POWDER PROPERTIES LABORATORY


 Thomasine Washington
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Ground Rules POWDER PROPERTIES LABORATORY You will work as a team of no more than 6 students. At the end of this laboratory session each team will turn in a single report. The report will be reviewed, and all members of the team will be given the same grade for completing the assignment if it is acceptable. It is therefore essential that you cooperate with each other. Your team report is to be turned in before you leave the laboratory. All the data should be reported, calculations shown, graphs drawn and questions answered. The final report should have a coversheet with the printed name of each team member and their signature. If a signature is missing no credit will be awarded to that person. As a pharmacist you are expected to be able to communicate in writing. Accordingly, an organized, legible and thorough report will receive a higher grade than a disorganized, scruffy or cursory one. Similarly, pharmacies are expected to be neat, tidy and have a professional appearance. The same is true of your bench and shared areas, particularly after the laboratory session is over. Do not ignore this hint! Part I: SIEVE ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION Dry sieving allows the fractionation of relatively coarse powders and granules. Sieves are stacked ("nested") with the largest apertures at the top and the smallest at the bottom (Figure 1). A sample of powder is placed on the top sieve and shaken for a fixed period of time at a given amplitude and pulse frequency. The weight of powder on each sieve can then be calculated and the particle size distribution obtained. Particles must have a two dimensional profile smaller than the sieve aperture in order to pass through a particular sieve. A mean sieved diameter is calculated. Since the weight of particles on each sieve is determined the mean sieved diameter represents a mass distribution. The size of the apertures in each sieve are denoted by a mesh number. The mesh number is the number of wire strands (of constant diameter) per inch used to weave the square mesh pattern. The side length of the aperture in microns is inversely related to the mesh number. Figure 1 1
2 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD You will determine the particle size distribution of a sample of coarse powder using a nest of sieves shaken in a Sonic Sifter. A TA will instruct your group when it is your turn to use the equipment. 1. Using at least a three decimal place electronic balance, record the weight of each empty sieve and the collection pan. Also record the sieve size. 2. Arrange the sieves in a sequential nest: smallest mesh number (largest aperture) at the top, largest mesh number (smallest aperture) at the bottom. Add the collection pan to the bottom of the nest. 3. Add approximately 5 g of accurately weighed coarse powder to the top sieve, and cover with the rubber cap. 4. A TA will insert the nest of sieves into the Sonic Sifter. The sample will be shaken for 5 minutes with a sieve Amplitude greater than Reweigh each sieve and the collection pan. Calculate the weight and percentage of powder on each sieve and in the collection pan. Then calculate the cumulative weight percentage of powder that is finer than the aperture, see tables below 6. Obtain the sieve data from the TA on the fine powder samples. 7. Use the probability paper, last page, to calculate the mean diameter and standard deviation (If the TA suggest it you may want to calculate the geometric mean and standard deviation) for the coarse and fine powder particles. RESULTS TABLES Mesh Number Aperture Sieve Weight (g) Size (um) Empty (Initially) With Sieved Powder Pan  2
3 Aperture Amount of Powder in Range Size (um) Mass retained (g) % Finer than d TA s Data % Finer  Total = Total = Total = QUESTION ON SIEVING 1. Determine the mean sieved diameter and standard deviation (normal or log normal, see TA for directions) of your powder sample and with the data supplied by the TA, using the probability paper given on the last page. 2. Would you expect to get the same mean sieved diameter if you performed the experiment described above, but made the following changes? Justify your answer. a. Increased the sieving time to 10 minutes. b. Decreased the sieve amplitude to setting Dry sieving is a useful technique for particles down to around ~25 µm. Why is it usually impossible to get a reliable particles size estimate with smaller particles by this method? 4. Describe as many limitations as you can think of for particle size determination by sieving. What types of particles could not be sized by sieving. 5. If a large percentage of powder were deposited on the top sieve or the bottom pan, is the particle size you determined representative of the powder sample? Justify your answer. 3
