 3 OVERVIEW A Brief Introduction to the Higher Education in Turkey Bologna Issues and Current State of Developments in the Turkish Higher Education Further Steps & Challenges Beyond 2013
4 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Organisation & Structure 4 UPPER BODIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION: The Council of Higher Education (CoHE, YÖK) The Inter-university Council (IUC, ÜAK). CoHE is a fully autonomous corporate public body, which has no political or Governmental affiliation and composed of 20 members, responsible for Planning Coordination Governance and Supervision of higher education within the provisions set forth in the Constitution (Articles 130 and 131) of the Turkish Republic and the Higher Education Law (Law No. 2547). ÜAK is an academic advisory and a decision-making body in some academic matters and composed of rectors and one elected professor of each HEI.
5 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions 5 Turkish Higher Education was unified in 1982 by Law Number, with changes in time designating three types of HEIs to be established as: State Universities Foundation Universities (private, non-profit) Two-year Foundation Vocational Schools (private, non-profit) and all these are to be governed by the same higher education law. Universities are founded by law to be enacted by the Parliament upon the recommendation of the CoHE to the MoNE and the approval of the cabinet. The faculties, graduate schools (institutes) and the four-year (vocational/professional) higher schools are founded by the decision of the Cabinet. Establishment of the two-year vocational higher schools as well as the opening of degree programmes with in the academic units at any level are subjected to ratification by the CoHE upon application of the HEIs.
6 * ÖSYM Statistics, HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions 6 The # of universities by years* Since 2001, the number of state universities has increased from 53 to103, that of foundation universities from 23 to 65 and in total from 76 to168. The increase was almost two and half fold.
7 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrolment 7 The # of students by years* Since 2001, student enrollments in HEIs have increased by almost three-fold. However, the share of number of students studying in (Associate s & Bachelor s) degree programmes of distance education of the Open Education Faculty of Anadolu University in the total numbers of students studying at the same level of study programmes in all HEIs is very high. As for 2012, it was about 47% and this should be reduced. * OSYM Statistics, 2011.
8 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrolment 8 The Gross Enrolmment Ratio (GER) in HE in the Age Group of * The target for the GER in HE in the 9 th Five Year Plan between 2009 and 2013 was 48%. This has been already achieved and over exceeded. * ÖSYM HE, TÜİK Population & MoNE Statistics. The number of students enrolled at graduate level studies are not included in the data.
9 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrolment 9 Student Gender Distribution in HE in 2012 Equality between women and men is one of the fundamental principles of Turkish HE and a good balance between female and male students in HE has been achieved. *OSYM Statistics, 2011.
10 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrolment 10 Share of Students at HE Degree Levels in 2012 The share of the graduate students in the higher education is about 6 %. It is low and needs to be increased. *OSYM Statistics, 2011; ** Data includes students in Medical Specialisation third-cycle studies
11 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Student Enrolment 11 Share of Students at Different Types o f HEIs in out of 168 universities are foundation universities but only 5% of the students are enrolled in foundation universities. * ÖSYM Statistics, 2011.
12 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Academic & Teaching Staff 12 Academic & Teaching Staff by Years Since 2001, the increase in the number of academic and teaching stuff was about 60%. With this increase, number of students per teaching staff (excluding open education) has decreased to approximately the ratio of 20 approaching to the that of the OECD Average ratio of 16. But the imbalance among the fields of studies particularly in newly emerging fields still exists and this is a concern of the CoHE & HEIs to compensate the gap in favour of those lagging behind. * ÖSYM Statistics, 2011.
13 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Programmes & Qualifications 13 Higher education in Turkey comprises all post-secondary education programmes, consisting of the three main cycles and the short cycle in terms of the terminology of the Bologna Process as follows: Universities consist of: Graduate Schools (Institutes) offering Master s (second cycle) and Doctoral (third cycle) degree programmes & qualifications Faculties offering bachelor s degree (first cycle) programmes & qualifications Four-year schools offering bachelor s degree (first cycle) programmes & qualifications with a vocational emphasis, Two-year vocational schools offering associate s degree (short cycle programmes & qualifications of a strictly vocational nature. Medical specialty training programmes equivalent to Doctorate level programmes are carried out within the faculties of medicine, university hospitals and the training hospitals owned by the Ministry of Health and the Social Insurance Organization.
