Ankara March, 2011 Mr. Kari Pitkanen

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1 1.2.3 Policy Value and Analysis and Evaluation Day 1 Education Sector Ankara March, 2011 Mr. Kari Pitkanen

2 Program of the Week Monday: Elements and indicators of national education systems and policies Tuesday: Approaches for strategy and planning of education sector + assignment to work with Case Turkey Wednesday: Working on Case Turkey: how to organise education reforms and continuous development Thursday: Presentations and discussions on the Case Turkey Friday: Organizing reform implementation and continuous development using performance management, budgeting and indicators

3 1 st Day Monday, 14 th February 2011 Education systems in Finland, Turkey and in the world Structures Characteristics Policies Data and indicators on education and training and related issues (EU, OECD, Turkey, Finland) Discussions and conclusions on the development, upto-date, future plans and needs in Turkey

4 Independent since 1917 Finland in brief Member of the European Union 1995 Land area km lakes islands (min m 2 ) Population 5.3 million (17 inhabitants / km 2 ) Two official languages: Finnish (91.2%), Swedish (5.5%) Religion: Lutheran (81.8%), orthodox (1.1%), others (1.2%), no religious affiliation (15.9%) Immigrants: 3,6 % of population Main exports: electronics, forest industry, metal and engineering 4

5 22/23 Education system of Finland and Benchmarking to Education in Turkey Pre-primary 3 6/7 years old Primary 6/7 11/12 years old Lower secondary 11/12 14/15 Upper secondary 14/15 17/18 Tertiary (higher) 17/18 22/23

6 Characteristics of National Educations Systems Compulsion Pre-primary/ primary/ lower secondary Organization Public Private Upper secondary Financing Public Student fees/subsidized Governance and ownership Centralized Regional/local Curriculum Central/national core Regional/local options/free Professional support Inspection Consultative services National tests and exams Frequent testing of learning outcomes National examination in completion of upper secondary general school School choice No options Freedom for parents/students Educational paths Open Dead ends Teacher education Teacher education college degree Bachelor/Master level degree 6

7 Indicators on Education and Training for Policy Planning and Setting(OECD; Education at glance 2010) 1. Educational attainment of adult population % (2008) Pre-primary and primary Lower secondary Upper secondary Tertiary OECD Turkey Finland

8 2. Population with at least Upper Secondary Education (2008) % Age group OECD Turkey Finland 81 90

9 3. Annual Average Growth (%) in Attainment in the Year-old Population Below upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary All Turkey x) +7.6 xx) +2.6 xx) OECD Finland o.3 X) Highest xx) Second after Ireland

10 4. Employment Rates (%) and Educational Attainment, by Gender, years-old (2008) Turkey Pre-primary and primary Lower secondary Upper secondary Tertiary All Males Females OECD Males Females Finland Males Females

11 5. Relative Earnings of the Population with Income Employment (25 64 olds) Below upper secondary Post secondary Tertiary type B Tertiary All tertiary Turkey Males Females OECD Males Females Finland Males Females

12 7. Proportion of Adults Reporting Good Health, by Level of Education Below upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary Turkey OECD Finland

13 8. Proportion of Adults Expressing Interest in Politics Below upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary Turkey 0.39 o OECD o Finland

14 9. Classification of Educational Expenditure Spending on educational core services Spending on research and development Spending on educational services other than instruction Spending on educational institutions e.g. public spending on instructional services e.g. subsided private spending in educational institutions e.g. private spending on tuition fees e.g. public spending in university research e.g. funds from private industry for research and development in educational institutions e.g. public spending on ancillary services, such as meals, transport to schools or housing in the campus e.g. private spending on fees for ancillary services Spending on education outside educational institutions e.g. subsidized private spending on books e.g. private spending on books and other school materials or private tutoring e.g. subsidized private spending on student living costs or reduced price of transport e.g. private spending on student living costs or transport

15 10. Expenditure on Educational Institutions as a Percentage of GDP (1995, 2000, 2007) Turkey 1.7 x) OECD Finland X) Public spending only

16 11. Age Cohorts % (Eurostat 2010) Total Turkey EU (27) Finland

17 Headline targets 75 % of the population aged should be employed Indicators Employment rate by gender, age group % of the EU's GDP should be invested in R&D Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) The "20/20/20" climate/energy targets should be met (including an increase to 30% of emissions reduction if the conditions are right) The share of early school leavers should be under 10% and at least 40% of years old should have completed a tertiary or equivalent education Reduction of poverty by aiming to lift at least 20 million people out of the risk of poverty or exclusion Greenhouse gas emissions, base year 1990 Share of renewables in gross final energy consumption Energy intensity of the economy (proxy indicator for Energy savings, which is under development) Early leavers from education and training by gender Tertiary educational attainment by gender, age group Population at risk of poverty or exclusion (union of the three sub-indicators below) Persons living in households with very low work intensity Persons at risk of poverty after social transfers Severely materially deprived persons

18 1. 75 % of the Population Aged Should Be Employed EU Turkey Finland Males Females Total Males Females Total Males Females Total

19 2. 3 % of EU s GDP Should Be Invested in R&D EU (27) Turkey Finland

20 3. Climate/Energy Targets Should Be Met Green house gas emission, base year 1990 (100) EU (27) 89 Turkey 196 Finland 100

21 4. The Share of Early School Leavers Should be Under 10% Percentage of the population aged with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training EU (27) Turkey Finland

22 5. Tertiary Education Attainment, Yearold EU (27) Turkey Finland

23 6. Persons Living in Households with Very Low Work Intensity EU (27) 10 9 Turkey - - Finland