4 Part II: POWDER FLOW PROPERTIES During many pharmaceutical production processes it is necessary to transfer large quantities of powder from one location to another in a controlled manner. For example: 1 Powder blending 2 Powder filling into containers (e.g. dusting powders) 3 Powder flow into capsules 4 Powder filling into the dies of a tablet press Figure 2 One method of assessing flow properties is the Angle of Repose. Powder is allowed to flow freely through a funnel onto the center of an upturned petri dish of known radius (Figure 2). When the powder reaches the side of the petri dish the height of the cylindrical cone is determined. From the petri dish radius (r, cm) and cone height (h, cm) the angle of repose (between the petri dish and base of the powder cone) can be calculated. Flow rate can also be determined by measuring how fast a powder flows through an aperture. Free flowing powders exhibit a high flow rate and a smaller angle of repose. Angle of repose and flow rate depend on particle size, shape and surface roughness. Flow properties are frequently enhanced by the use of glidents. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD θ 1. Measure the external diameter of the petri dish supplied to you. Position the bottom of a funnel or paper cone about 5 to 15 cm above the center of the upturned petri dish using a ring stand. 2. Make sure there is a piece of paper under the petri dish so you can pick up the powder and reuse the powder for all your replicates. 3. Slowly pour the coarse powder sample into the funnel, tapping the funnel as necessary to ensure that powder flows through the hole. Continue this process until the bottom of the powder pile just begins to fall over the edge of the petri dish. Measure the height of the pile using a ruler. If the powder is lumpy, sieve it prior to beginning the experiment. 4. Repeat Step 2 until you consistently obtain the same answer. Calculate the mean height of the coarse powder pile and the mean angle of repose (θ). Remember: Tan θ = Opposite / Adjacent, therefore Tan θ = h / r. 5. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 using both fine powder and fine powder with glident. 4
5 RESULTS TABLES Sample Run # Height of Conical Powder Pile (cm) Coarse Powder Fine Powder Fine Powder with Glident Petri Dish Radius = cm Sample Coarse Powder Fine Powder Fine Powder and Glident a see below for definition Angle of Repose ( 0 ) (From Your Experiment) Carr Index a QUESTIONS ON FLOW AND ANGLE OF REPOSE 1. Plot angle of repose (Xaxis) against Carr Index (Yaxis), see below. Is there any correlation between these two measures of powder flow? How about particle size 2. Name a typical glident used in tableting. What properties would you expect this material to have? 5
6 3. Why is granulation (the process of producing larger aggregated particles from smaller individual particles) important in tableting? 4. If a batch of granules for compression showed unusually poor flow properties, how would you expect this to affect the uniformity of tablet weight? Part III: REAL, TAPPED and BULK DENSITY The true density (ρ t ) of a powder sample is the weight per unit volume of the material with no air spaces between particles. Therefore, if a material has a true density of 1 g cm 3, 100 g of material will occupy 100 ml assuming individual particles fit together exactly. In practice most powders do not fit together very well. Therefore, if one fills a graduated cylinder to 100 ml with a powder, the weight of powder required may only be 70 g. This apparent density is known as the bulk or expanded density (ρ b, 0.7 g cm 3 ). If the100 ml cylinder is then tapped, the particles slide past each other and become consolidated. The 70 g of particles which once occupied 100 ml may now only occupy 80 ml. They have an apparent packed or tapped density (ρ p ) of g cm 3. Carr's index is a measure of interparticulate forces. If the interparticulate forces are high, powders will have a low bulk density because bridging will occur between particles. This results in a large Carr's index and a large change in volume caused by tapping. If the interparticulate forces are low, particles will have little affinity for one another, and will compact spontaneously. Under these circumstances, Carr's index is small and little change in apparent density is induced by tapping. ρ p  ρ b Carr's Index = ρ p Porosity is the volume ratio occupied by air spaces (voids) between particles of a powder sample. ρ p Porosity = (Packed) and (Expanded) ρ t ρ t ρ b 6
7 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 1. The true density of powder is 1.6 g cm Determine the weight of a 100 ml graduated cylinder (supplied by the TA's). Without tapping, use a powder funnel to fill the cylinder to 100 ml with coarse powder. Record the weight of the cylinder and powder. 3. Give your filled cylinder to a TA for tapping using an automated tap density apparatus. Record the volume occupied by the sample after 100 taps. 4. Repeat Steps 1 and 2 using the fine powder sample. RESULTS TABLE Sample Coarse Powder Weight of 100 ml Graduated Cylinder (g) Empty Filled to 100 ml Volume occupied by powder after 100 taps (ml) Fine Powder Sample Coarse Powder Bulk Density (g cm 3 ) Packed Density (g cm 3 ) Porosity Carr's Index Bulk Packed Fine Powder 7
8 Questions on REAL, TAPPED and BULK DENSITY 1. A granulation has been prepared with a bulk density of 0.73 g cm 3. If the granulation is tableted with 10 mm diameter, flat faced tooling (circular), and the lower punch drops to a depth of 8 mm in the die cavity, what will be the theoretical weight of the resulting tablet? 2. Give reasons why the actual tablet weight might deviate from the theoretical weight. Probability Paper
