Higher education in Finland

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1 Higher education in Finland Department for Higher Education and Science Policy Counsellor of Education Maarit Palonen Counsellor of Education Tomi Halonen

2 Government Programme and joint objectives of the higher education system An open, fair and confident Finland Reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion Consolidation of public finances Enhancing sustainable economic growth, employment and competitiveness In 2020, the Finnish higher education system provides higher quality and is more international and more efficient than today. Strong units of higher education as the foundation of expertise Faster transition to working life from high-quality education Competitiveness, well-being and effectiveness through research and innovation activities Internationalisation safeguards quality Development of the higher education community Task, profile and focus areas of the university Central development targets Funding

3 DOCTORAL DEGREES Licenciate degrees POLYTECHNIC MASTER S DEGREES The Finnish Education System MASTER S DEGREES Universities BACHELOR S DEGREES Universities Work experience 3 years POLYTECHNIC BACHELOR S DEGREES Polytechnics LIBERAL ADULT EDUCATION - Open University education - Open Polytechnic education - Adult education centres - Folk high schools - Summer universities - Study centres - Sports institutes MATRICULATION EXAMINATION General upper secondary schools VOCATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS Institutions & apprenticeship training BASIC EDUCATION Comprehensive schools 7-16 year-olds PRE-PRIMARY EDUCATION 6 year-olds EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION

4 Selected higher education and research landscape facts about Finland Higher education institution and research institution network covers the populated parts of the country 14 universities ( student enrolments, of which doctoral students) 24 polytechnics/universities of Applied Sciences ( ) 13 research institutions Ministry of Education and Culture Education: Finnish National Board of Education Research.fi -page University (blue) Polytechnic (green) Research institute (red)

5 The Finnish Higher Education System Statistics about HE in Finland Source: Statistics Finland

6 Functionality of the Finnish HE system a project by Technopolis Group Academics and consultancy firms were invited to tender for the project examining the developmental needs of the Finnish higher education system in relation to different directions of development for higher education models and changes in the operating environment in countries relevant for comparison. The report to present proposals for the development of the Finnish system of higher education. The project is carried out by Technopolis Group The benchmark countries are Denmark, Netherlands, Ireland and Switzerland

7 Functionality of the Finnish HE system a project by Technopolis Group Technopolis Project Work Plan WP1: Desk research and data analysis WP2: Survey to Higher Education Institutions WP3: International benchmark study WP4: Interviews WP5: Analysis and reporting WP6: International Peer Review Panel site visit Interviews of the Finnish actors + panel report with recommendations WP7: Final report and dissemination of the results Final report to the MoE 16 March The publication seminar 23 March

8 Higher Education and Research reforms

9 Goal: more dynamic HE and research sector Higher education reforms Reform of science and research network Other developments University reform 2009 Reform of state research institutes and research funding Encouraging funding models Polytechnic Reform Academy of Finland Structural reform of VET Structural development of HEIs Strengthening of the research infrastructure Other political decisions related to macro-economic balance

10 University reform (2010) The Universities Act (558/2009) includes provisions on the mission, administration, operational funding and steering of universities, and matters relating to research and education, students and personnel universities became legal persons separate from the State, either as corporations under public law or foundations under the Foundations Act. Universities took the place of the State as employers The Ministry of Education and Culture ensures by means of steering that university activities conform to the higher education policy aims set by Parliament and the Government. Lighter and more strategic level performance agreement procedure between MoE and universities Evaluated short term results of the evaluation indicate improvements especially in strategic, economic and internal management and in co-operation with surrounding society

11 University reform (2010) Aims of the university reform Greater autonomy Stronger financial and administrative status: independent legal persons and supplied with sufficient capital. Greater latitude with finances: donations, income from capital and business activities As legal persons, the universities are better able to operate with the surrounding society. Having their own capital, the universities will have more scope for operating based on their own decisions. Stronger community relations e.g. external members of the board Reform did not change The freedom of research, art and education Self-government and academic decision-making Research and higher education remain as the main tasks of the universities Education leading to a degree free of charge The government continues to be responsible for funding the public duties of the universities

12 Polytechnic reform ( ) Aims of the polytechnic reform As independent legal persons polytechnics will have more independent status and more flexibility to better react and response to the needs of the surrounding society Stronger strategic competence, profiling, focus area choises, stronger leadership and ability to decision making To enhance the quality and effectiveness of teaching and RDI To strengthen their role within the system of innovation To ensure international competitiveness of the polytechnic system First phase of the reform (2014) new funding model new operating licences updated educational responsibilities Second phase of the reform (2015) The polytechnics and the organisations running them to merge into one legal person, and juridically all the polytechnics became limited companies The responsibility for core funding entirely transferred to the state