14 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Access to Higher Education 14 For National Students: Admission to undergraduate degree programmes is centralized and based on a nation wide two-stage examination administered by the Student Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM). Admission to postgraduate programmes are directly conducted by the HEIs within the farmeworks of the publicly available national and institutional regulations. For Foreign Students: Admission of foreign students to undergraduate degree programmes was used to be centrally managed via an examination called the Examination for Foreign Students (YÖS) organized by ÖSYM by However, since 2010, admission of foreign students to the programmes at all levels of HE can be done by direct applications of candidates to the HEIs and assessment by the HEIs within the farmeworks of the publicly available national and institutional regulations.
15 HIGHER EDUCATION IN TURKEY Higher Education Institutions: Financing & Funding 15 The finance of HE in Turkey: Public financing is for public universities, Private financing is adopted for foundation universities. The major source of income of public universities is the funds allocated through the annual state budget. In addition to the annual budget, provided by the state, each university has three more sources of income. Income from the services provided by the university, such as patient care in university hospitals, and contract research, which is called a floating capital fund, Income from Student tuitions towards highly subsidized services, Research fund made up of a lump sum grant from the state-provided budget plus a portion of the income from the a floating capital fund and from earmarked projects given by the State Planning Organization. Foundation Universities have three different sources of funding: Contribution of founding foundation, Student tuitions, Government aids. The proportional shares of these sources of funding vary from university to university.
16 16 OVERVIEW A Brief Introduction to the Higher Education in Turkey Bologna Issues and Current State of Developments in the Turkish Higher Education Further Steps & Challenges Beyond 2013
17 BOLOGNA PROCESS AND TURKEY 17 Turkey joined the Bologna Process in 2001 affirming its commitment the general principles of the Process Since then actively involved in reforming the higher education in Turkey in line with the requirements set forth by its action lines Bologna Reforms forward has gained a momentum particularly after 2005.
18 BOLOGNA SCORECARD OF TURKEY BERGEN 2005 TO BUCHAREST BERGEN 2005 LONDON 2007 LEUVEN 2009 BUCHAREST DEGREE SYSTEM EXCELLENT (4.67) VERY GOOD (4.33) VERY GOOD (4.33) VERY GOOD(4.66) Stage of implementation of the first and second cycle EXCELLENT (5) EXCELLENT (5) EXCELLENT (5) EXCELLENT (5) Access to the next cycle VERY GOOD (4) EXCELLENT (5) EXCELLENT (5) EXCELLENT (5) Implementation of NQF - GOOD (3) GOOD (3) VERY GOOD (4) 2. QUALITY ASSURANCE SOME PROG. (2.00) VERY GOOD (4.00) VERY GOOD (3.66) SOME PROG (1.66) National Implementation of ESQ for QA in the EHEA SOME PROG. (2.00) EXCELLENT (5) - - Stage of development of external quality assurance system SOME PROG. (2.00) VERY GOOD (4) GOOD (3) GOOD (3) Level of student participation SOME PROG. (2.00) VERY GOOD (4) EXCELLENT (5) POOR (1) Level of international participation SOME PROG. (2.00) GOOD (3) VERY GOOD (4) POOR (1) 3. RECOGNITION OF DEGREES AND STUDY PERIODS VERY GOOD (3.67) VERY GOOD (4.33) VERY GOOD (4.00) GOOD (3.00) Diploma supplement VERY GOOD (4) VERY GOOD (4) VERY GOOD (4) GOOD (3) Lisbon Convention GOOD (3) VERY GOOD (4) EXCELLENT (5) - ECTS VERY GOOD (4) EXCELLENT (5) GOOD (3) GOOD (3) 4. LIFE LONG LEARNING - GOOD (3.00) POOR (1.00) POOR (1.00) Recognition of prior learning - GOOD (3) POOR (1) POOR (1) 5. JOINT DEGREES - EXCELLENT (5.00) - - Establishment and recognition of joint degrees - EXCELLENT (5) - - AVERAGE IN TOTAL GOOD (3,30) VERY GOOD (4.16) GOOD (3,80) GOOD (2.88) 18
19 BOLOGNA PROCESS & TURKEY 19 Bologna Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 2. Quality Assurance: 1.66 National implementation of ESG for QA in the EHEA Stage of development of external QA system Level of student participation Level of international participation 3. Recognition of diploma and education periods: 3.00 Diploma supplement Lisbon Recognition Convention ECTS 4. Life Long Learning: 1 Recognition of prior learning Bucharest Joint Degrees: 5 Establishment and recognition of joint degrees
20 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 5 Turkish Higher Education System already meets three main cycles of HE: Associate s Degrees (2 years, 120 ECTS) Bachelor s Degrees (4 years, 240 ECTS) Graduate Degrees: o Masters (min. 1,5 years, 90 ECTS) o Doctorate (min 3 years, 180 ECTS) Except for one-tier programmes: o Dentistry (5 years, 300 ECTS), o Veterinary Medicine (5 years, 300 ECTS) o Medicine Programmes (6 years, 360 ECTS) 20