9 9
S.3.6. BULK DENSITY AND TAPPED DENSITY OF POWDERS. Final text for addition to The International Pharmacopoeia
March 2012 S.3.6. BULK DENSITY AND TAPPED DENSITY OF POWDERS Final text for addition to The International Pharmacopoeia This monograph was adopted at the Fortysixth WHO Expert Committee on Specifications
More informationThe University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory
1 Grain Size Distribution Sieve Analysis The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory Introduction The grain size distribution is a representation of the approximate distribution of soil grain sizes
More informationMETHOD A10 (a) THE DETERMINATION OF THE INPLACE DRY DENSITY OF SOIL OR GRAVEL BY THE SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD
METHOD A10 (a) THE DETERMINATION OF THE INPLACE DRY DENSITY OF SOIL OR GRAVEL BY THE SAND REPLACEMENT METHOD 1 SCOPE The inplace dry density of compacted soil or gravel, as defined below, is determined
More informationGRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK
GRADATION OF AGGREGATE FOR CONCRETE BLOCK Although numerous papers have been written concerning the proper gradation for concrete mixes, they have generally dealt with plastic mixes, and very little published
More informationNOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT.
September 1, 2003 CONCRETE MANUAL 5694.300 MIX DESIGN 5694.300 NOTE: FOR PROJECTS REQUIRING CONTRACTOR MIX DESIGN, THE DESIGN PROCEDURES ARE SPECIFIED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS OF THE CONTRACT. 5694.301
More informationEXPERIMENT 10 CONSTANT HEAD METHOD
EXPERIMENT 10 PERMEABILITY (HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY) TEST CONSTANT HEAD METHOD 106 Purpose: The purpose of this test is to determine the permeability (hydraulic conductivity) of a sandy soil by the constant
More informationSpecific volume and absorption properties
Accepted 1980 Fluff Specific volume and absorption properties 1 Scope This SCANtest Method describes the preparation of test pieces of fluff and a procedure for their use in determining the specific volume
More informationPART I SIEVE ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL RETAINED ON THE 425 M (NO. 40) SIEVE
Test Procedure for PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS TxDOT Designation: Tex110E Effective Date: August 1999 1. SCOPE 1.1 This method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle
More informationLABORATORY DETERMINATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO
LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO STANDARD IS: 2720 (Part 16) 1979. DEFINITION California bearing ratio is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate in to a soil mass with
More informationCONSTANT HEAD AND FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST
CONSTANT HEAD AND FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TEST 1 Permeability is a measure of the ease in which water can flow through a soil volume. It is one of the most important geotechnical parameters. However,
More informationSIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES
Test Procedure for SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES TxDOT Designation: Tex200F Effective Date: January 2016 1. SCOPE 1.1 Use this test method to determine the particle size distribution of
More informationRemoving chips is a method for producing plastic threads of small diameters and high batches, which cause frequent failures of thread punches.
Plastic Threads Technical University of Gabrovo Yordanka Atanasova Threads in plastic products can be produced in three ways: a) by direct moulding with thread punch or die; b) by placing a threaded metal
More informationDryWeight BulkVolume
Test Procedure for BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION OF AGGREGATE TxDOT Designation: Tex201F Effective Date: January 2016 1. SCOPE 1.1 Use this method to determine the bulk specific gravity
More informationCEEN 162  Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Session 7  Direct Shear and Unconfined Compression Tests
PURPOSE: The parameters of the shear strength relationship provide a means of evaluating the load carrying capacity of soils, stability of slopes, and pile capacity. The direct shear test is one of the
More informationThe Basic Principles of Sieve Analysis
The Basic Principles of Sieve Analysis Introduction Many natural and manufactured materials occur in a disperse form, which means that they consist of differently shaped and sized particles. The particle
More informationApr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL 1811.0
Apr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL 1811.0 1811 BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY (GMB) AND DENSITY OF COMPACTED BITUMINOUS SPECIMENS USING PARAFFIN OR PARAFILM ASTM Designation D 1188 (MN/DOT Modified) 1811.1 SCOPE This test
More informationGeotechnical Measurements and Explorations Prof. Nihar Ranjan Patra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