24 Education Statistics by EUROSTAT (2010) 1. School Expectancy EU (27) Turkey Finland

25 2. 18 years-old in Education EU (27) Turkey Finland

26 3. Pupils and Students (million) Excluding pre-primary education Europe (27) Turkey Finland

27 4. Students in Tertiary Education (million) RU (27) Turkey Finland

28 4. Share of Women Among Tertiary Students EU (27) Turkey Finland

29 5. Pupils in Upper Secondary Education Enrolled in Vocational Stream EU (27) Turkey 34.6 (2003) 41.6 Finland

30 6. Pupil/Teacher Ratio in Primary Education Turkey Finland

31 7. Pupils Learning English in Upper Secondary General Education (%) EU (27) (2007) Turkey Finland

32 8. Expenditure on Education Change % Expenditure on education EU (27) (2001) Turkey (2006) + 51 Finland Public spending in education, % of GDP EU (27) (units) Turkey Finland Private spending in education EU (27) 0.63 o Turkey (2004) Finland

33 9. Population Total EU (27) Turkey Finland year-old EU (27) Turkey Finland year-old EU (27) Turkey Finland

34 2 nd Day Tuesday, 15 th February 2011 Reform of basic, upper secondary and tertiary education in Finland Planning, decisions and organization of implementation Results Present organization and methods in planning and implementation of education policies Division of tasks and responsibilities Documents and strategies Provision and financing of education and training Linkages to performance management and budgeting Assignment for group work on Wednesday 34

35 1. Brief History of Education Reforms in Finland From parallel education to 9 years comprehensive basic school for all Reform of upper secondary general and vocational education and training (VET) Polytechnic education as new higher education institution Reform of institutional structure of VET 2001 Pre-school education for 6 year olds 2001 Qualitative development without structural changes

36 2. The Comprehensive School Reform Political discussions and disputes for many years 1968 Law on School System Main contents: Abolishment of parallel basic education and establishment of comprehensive basic school (grades 1 9) for all Municipal (local) education ownership and responsibility Detailed regulation High level of state financing Gradual implementation by careful (and bureaucratic) planning procedures 36

37 2. Comprehensive School Reform Enforcement According to the requirement of the central government and guidelines giving by the National Board of General Education all municipalities (more than 500) had to prepare reform implementation plan School districts and network (incl. former state and private schools) aiming at full use of school building capacity Placement of teachers (class and subject teachers) Municipal Education Committees and Offices And plenty of details Agreements with other municipalities in provision of basic education The local plans were first processed in the newly founded Education Departments of State Provincial Offices (12) headed by governors Provincial Offices were supervised by the Ministry of Internal Affairs but the Education Departments were strictly connected to Ministry of Education and the National Boards of Education (General and Vocational) 37

38 3. Reform Enforcement The Provincial Offices sent the plans to the National Board of General Education which processed the plans for the Ministry of Education to present to the Central Government for final decision on Enforcement Plan of the Reform Implementation started in 1972 in Lapland Province and finalized by implementation in the Capital Region in 1978 In middle 1970s started design and planning of the reform of upper secondary education level Plenty of committee work and contradictions Do we combine VET and general education to form a youth school or do we keep them separate tracks 38

39 4. Planning and Enforcement of Uppersecondary Education and Training Reform Separate tracks for general and vocational education Quantitative proportion of the tracks a big issue Government decision on principle as starting point Followed by multi-level planning Directives from MoE to Provincial State Offices and via the Offices to the schools Quantitative objectives for general education and sectors of VET Education for all New structure of VET reducing the number of specific study from 700 to 270 in 27 sectors New curricula for VET Proposals for investments to enlarge VET Schools sent their proposals to Provincial State Offices which consolidated the provincial plans to be sent to the National Boards The Boards prepared a national plan for the MoE MoE prepared development plan for decision of the Government Followed by detailed decision for each upper-secondary school 39

40 5. The Top-down Reform Was Finalized by 1990 and Followed by a More Bottom-up Reform in Middle 1990s a new structural reform was started The main objectives were: To reduce the number of VET providers To combine VET schools to many-filed VET consortia To hand over the State VET Schools to municipal to regional and local ownership To separate the higher level of VET from upper-secondary VET to institutions of higher education, polytechnics To delegate decision making on VET to regional and local levels To harmonize the structure and duration of all VET programs To reduce the number of vocational qualifications to 52 with 113 VET study programs 40

41 7. Enforcement of the Reform Government decision in principle Compulsion to the regions to organize VET according to the principles After negotiation period, Regions (municipalities) and big cities made a proposal to MoE on new VET institution structure VET provided mainly by big multi-field regional consortia Polytechnics established on a regional basis

42 8. Development of VET Institutional Structure Vocational institutions Number Students Polytechnics Average size Number Students Average size

43 9. Present Organization and Methods in Education Policies Parliament (laws) Main principles and structures Obligations and tasks Education Committee and Sub-committee of Education and Science in the Committee of Finance Central Government (decrees and decisions) Law proposals Government Program for the term (4 years) Development Plan for Education and Research (present , Decisions in Principle Licences for private education providers Unofficial Ministerial Working Group

44 Present Organization Ministry of Education and Culture (Decrees and decisions) Preparation of Government decisions Qualification framework Licences for provision of education Unit (per student) prices for financing of education accordingly financing of education providers National Board of Education National core curricula and qualification requirements Development projects Evaluation of learning outcomes Support services Information services/joint application system

45 Present Organization Providers of Education (Regional consortia/municipalities/private) Organization of education in the framework of the national legislation and decisions Anticipation of needs of education and training Planning of education Decisions on school network Hiring staff to educational institutions Investments in education Schools and educational institutions Running schooling School-based curriculum Decisions according to the delegation by education provider

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