Higher Education in Finland

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1 Higher Education in Finland Orientation Program for American Fulbright Grantees September 1, 2011 Senior Adviser Eeva Kaunismaa

2

3 Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP Primary and secondary education 1) Tertiary education Total all levels of education Primary and secondary education 1) Tertiary education Total all levels of education Primary and secondary education 1) Tertiary education Total all levels of education Australia 3,5 1,5 5,2 3,6 1,5 5,2 3,5 1,6 5,2 Austria 3,6 1,3 5,4 3,9 1,1 5,5 Belgium 4,1 1,3 6,1 4,1 1,3 6,1 Canada 3,5 2,6 6,1 3,3 2,3 5,9 4,3 2,1 6,7 Czech Republic 2,8 1,2 4,6 2,8 0,8 4,2 3,5 0,9 5,1 Denmark 4,3 1,7 7,1 4,1 1,6 6,6 4,0 1,6 6,2 Finland 3,6 1,6 5,6 3,6 1,7 5,6 4,0 1,9 6,3 France 3,9 1,4 6,0 4,3 1,3 6,4 4,5 1,4 6,6 Germany 3,0 1,1 4,7 3,3 1,1 4,9 3,4 1,1 5,1 Hungary 3,2 0,9 4,9 2,9 1,1 4,9 3,5 1,0 5,4 Iceland 5,1 1,2 7,8 4,8 1,1 7,1 Ireland 3,5 1,2 4,7 2,9 1,5 4,5 3,8 1,3 5,2 Italy 3,1 0,9 4,5 3,2 0,9 4,5 3,5 0,7 4,6 Japan 2,8 1,5 4,9 3,0 1,4 5,0 3,1 1,3 5,0 Korea 4,0 2,4 7,0 3,5 2,2 6,1 Netherlands 3,7 1,5 5,6 3,4 1,4 5,1 3,4 1,6 5,4 Norway 3,7 1,3 5,5 3,8 1,2 5,1 4,3 1,6 5,9 Poland 3,4 1,3 5,3 3,9 1,1 5,6 3,6 0,8 5,2 Portugal 3,5 1,6 5,6 3,9 1,0 5,4 3,6 0,9 5,0 Slovak Republic 2,5 0,9 4,0 2,7 0,8 4,1 3,1 0,7 4,7 Spain 2,9 1,1 4,8 3,2 1,1 4,8 3,8 1,0 5,3 Sweden 4,1 1,6 6,3 4,3 1,6 6,3 4,1 1,5 6,0 Switzerland 4,0 1,2 5,5 4,2 1,1 5,7 4,6 0,9 6,0 United Kingdom 4,2 1,3 5,8 3,5 1,0 4,9 3,6 1,1 5,2 United States 4,0 3,1 7,6 3,9 2,7 6,9 3,8 2,3 6,6 OECD average 3,6 1,5 5,7 EU19 average 3,5 1,3 5,3 OECD mean 2) 3,5 1,5 5,5 3,6 1,3 5,4 3,8 1,3 5,5 Source: OECD 1) Including post-secondary non-tertiary education 2)For countries with 1995, 2000 and 2007 data (24 countries)

4 HEIs and Sectoral Research Institutes Universities (blue) Polytecnics (green) Public research institutes (red)

5 Key Features of the Finnish Higher Education System "Open and equal access" for all Extensive network of HE institutions covering the whole country Regional equality Tuition free system with two exceptions HEIs can arrange made-to-order degree education to citizens of non- EU/EEA countries In addition, there will be a fixed-term trial of charging tuition fees to citizens of non-eu/eea countries in master's programmes taught in foreign languages in universities and polytechnics

6 The Finnish Higher Education System The Finnish higher education system comprises two parallel sectors: University sector 16 research universities, including 3 Universities of Arts Student enrollment , annual intake ~ Independent legal persons with majority of funding through State budget Polytechnic sector (established in the mid-1990s) 25 institutions Student enrollment , annual intake ~ Institutions partly funded by the state, partly by municipalities Regional development tasks Bachelor degrees (vocational and professional degrees) (Professional) Master s degrees in selected fields The whole HE system provides study places for 65-70% of an age group

7 Researcher Training in Finland Today 20,000 doctoral students in Finnish universities (> 50 % females, about half studying full-time) doctoral degrees annually (> 50 % females), a steady annual growth from the mid-1990s Special emphasis within university education and research on: Graduate school system Network type consortia between several universities behind most of the graduate schools Early stage researchers employed by the university for 4 years (similar working conditions with all other university employees)

8 Doctoral degrees in Finland Doctoral Degrees Male Female

9 Research Career in Finland Today Public sector employs 85% doctors 66% of doctors in research (of these 33% women) The society, mainly universities, research institutes and private sector have not been able to adjust their actions adequately to the increasing supply of doctors on the other hand, the content of education has not entirely met the needs of the employment, especially concerning the private sector Nearly all positions in the universities are teaching positions with variable opportunities for research The universities and the public research institutes have flexible salary systems containing elements of rewarding on the basis of success

10 New doctorate holders from graduate schools in st place of employment/employer in 2007 ca doctoral candidates in graduate schools in total ca doctoral candidates in Finnish universities new doctorate holders from grad shools in total of new doctorate holders in Finland in

11 Cohorts Entering (Upper) Secondary Education and the First Cycle of Tertiary Education in Cohort, 19-21years Cohort, years

12 PM Jyrki Katainen's Government Program Priorities General Reduction of poverty, inequality and social exclusion Consolidation of Public finances Enhancing sustainable economic growth, employment and competitiveness In education Finland the most competent nation in 2020 Reduction of gender differences in learning outcomes, participation and completion of education Equal opportunities and rights to free quality education To ensure the availability of the workforce, especially in key educational, health and welfare services Guidance and counselling at all levels of education All primary school leavers will be guaranteed a study place To adapt the network of educational institutions to demographic trends

13 Government Programme on Higher Education and Science Quality, efficiency and internationalisation of HE Polytechnic Reform (legal status, funding, administration) Each province in Finland will have at least one higher education institution. The establishment of a university for the arts will be promoted. Access to higher education studies will be made smoother for example by reforming student selection. Policy on the national research infrastructure will be promoted.

14 Structural Development of Higher Education Vision 2020 Maximum of 18 polytechnics Intake in youth education of 22,500 students (in 2009 ~26 500) Flexible and profiled higher education units and structures Strong and dynamic interaction with the region and its employers Well-established, high-quality R&D in priority areas Maximum of 15 universities Intake of students (in 2009 ~19 500) Strong units and profiles; clear priorities in research Internationalisation and world-class research Four to five strategic university-polytechnic alliances Secured access to education and diverse education provision in the area Joint R&D and stronger (regional) impact

15 The Future of the Research Career A 4-stage career structure for researchers is being established early stage researcher (doctoral student) postdoctoral researcher senior researcher professor The goal is to improve the predictability of research career and to increase the share of positions in postdoctoral and early independent phase of the research career Cooperation between universities, research institutes and the private sector to be enhanced more research cooperation increased human mobility between the organisations A co-funded system including funding from universities, research funding organisations, private foundations and private enterprises Tenure track system within and between levels based on external peer review

16 Photo: Sara Djupsund

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