Geotechnical Measurements and Explorations Prof. Nihar Ranjan Patra Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture No. # 28 Last lecture we have covered this Atterberg limit,
More informationDensity Determinations and Various Methods to Measure
Density Determinations and Various Methods to Measure Volume GOAL AND OVERVIEW This lab provides an introduction to the concept and applications of density measurements. The densities of brass and aluminum
More informationStandard Test Procedures Manual
STP 2064 Standard Test Procedures Manual Section: 1. SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test This method describes the procedure for determining the liquid limit, plastic limit and the plasticity index of coarsegrained
More informationStandard Test Procedures Manual
STP 2061 Standard Test Procedures Manual Section: 1. SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test 2. APPARATUS This method describes the procedure for determining the relationship between the particle size distribution
More informationMETHOD A7 THE DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY AND OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GRAVEL, SOIL AND SAND
SCOPE METHOD A7 THE DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY AND OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF GRAVEL, SOIL AND SAND Definition The maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, as defined below, is
More informationFlorida Method of Test for TESTING OF GROUND TIRE RUBBER Designation: FM 5559
Florida Method of Test for TESTING OF GROUND TIRE RUBBER Designation: FM 5559 1 SCOPE 1.1 This method is used to determine the physical requirements of ground tire rubber for use in asphalt rubber using
More informationGeometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV
Objective Geometric Optics Converging Lenses and Mirrors Physics Lab IV In this set of lab exercises, the basic properties geometric optics concerning converging lenses and mirrors will be explored. The
More informationMeasurement of Length, Mass, Volume and Density
Measurement of Length, Mass, Volume and Density Experimental Objective The objective of this experiment is to acquaint you with basic scientific conventions for measuring physical quantities. You will
More informationSIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES FOP FOR AASHTO T 27 (11)
SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AND COARSE AGGREGATES FOP FOR AASHTO T 27 (11) MATERIALS FINER THAN 75 µm (No. 200) SIEVE IN MINERAL AGGREGATE BY WASHING FOP FOR AASHTO T 11 (11) Scope Sieve analysis determines
More informationThe University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory
The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory Permeability Testing  1 Constant and Falling Head Tests Introduction In 1856 the French engineer Henri D arcy demonstrated by experiment that it is possible
More informationSample preparation for Xray fluorescence analysis
Technical articles Sample preparation for Xray fluorescence analysis III. Pressed and loose powder methods Gakuto Takahashi* 1. Introduction There are two main sample preparation techniques for measurement
More informationMETHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY OF GRANULAR SOILS
Laboratory Testing Manual Date: 99 06 21 Page 1 of 7 METHOD OF TEST FOR DETERMINATION OF PERMEABILITY OF GRANULAR SOILS 1. SCOPE 1.1 This method covers the determination of the coefficient of permeability
More informationArea of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 314 318)
Area of Parallelograms, Triangles, and Trapezoids (pages 34 38) Any side of a parallelogram or triangle can be used as a base. The altitude of a parallelogram is a line segment perpendicular to the base
More informationStandard Test Procedures Manual
STP 20513 Standard Test Procedures Manual Section: 1. SCOPE 1.1. Description of Test This method describes the procedure for determining the relationship between the moisture and density of finegrained
More informationApr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL 1302.0. 1302 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS AASHTO Designation T 88 (Mn/DOT Modified)
Apr 17, 2000 LAB MANUAL 1302.0 1302 PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOILS AASHTO Designation T 88 (Mn/DOT Modified) 1302.1 SCOPE This method describes a procedure for the quantitative determination of the distribution
More informationThe GED math test gives you a page of math formulas that
Math Smart 643 The GED Math Formulas The GED math test gives you a page of math formulas that you can use on the test, but just seeing the formulas doesn t do you any good. The important thing is understanding
More informationMETHOD OF TEST FOR SAMPLING AND TESTING CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIER
STATE OF CALIFORNIA BUSINESS, TRANSPORTATION AND HOUSING AGENCY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DIVISION OF ENGINEERING SERVICES Transportation Laboratory 5900 Folsom Boulevard Sacramento, California 958194612
More informationPERMEABILITY TEST. To determine the coefficient of permeability of a soil using constant head method.
