Pasta Technology. Introduction to Pasta Technology. Bühler AG Ali Kocak Process Engineer

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1 Pasta Technology Introduction to Pasta Technology Bühler AG Ali Kocak Process Engineer

2 Definition of the term pasta Pasta is a product of any kind of shape which is made from ground grain products with or without the addition of eggs and/or additives by dough formation, shaping and drying without the use of any fermentation or baking process. Occasionally it is treated before drying with hot water or steam (Instant Pasta or gluten free raw material). (Source: EU directives for Pasta) 2 Bühler

3 Statistics Consumption (2008) Pasta consumption (per capita and year) - Italy 26.0 kg - Austria 5.6 kg - Venezuela 12.9 kg - Belgium/Luxemburg 5.4 kg - Tunisia 11.7 kg - Estonia 5.3 kg - Greece 10.4 kg - Spain 5.0 kg - Switzerland 9.7 kg - Slovakia 5.0 kg - Sweden 9.0 kg - Bolivia 4.8 kg - USA 9.0 kg - Netherland 4.4 kg - Chile 8.2 kg - Lithuania 4.4 kg - Peru 7.5 kg - Latvia 4.4 kg - Germany 7.4 kg - Dominican Republic 4.0 kg - Argentina 7.2 kg - Australia 4.0 kg - Brazil 6.7 kg - Israel 4.0 kg - Portugal 6.7 kg - Costa Rica 3.8 kg - Hungary 6.5 kg - Panama 3.8 kg - Canada 6.5 kg - Finland 3.2 kg - Czech Republic 6.0 kg - Columbia 3.0 kg - Russia 6.0 kg - Poland 3.0 kg - Turkey 6.0 kg - Rumania 2.7 kg Source: UN.I.P.I. 3 Bühler

4 Statistics Production in Tones (2008) Italy USA Brazil Russia Turkey Egypt Venezuela Germany Argentina Mexico France Spain Peru Canada Chile Poland Greece Japan Columbia Tunisia India Portugal Czech Republic Hungary Dominican Rep Rumania Switzerland Bolivia Guatemala Austria England Ecuador Slovakia Costa Rica Sweden Jordania El Salvador Syria Lithuania Panama Latvia Estonia Estimated world pasta production 12.3 Mio Tones (2008) Source: UN.I.P.I. 4 Bühler

5 General overview pasta making process RAW MATERIAL DOUGH FORMATION DRYING FINAL PRODUCT - Triticum Durum Durum wheat e.g. Polymatik Press e.g. C-Line Long Good Dryer Dried, uncooked Pasta (e.g. Spaghetti) - Pasta are conveyed - Triticum Aestivum on sticks Hard wheat e.g. C-Line Short Good Dryer Cooked Pasta (e.g. Spaghetti) Soft wheat - Pasta are conveyed - etc. (e.g. Corn, Rice) on belts & in elevators 5 Bühler

6 Raw Materials: Durum, Hard- and Soft wheat TRITICUM DURUM TRITICUM DURUM TRITICUM AESTIVUM TRITICUM AESTIVUM Durum wheat Hard wheat (Bread wheat) Soft wheat (Cookie wheat) - Vitreous structure - Strong yellow color - Semolina production - Protein content 13-15% - Hardness 100 % - Slightly vitreous structure - Floury inclusions - Semolina and flour production - Protein content 11-13% - Hardness % - Flour appearance - Soft - Flour production - Protein content 9-11% - Hardness < 35 % 6 Bühler

7 Unit operations involved in pasta dough processing Semolina heterogeneous bulk solid µm Water water content %wb Extrusion pressure up to 110 bar Pasta dough homogeneous distribution of starch and protein Hydration and plasticization Dough formation and structure homogenization 7 Bühler

8 Drying & structure stabilization - principle based on combined heat and mass transfer (convection drying) Moisture gradient during drying within pasta strand (e.g. spaghetti) heat transfer to pasta mass transfer (water) to air Air flow Air flow 8 Bühler

9 Dryer types: Short good dryer/ Long good dryer e.g. C-Line short goods dryer e.g. C-Line long goods dryer - Pasta is conveyed on belts - Pasta is spread on sticks + further dryer types e.g. drum dryer or dryer for special formats such a nests 9 Bühler

10 Effect of High Temp. drying on textural properties of cooked pasta Stickiness Relative depth of penetration at F = 0.1 N Firmness Schematical cross section of pasta 10 Bühler

11 Effect of High Temp. drying on physical properties of dried pasta solubility of the protein fraction Reduction of the protein solubility happens during HT treatment Aggregation and densification of the protein matrix 11 Bühler

12 Effect of High Temp. drying on physical properties of dried pasta surface roughness Pasta surface after extrusion Atomic Force Microscopy Pasta surface after HT-drying Low temperature drying rather rough surface due to non embedded starch granules Pictures from: Zweifel (2001). Dissertation ETH Nr High temperature drying smoothing of the surface as a result of evenly embedded starch granules 12 Bühler

13 Effect of High Temp. drying on properties of cooked pasta stickiness Higher drying temperature and lower product moisture during HT-drying: reduced stickiness due to higher density of protein matrix and consequently less free amylose on the product surface from: Zweifel (2001). Dissertation ETH Nr Bühler

14 Final product objectives regarding wheat pasta in general nice, desired shape no cracks desired colour (depends especially on raw material properties (ash content) & drying parameters) desired firmness especially at al-dente point desired surface integrity (low sliminess) after cooking cooking loss as low as possible especially at al-dente point 14 Bühler

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