21 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle 5 Implementation of National Qualifications Framework There are no obstacles for students to access to the next cycle upon completing first cycle successfully and meeting the requirements for the second and/or third cycle. However, procedures need to be more transparent nation wide, particularly for the multidisciplinary study areas. Expected to be more transparent upon the full implementation of the national qualifications framework in progress. 21
22 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 3 Development of the Turkish National Qualifications Framework has been the major success within the framework of the Bologna Implementations in Turkey not only because it forms the starting point and the core of the programme development, student/learner-centred approach of education and transparency at the both national and international levels but it also provides a basis for assessment and monitoring of study programmes, which an integrated quality assurance approach for both internal and external quality assurance at a programme or institutional level should take in to account. 22
23 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 3 STATE OF DEVELOPMENT OF NQF FOR HE (TQF-HE) 1. Decision to start by CoHE: April Setting the agenda: Organising the process (Commission, Working Groups): Designing Profile (levels, descriptors, credits): Consultation and national discussion: Approval: Partially in May 2009, Fully in Jan Administrative set-up: 2011 (ongoing work) 8. Implement. at institutional/programme level: Started in Inclusion of qualifications in TYYÇ (Quality Assurance.): Self-certifications of compatibility with Europen frameworks: TYYÇ Web site: established in
24 Primary & Secondary School Levels Higher Education Levels 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 3 EQF-LLL TQF TQF-HE ECTS EQF Level 8 TYÇ Level 8 Doctorate EQF Level 7 TYÇ Level 7 Master s EQF Level 6 TYÇ Level 6 Bachelor s 240 EQF Level 5 TYÇ Level 5 Associate s 120 EQF Level 4 TYÇ Level 4 EQF Level 3 EQF Level 2 EQF Level 1 TYÇ Level 3 TYÇ Level 2 TYÇ Level 1 24
25 1. Easily readable and comparable academic degree system: /3 cycle ( Bachelor, Master and Doctorate) higher education system Access to next cycle Implementation of National Qualifications Framework 3 IN BRIEF: Level descriptors for short, first, second and third cycles were prepared. Reference level descriptors: EQF LLL Two main profiles for the NQF defined Fields of Education in parallel to ISCED 97 defined and field -specific LOs for 22 fields of education prepared. Descriptors were shared with universities and other related stakeholders Representatives from 55 NGOs including trade unions and 18 different Ministries, student councils) Final version approved by CoHE in January 2010 Pilot Implementation started at 4 universities in 2011 All other HEIs initiated the process. 25
26 2. Quality Assurance 1.66 Stage of development of external QA system Level of student participation 1 Level of international participation 1 3 BACKGROUND: Quality assurance has firmly been on the agenda of many higher education institutions in Turkey at least for the last decade, mainly spurred on by requirements arising from international accountability, recognition of academic programmes and, more recently, from those of Bologna process. Internal & international quality assessment exercises implemented: 43 engineering programmes of 4 universities by ABET (Accred. Board for Enginnering & Technology of the USA) since engineering programmes of 22 universities by MÜDEK- The Engineering Evaluation Board formed by the Conference of Engineering Deans in 2002, a member of ENAEE and EUR-ACE project, recognised by Washington Accord. Other 5 quality assurance agencies started accreditation activities in other fields of HE. 31 universities evaluated by EUA (European Univ. Assoc.) within IEP since
27 2. Quality Assurance 1.66 Stage of development of external QA system Level of student participation 1 Level of international participation 1 3 A new set of regulations on Quality Assurance: Enacted on September 20, 2005 by Higher Education Council (YÖK) in line with European Standards & Guidelines Evaluating and improving the quality of educational, instructional and research activities as well as administrative services Recognition of independent external assessment 27