13 Comprehensive reform of state research institutes and research funding Structural reforms Merger of research institutes Development of activities of research consortiums Merger of research institutes with the University of Helsinki Deeper co-operation between research institutes and universities Research funding reforms Establishment of a strategic research funding instrument Strengthening research, assessment activity and report work in support of decision-making by the government Gathering of research funding from ministries

14 Comprehensive reform of state research institutes and research funding Implementation and follow-up of reform - Status of personnel in reorganisation of operations - Implementation and follow-up of the resolution - Deeper co-operation between research institutes and universities Provides synergy benefits to both higher education institutions and research institutes, while strengthening the Finnish research and innovation system as a whole. Brings major boost to the competitiveness of Finnish expertise and research conducted in the service of society. Strengthens the connection between research and higher education

15 Degree programmes and adult education

16 Degrees Right to award degrees/ educational responsibility in certain fields of education is determined for each HEI in legislation (universities) and in operation licenses (polytechnics) Division of labour between HEIs HEIs are also obligated to offer education HEIs are able to start new degree programmes within it s educational responsibility No accreditation process new educational responsibilities are decided by the Ministry of Education based on educational needs General objectives and extent of degrees in legislation

17 Curricula development HEI s are responsible for the curricula of their programmes Degree reform (2005) / ( Bologna process) Bachelor s Master s degree structure Student work-load based European credits Definition of learning outcomes and core content of the programmes Individual study plans Diploma supplements Lately Bachelor s fewer and broader Bachelor s programmes in universities Other current issues Employability Joint programmes with international partners Promoting mobility and internationalisation (Mobility window/ Internationalisation at home) Student centered learning good learning environment Good support services

18 ADULT EDUCATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS In carrying out their mission, the universities/polytechnics must promote lifelong learning (Universities act, Polytechnics act) - part-time studies in polytechnics - polytechnic master s degree - open university and polytechnic education - professional specialisation studies - further and continuing education courses

19 New professional specialisation studies in universities and polytechnics From the beginning of 2015, new type of education alongside degree studies and continuing education The reform aims at providing flexible opportunities for adults to upgrade their competencies and expertise at the higher education level, also to reduce multiple degree studies For those with HE qualification and some work experience To be based on the needs of working life and the R&D competence of universities and polytechnics Decisions on professional specialisation studies are made by universities and polytechnics, in concordance with their educational responsibilities majority decision In decision making cooperation with the representatives of working life is required Minimum 30 study credits Maximum tuition fee 120 euros/study credit

20 Evaluation, Steering and Funding of HEIs

21 Steering and funding of HEIs Legislation and norms Programme of the Finnish Government Education and research - Development Plan MoE steering Negotiations and performance agreements Written feedback University and Polytechnic visits Regional seminars Information exchange State budget State funding for HEIs Universities 1,8 bn Polytechnics 0,9 bn + Public research funding allocated to universities (Academy of Finland & Tekes) 0,3 bn

22 Performance Agreements Structure of the agreement between MoE and HEIs 1. Objectives set for the higher education system as a whole Verbal goals formulated in dialogue with HEIs Comprise the statutory duties, structural development, quality, competitiveness, effectiveness, internationalization, the viewpoint of staff and students, and the costeffectiveness and productivity of the activities. 2. Mission, Profile and Focus Areas of the HEI 3. Key Development Measures 1-5 projects per HEI linked to the implementation of the HEI's strategy 4. Financing The government core funding in total

23 Steering feedback and monitoring The HEIs must provide the information requested by the Ministry for the purpose of evaluation, development, statistics and other information needed for monitoring and steering The HEIs are expected to present correct information on their performance and finances in a way that enables their progress be evaluated against the set goals. Development is annually monitored through indicators which gauge effectiveness and quality The universities must manage their finances efficiently and use their resources to good effect The Ministry of Education and Culture gives feedback to the HEIs on their activities and development needs during the agreement period. The feedback procedure is used to steer and monitor the implementation of higher education policy objectives during the agreement period. The Ministry of Education and Culture visits HE institutions once per institution on the agreement perioid Discussions with the management, personnel, students and stakeholders

24 Universities' core funding formula reform 2013 Reform proposal prepared in a joint working group of the Ministry and Finnish universities proposal published November 2011, act passed by government April 2012 Vision 2020 for the Finnish universities Improved quality Deeper internationalisation Clearer profiles Greater efficiency Stronger impact New core funding formula from 2013 A step towards the vision Improved steering effect Limited number of indicators Enhanced transparency Funding allocated to universities in a lump sum

25 Universities' core funding formula review from 2015 Review of the 2013 funding formula Joint working group of the Ministry, the Finnish universities and Academy of Finland - essentially the same working group which made proposition for 2013 funding formula Working group gave its proposition to the ministry in February 2014 Data from the new quality-based Publication Forum was included to the funding formula from 2015 Federation of Finnish Learned Societies has completed the Publication Forum Project at the initiative of the Universities Finland (UNIFI) Data from the new student feedback system was included to the funding formula In January 2012, Universities Finland (UNIFI) set up a working group to prepare a national student feedback survey for universities Funding formula revision took effect