PERMEABILITY TEST A. CONSTANT HEAD OBJECTIVE To determine the coefficient of permeability of a soil using constant head method. need and Scope The knowledge of this property is much useful in solving problems
More informationThree Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics
Three Methods for Calculating the Buoyant Force Gleue: Physics Name Hr. The Buoyant Force (F b ) is the apparent loss of weight for an object submerged in a fluid. For example if you have an object immersed
More informationGeometry Notes PERIMETER AND AREA
Perimeter and Area Page 1 of 57 PERIMETER AND AREA Objectives: After completing this section, you should be able to do the following: Calculate the area of given geometric figures. Calculate the perimeter
More informationPHYSICAL AND PLASTICITY CHARACTERISTICS
0 PHYSICAL AND PLASTICITY CHARACTERISTICS EXPERIMENTS #15 CE 3143 October 7, 2003 Group A David Bennett 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Experiment # 1: Determination of Water Content (August 26, 2003) pp. 13
More informationCommonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation October 2013 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION. Method of Test for
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PA Test Method No. 632 Department of Transportation 5 Pages LABORATORY TESTING SECTION Method of Test for TIME OF SETTING OF CONCRETE MIXTURES BY PENETRATION RESISTANCE 1.
More informationCHAPTER: 6 FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SOILS
CHAPTER: 6 FLOW OF WATER THROUGH SOILS CONTENTS: Introduction, hydraulic head and water flow, Darcy s equation, laboratory determination of coefficient of permeability, field determination of coefficient
More informationInsitu Density Determination by Sand Replacement Method
University of Texas at Arlington Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory Test Procedure Insitu Density Determination by Sand Replacement Method Lecture Note 7 (Thursday 030404) 1 Definitions, Objectives
More informationCBA Volume: Student Sheet 1
CBA Volume: Student Sheet 1 For each problem, decide which cube building has more room inside, or if they have the same amount of room. Then find two ways to use cubes to check your answers, one way that
More informationErosion Resistance Performance Comparison Of Natracil, Stabilizer And Envirobond s OrganicLock
Erosion Resistance Performance Comparison Of Natracil, Stabilizer And Envirobond s OrganicLock Testing conducted at the Envirobond Test Laboratory, Mississauga, ON Canada Erosion Resistance Performance
More information2Digital tablets or computer scanners can
Appendix A Measuring Lake Surface Area Lake surface area can be measured with a bathymetric map using any of the following techniques: 1One of the most accurate methods is to use a planimeter to trace
More information7.4A/7.4B STUDENT ACTIVITY #1
7.4A/7.4B STUDENT ACTIVITY #1 Write a formula that could be used to find the radius of a circle, r, given the circumference of the circle, C. The formula in the Grade 7 Mathematics Chart that relates the
More informationCHAPTER 8, GEOMETRY. 4. A circular cylinder has a circumference of 33 in. Use 22 as the approximate value of π and find the radius of this cylinder.
TEST A CHAPTER 8, GEOMETRY 1. A rectangular plot of ground is to be enclosed with 180 yd of fencing. If the plot is twice as long as it is wide, what are its dimensions? 2. A 4 cm by 6 cm rectangle has
More informationPhysical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water
Physical Properties of a Pure Substance, Water The chemical and physical properties of a substance characterize it as a unique substance, and the determination of these properties can often allow one to
More informationCHITOSAN FILM PREPARATION Instructions for laboratory experiments. Tuija Annala 29.11.2007 Rev 0
CHITOSAN FILM PREPARATION Instructions for laboratory experiments Tuija Annala 29.11.2007 Rev 0 Table of Contents 1 Introduction...3 2 Equipment and materials...3 3 Recipe...4 2 (6) 1 INTRODUCTION Chitosan
More informationAfrica Soil Information Service  Standard Operating Procedure. Soil Sample Processing at AfSIS Regional Laboratories
Africa Soil Information Service  Standard Operating Procedure Soil Sample Processing at AfSIS Regional Laboratories Last updated 12 December 2011 Introduction This standard operating procedure for AfSIS
More informationFinding Volume of Rectangular Prisms
MA.FL.7.G.2.1 Justify and apply formulas for surface area and volume of pyramids, prisms, cylinders, and cones. MA.7.G.2.2 Use formulas to find surface areas and volume of threedimensional composite shapes.