28 2. Quality Assurance 1.66 Stage of development of external QA system Level of student participation 1 Level of international participation 1 3 At National Level: The Commission for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvements (YÖDEK) consisting of nine academic members elected by the Interuniversity Board and one representitative of National Student Council. At Institutional Level: Councils for Academic Assessment and Quality Improvements (ADEKs) are responsible for coordinating and conducting the processes. 28
29 2. Quality Assurance 1.66 Stage of development of external QA system Level of student participation 1 Level of international participation 1 3 Within the framework of the new regulations: YÖDEK issued standards and guidelines and defined the processes and indicators necessary for maintenance of the activities for academic assessment and quality improvement in HEIs. These include the processes of: Academic Assessment and Quality Improvement Strategic Planning Institutional Assessment Periodic Review and Improvement 29
30 3. Recognition of diploma and education periods Diploma supplement 3 Lisbon Recognition Convention ECTS 3 First attempts were started in ECTS and DS compulsory implementation by CoHE as of Free of charge in one of the three main languages of the EU So far, 7 universities in 2009, 4 universities in 2010, 14 universities in 2011 and 19 universities in 2012 ( 44 universities in total) have been awarded by the DS Label, which is given by the European Commission to institutions that have shown excellence in implementation of the DS. 30
31 3. Recognition of diploma and education periods Diploma supplement Lisbon Recognition Convention ECTS 3 Recognition of degrees and periods of studies from foreign countries has been conducted by ENIC (1998) and NARIC (2003) offices within the CoHE. Lisbon recognition convention has been effective in Turkey since 1st March
32 3. Recognition of diploma and education periods Diploma supplement Lisbon Recognition Convention ECTS 3 3 First attempts were started in 2001 Credit system already in use The use of European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) is well advanced and from the end of , it has been implemented at all Higher Education Institutions So far, 2 universities in 2010, 3 universities in 2011 and 11 universities in 2011 (16 universities in total) have been awarded by the ECTS Label, which is given by the European Commission to institutions that have shown excellence in implementation of the ECTS. 32
33 4. Life Long Learning Recognition of prior learning 1 1 Requires development of processes: Recognition of prior learning Flexible learning paths In Turkey: Not, yet, nationally established procedures in place and both are new issues on the agenda. But, Both TQF and TQF-HE support the recognition of prior learning achieved in formal, non-formal and informal learning contexts through appropriate processes. 33
34 5. Joint Degrees 5 Establishment and recognition of joint degrees New Regulations enacted in January 2006 regulating principles of joint degrees No legal obstacle for establishment and recognition of joint degrees or study programmes at any cycle of HE (bachelor s, master s and doctorate) Currently limited number (48 as of 2011) of joint degrees and programmes 34
35 Further Steps & Challenges Beyond Expectations of both the society and the individuals living in the society from higher education system reforms continuously. HE in Turkey is also changing in interaction with the world. 2. Due to persistent higher demand for HE than supply and continuous demographic transition in favour of young generation in need of HE in Turkey, the main pressure in Turkish HE, so far, has always been the on the issue of increasing the enrolment capacity in HE. With the recent increased number of universities and capacity building in the existing ones as explained above, this has been overcome to a greater extend particularly for undergraduate studies. The efforts to increase the number of enrolments at all levels of studies with particular attention and challange on graduate studies will continue. 3. Turkish HE system is centralised and all HEIs (state and foundation) are governed by the same law with strict rules. This does not give HEIs a flexibility to create their institutional landscape and diversity in order to be effective and creative in the today s globalised world. 4. Thus, the lack of diversity to meet a wide range of demands from today s HE poses another important challenge to HE in Turkey.
36 Further Steps & Challenges Beyond As for the other areas of challenges, the following issues are already on the agenda of CoHE as well as the HEIs and will be continuing challenges of the Turkish HE in the first quarter of the 21st century. Internationalization Diversity Financing and Funding Autonomy and Accountability Quality Improvement, Assurance and Accreditation Management & Governance More International & Regional Cooperation Life-long learning Privatization
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