26 Universities core funding from 2015

27 Universities' core funding formula review 2017 Review proposal is currently being prepared in a joint working group of the Ministry and Finnish universities proposal will be made by November 2015, decision making during the spring 2016 Aim is to review some parts of the model - not large-scale reform revision of some calculation criteria's Students who have performed at leas 55 study credits will be revised to take into account those students who begin at the January and who graduate during the calculation year Student feedback collecting time when applying for the degree Calculation of the publication forum data will be revised to take account the changes made in data collection and classification of publications Addition of specialisation studies to the model Funding allocated to universities in a lump sum

28 Funding formula for polytechnics until % Calculated number of students by polytechnic s different fields of education Based on the number of study places and number of students set in the MoEpolytechnic agreement Government core funding (A unit price per student* x Number of students) 897 M (2011) 30 % Number of degrees awarded by the polytechnic Average of past two years Discretionary increase in unit price Discretionary government grant 22 M in Project funding 19 M Performance based funding 3 M *) unit prices are calculated every four years on the basis of actual costs

29 Polytechnics core funding from 2015

30 Polytechnics' core funding formula review 2017 Review proposal is currently being prepared in a joint working group of the Ministry and Finnish polytechnics proposal will be made by October 2015, decision making during the spring 2016 Aim is to review some parts of the model - not large-scale reform revision of some calculation criteria's Students who have performed at leas 55 study credits will be revised to take into account those students who begin at the January and who graduate during the calculation year New student feedback survey and collecting time when applying for the degree Strategic funding to be part of the basic funding: principles for allocating strategic funding Addition of specialisation studies to the model Funding allocated to polytechnics in a lump sum

31 Statistics about HE in Finland

32 Democraphic dependency ratio in Finland - youth and elderly per 100 population of working age 80 Age under 15 Age over Source: Statistics Finland

33 Democraphic change in Finland years, average years, total Age groups years, average Age groups years, average

34 Degrees in the Polytechnics 2013 Social services, health and sports Technology, communication and transport Social sciences, business and administration Culture Tourism, catering and domestic services Natural sciences Natural resources and the environment Humanities and education Polytechnic bachelor's (total ) Polytechnich master's (total 1 948)

35 Degrees in the Universities 2013 Engineering Economics The humanities Social sciences Education Natural sciences Medicine Law Health sciences Art and design Agriculture and forestry Theology Psychology Music Sport sciences Dentistry Pharmacy Theatre and dance Veterinary medicine Fine arts Masters (total ) Bachelors (total ) PHD's (total ) Licenciates (total 158)

36 Vocational Qualifications 2013 Technology, communication and transport Social services, health and sports Social sciences, business and administration Tourism, catering and domestic services Culture Natural resources and the environment Natural sciences Humanities and education Vocational qualifications

37 Technology and Engineering Architecture and construction, landscape planning Electrical and automation engineering Environmental Engineering Food sciences, food industry and biotechnology Graphics and communications technology Information and telecommunications technology Land surveing Materials Technology and Surface Engineering Mechanical, metal and energy engineering Other education in technology, communications and transport Process, Chemistry and materials engineering Software technology

38 Technology and Engineering Technology and Engineering - Graduates 1 year after graduation (2013) Total degrees Employed Students Unemployed Other* Vocational qualifications ,0 % 7,7 % 23,8 % 8,5 % Polytechnic Bachelor's degrees ,1 % 4,8 % 10,5 % 2,6 % Universities Master's degrees ,1 % 2,0 % 4,6 % 4,3 % All fields of education (total) - Graduates 1 year after graduation (2013) Total degrees Employed Students Unemployed Other* Vocational qualifications ,9 % 7,7 % 17,4 % 7,0 % Polytechnic Bachelor's degrees ,7 % 3,6 % 8,2 % 3,5 % Universities Master's degrees ,0 % 3,3 % 7,1 % 4,6 % * emigrated, maternity leave, etc.

39 State Budget 2015 Total Expenses M by Field of Administration Min. of Education and Culture

40 Structure and resources of public STI system GOVERNMENT (R&D Financing 2012: 2,2 bn) state budget Research and Innovation Council Ministry of Education (1 billion ) Ministry of Employment and the Economy (746 m ) Other Ministries (372 m ) 258 m Academy of Finland (350 m ) Universities: 542m (of total university state budget of 1,8 bn) 134 m Finnish Funding Agency for T&I - TEKES (590 m ) 0,6 m Polytechnics R&D: total 108 m (of polytechnics budget 897 m ) 9,3 m VTT (87 m ) Other Gov. R&D institutes: 215 m SITRA, Finnish Innovation Fund

41 Source: Budget review 2015

42 Thank you! 42

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