More informationICH Topic Q4B Annex 5 Disintegration Test General Chapter. Step 3
European Medicines Agency June 2008 EMEA/CHMP/ICH/308895/2008 ICH Topic Q4B Annex 5 Disintegration Test General Chapter Step 3 ANNEX 5 TO NOTE FOR EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF PHARMACOPOEIAL TEXTS
More informationChapter 8 Design of Concrete Mixes
Chapter 8 Design of Concrete Mixes 1 The basic procedure for mix design is applicable to concrete for most purposes including pavements. Concrete mixes should meet; Workability (slump/vebe) Compressive
More informationPrelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs
59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically
More information8.9  Flash Column Chromatography Guide
8.9  Flash Column Chromatography Guide Overview: Flash column chromatography is a quick and (usually) easy way to separate complex mixtures of compounds. We will be performing relatively large scale separations
More informationHydrostatic Force on a Submerged Surface
Experiment 3 Hydrostatic Force on a Submerged Surface Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to experimentally locate the center of pressure of a vertical, submerged, plane surface. The experimental
More informationGrade 7 & 8 Math Circles Circles, Circles, Circles March 19/20, 2013
Faculty of Mathematics Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G Introduction Grade 7 & 8 Math Circles Circles, Circles, Circles March 9/20, 203 The circle is a very important shape. In fact of all shapes, the circle is
More informationCAMI Education linked to CAPS: Mathematics
 1  TOPIC 1.1 Whole numbers _CAPS curriculum TERM 1 CONTENT Mental calculations Revise: Multiplication of whole numbers to at least 12 12 Ordering and comparing whole numbers Revise prime numbers to
More informationParticle Size Analysis
Particle Size Analysis Why measure particle size of pharmaceuticals??? Particle size can affect Processability of powder (API or excipient) Flow, mixing, compaction Final formulation: performance, appearance,
More informationEXPERIMENT NO.1. : Vicat s apparatus, plunger
EXPERIMENT NO.1 Name of experiment:to determine the percentage of water for normal consistency for a given sample of cement Apparatus : Vicat s apparatus with plunger of 10mm dia, measuring cylinder, weighing
More information14.330 SOIL MECHANICS Assignment #4: Soil Permeability.
Geotechnical Engineering Research Laboratory One University Avenue Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 Edward L. Hajduk, D.Eng, PE Lecturer PA105D Tel: (978) 94 2621 Fax: (978) 94 052 e mail: Edward_Hajduk@uml.edu
More informationThe University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory
The University of Toledo Soil Mechanics Laboratory 1 Soil MoistureDensity Relationship Standard and Modified Proctor Tests Introduction For earthork construction it is important to compact soils to a
More informationHow does one make and support a reasonable conclusion regarding a problem? How does what I measure influence how I measure?
Middletown Public Schools Mathematics Unit Planning Organizer Subject Mathematics Grade/Course Grade 7 Unit 3 Two and Three Dimensional Geometry Duration 23 instructional days (+4 days reteaching/enrichment)
More informationMensuration. The shapes covered are 2dimensional square circle sector 3dimensional cube cylinder sphere
Mensuration This a mixed selection of worksheets on a standard mathematical topic. A glance at each will be sufficient to determine its purpose and usefulness in any given situation. These notes are intended
More informationCommon Core State Standards for Mathematics Accelerated 7th Grade
A Correlation of 2013 To the to the Introduction This document demonstrates how Mathematics Accelerated Grade 7, 2013, meets the. Correlation references are to the pages within the Student Edition. Meeting
More informationSAT Subject Test Practice Test II: Math Level II Time 60 minutes, 50 Questions
SAT Subject Test Practice Test II: Math Level II Time 60 minutes, 50 Questions All questions in the Math Level 1 and Math Level Tests are multiplechoice questions in which you are asked to choose the
More informationINDEX 030101 DESCRIPTION 2 030102 MATERIALS 2 030103 APPROVAL OF SUBBASE COURSE 3 030104 CONSTRUCTION 4 030105 MEASUREMENT 6 030106 PAYMENT 6
03010_Dec22_2009.pdf Page 1 of 5 INDEX Page 030101 DESCRIPTION 2 030102 MATERIALS 2 030103 APPROVAL OF SUBBASE COURSE 3 030104 CONSTRUCTION 4 030105 MEASUREMENT 6 030106 PAYMENT 6 03010_Dec22_2009.pdf
More informationReaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Chemicals Needed:
Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid (Gas Laws) Your Name: Date: Partner(s) Names: Objectives: React magnesium metal with hydrochloric acid, collecting the hydrogen over water. Calculate the grams
More informationLab 7: Rotational Motion
Lab 7: Rotational Motion Equipment: DataStudio, rotary motion sensor mounted on 80 cm rod and heavy duty bench clamp (PASCO ME9472), string with loop at one end and small white bead at the other end (125
More informationALPERTON COMMUNITY SCHOOL MATHS FACULTY ACHIEVING GRADE A/A* EXAM PRACTICE BY TOPIC
ALPERTON COMMUNITY SCHOOL MATHS FACULTY ACHIEVING GRADE A/A* EXAM PRACTICE BY TOPIC WEEK Calculator paper Each set of questions is followed by solutions so you can check & mark your own work CONTENTS TOPIC
More informationThe formulae for calculating the areas of quadrilaterals, circles and triangles should already be known : Area = 1 2 D x d CIRCLE.
Revision  Areas Chapter 8 Volumes The formulae for calculating the areas of quadrilaterals, circles and triangles should already be known : SQUARE RECTANGE RHOMBUS KITE B dd d D D Area = 2 Area = x B
More informationLab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing
Lab 1 Concrete Proportioning, Mixing, and Testing Supplemental Lab manual Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Prepared By Mutlu Ozer Objectives Students
More informationPractical 1: Measure the molar volume of a gas
Practical Student sheet Practical : Wear eye protection. Ensure the delivery tube does not become blocked. Ethanoic acid will sting if it gets into cuts in the skin. Equipment boiling tube stand and clamp
More informationPhysics Lab Report Guidelines
Physics Lab Report Guidelines Summary The following is an outline of the requirements for a physics lab report. A. Experimental Description 1. Provide a statement of the physical theory or principle observed
More informationA Study of Specific Surface Area for Matrix, Eheim Substrat Pro, and JBL MicroMec. George L. Batten Jr., Ph.D Gmerice K. Lafayette, M.P.H.
A Study of Specific Surface Area for Matrix, Eheim Substrat Pro, and JBL MicroMec Abstract George L. Batten Jr., Ph.D Gmerice K. Lafayette, M.P.H. Seachem Laboratories 1000 Seachem Drive Madison, GA 30650
More informationTHE DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY AND OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF MATERIALS USING THE VIBRATORY HAMMER COMPACTION
THE DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY AND OPTIMUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF MATERIALS USING THE VIBRATORY HAMMER COMPACTION 1. SCOPE The maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, as defined below,
More informationSieve Analysis of Aggregates
Revised 2007, WKS Datasheet No. 30 MOHAWK COLLEGE OF APPLIED ARTS AND TECHNOLOGY BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION SCIENCES DEPARTMENT Sieve Analysis of Aggregates INTRODUCTION The evaluation of the distribution
More informationGCSE Exam Questions on Volume Question 1. (AQA June 2003 Intermediate Paper 2 Calculator OK) A large carton contains 4 litres of orange juice.
Question 1. (AQA June 2003 Intermediate Paper 2 Calculator OK) A large carton contains 4 litres of orange juice. Cylindrical glasses of height 10 cm and radius 3 cm are to be filled from the carton. How
More informationTo measure the solubility of a salt in water over a range of temperatures and to construct a graph representing the salt solubility.
THE SOLUBILITY OF A SALT IN WATER AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES 2007, 1995, 1991 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for academic use provided the original copyright is included. OBJECTIVE To measure
More informationFormulation and Evaluation of Didanosine Enteric Coated Sustained Release Tablet
Formulation and Evaluation of Didanosine Enteric Coated Sustained Release Tablet K. L. Senthil Kumar*, S. Ashokkumar, R. P. Ezhilmuthu Dept of Pharmaceutics, Padmavathi College of Pharmacy and Research
More informationEvaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete
Evaluation of Initial Setting Time of Fresh Concrete R R C Piyasena, P A T S Premerathne, B T D Perera, S M A Nanayakkara Abstract According to ASTM 403C, initial setting time of concrete is measured based
More informationDrilske pulvere hvordan problemer med flydeevnen kan løses ved brug af shear testkarakterisering
U N I U V N E I R V S E I T R Y S I O T F Y C O O F P C E O N P H E A N G H E A NG E N Drilske pulvere hvordan problemer med flydeevnen kan løses ved brug af shear testkarakterisering Søren V. Søgaard,
More informationSOILLIME TESTING. Test Procedure for. TxDOT Designation: Tex121E 1. SCOPE 2. APPARATUS 3. MATERIALS TXDOT DESIGNATION: TEX121E
Test Procedure for SOILLIME TESTING TxDOT Designation: Tex121E Effective Date: August 2002 1. SCOPE 1.1 This method consists of three parts. 1.1.1 Part I determines the unconfined compressive strength
More informationCSUS Department of Chemistry Experiment 8 Chem.1A
EXPERIMENT #8 Name: PRELABORATORY ASSIGNMENT: Lab Section 1. The alkali metals are so reactive that they react directly with water in the absence of acid. For example, potassium reacts with water as follows:
More informationNetShape  MIM. Metal Injection Molding Design Guide. NetShape Technologies  MIM Phone: 4402485456 31005 Solon Road FAX: 4402485807
Metal Injection Molding Design Guide NetShape Technologies  MIM Phone: 4402485456 31005 Solon Road FAX: 4402485807 Solon, OH 44139 solutions@netshapetech.com 1 Frequently Asked Questions Page What
More informationThe importance of normalisation when comparing tablet properties
The importance of normalisation when comparing tablet properties Tablet quality definition The properties of a tablet, both during manufacturing and in vivo, are determined by the properties of the materials
More informationEXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation
EXERCISE # 1.Metric Measurement & Scientific Notation Student Learning Outcomes At the completion of this exercise, students will be able to learn: 1. How to use scientific notation 2. Discuss the importance
More informationCALCULATING THE SIZE OF AN ATOM
Ch 100: Fundamentals of Chemistry 1 CALCULATING THE SIZE OF AN ATOM Introduction: The atom is so very small that only highly sophisticated instruments are able to measure its dimensions. In this experiment
More informationParticle size measurement of lactose for dry powder inhalers
Particle size measurement of lactose for dry powder inhalers MCC Starch Lactose Inhalation Superdisintegrants 1 Introduction The particle size of lactose has been shown to be important for dry powder
More informationArea of Parallelograms (pages 546 549)
A Area of Parallelograms (pages 546 549) A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The base is any one of the sides and the height is the shortest distance (the length of a perpendicular
More informationHandsOn Labs SM1 Lab Manual
EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.
More informationSoil Testing Soil index properties 24. Cone Penetrometer Method BS 1377, 19242, EN DD ENV 19972. SemiAutomatic Cone Penetrometer
24 Soil index properties Soil Index Properties Soil index properties are used extensively by engineers to discriminate between the different kinds of soil within a broad category, e.g. clay will exhibit
More information5Axis TestPiece Influence of Machining Position
5Axis TestPiece Influence of Machining Position Michael Gebhardt, Wolfgang Knapp, Konrad Wegener Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing (IWF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich,
More informationCHAPTER 6 WEAR TESTING MEASUREMENT
84 CHAPTER 6 WEAR TESTING MEASUREMENT Wear is a process of removal of material from one or both of two solid surfaces in solid state contact. As the wear is a surface removal phenomenon and occurs mostly
More informationSTARCH 1500. Application Data
STARCH 1500 Application Data Partially Pregelatinized Maize Starch Starch 1500, Partially Pregelatinized Maize Starch, Used as a Binder Disintegrant in High Shear Wet Granulation Comparison to Povidone
More informationOne and Twodimensional Motion
PHYS101 LAB02 One and Twodimensional Motion 1. Objective The objectives of this experiment are: to measure the acceleration of gravity using onedimensional motion to demonstrate the independence of
More informationDIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA
DIRECT SHEAR TEST SOIL MECHANICS SOIL MECHANICS LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA SRI LANKA DIRECT SHEAR TEST OBJEVTIVES To determine the shear strength parameters for a
More informationChemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid
Chemistry 112 Laboratory Experiment 6: The Reaction of Aluminum and Zinc with Hydrochloric Acid Introduction Many metals react with acids to form hydrogen gas. In this experiment, you will use the reactions
More information10.1 Powder mechanics
Fluid and Particulate systems 424514 /2014 POWDER MECHANICS & POWDER FLOW TESTING 10 Ron Zevenhoven ÅA Thermal and Flow Engineering ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi 10.1 Powder mechanics RoNz 2/38 Types of flow of
More informationPhysical & Chemical Properties. Properties
Physical & Chemical Properties Properties Carbon black can be broadly defined as very fine particulate aggregates of carbon possessing an amorphous quasigraphitic molecular structure. The most significant
More information16 Circles and Cylinders
16 Circles and Cylinders 16.1 Introduction to Circles In this section we consider the circle, looking at drawing circles and at the lines that split circles into different parts. A chord joins any two
More informationMeasurement. Volume It All Stacks Up. Activity:
Measurement Activity: TEKS: Overview: Materials: Grouping: Time: Volume It All Stacks Up (7.9) Measurement. The student solves application problems involving estimation and measurement. The student is
More information