By Agnes Tan (PT) I-Sports Rehab Centre Island Hospital

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1 By Agnes Tan (PT) I-Sports Rehab Centre Island Hospital

2 Physiotherapy Provides aids to people Deals with abrasion and dysfunction (muscles, joints, bones) To control and repair maximum movement potentials & functional capabilities

3 Anatomy (Muscles) Iliopsoas (Hip Flexors)

4 Anatomy (Muscles) Quadriceps

5 Anatomy (Muscles) Gluteus Maximus (Buttock)

6 Anatomy (Muscles) Hamstrings

7 Anatomy (Muscles) Iliotibial band

8 Anatomy (Muscles) Calf

9 Anatomy (Muscles) Calf (Gastrocs and Soleus)

10 Anatomy (Muscles) Intrinsics Muscles of Foot (Sole)

11 THE BIG PICTURE!!

12 Common Injuries In Sports Joint : DISLOCATION SUBLUXATION Bone : FRACTURE, STRESS FRACTURE Soft Tissue : CONTUSION Joint : SPRAIN (CAPSULE, LIGAMENTS, etc) Muscle Tendon : STRAIN

13 Common Injuries in Running Patellafemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) Achilles Tendinitis Plantar Fasciitis Shinsplints Hamstrings / Calf / Quadriceps Strains Stress Fracture

14 Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome A.k.a Anterior knee pain Developed due to excessive stress/overloading Incompetence biomechanics

15 Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

16 Iliotibial Band Syndrome (ITBS) Pain at the outer side of the knee. Developed due to tightness of the ITB, muscle imbalance

17 Achilles Tendinitis Pain at the back of the lower leg to the heel bone (calcaneus) Developed due to tightness or overuse injury

18 Plantar Fasciitis Pain at heel and underside of the foot Develop due to Excessive loading Weak intrinsics muscles of foot Secondary to tight calf muscles

19 Shinsplints Anterior Shinsplints Posterior Shinsplints Overuse syndrome (causing muscles attaching to the bone covering to be inflamed)

20 Muscle Strains Grade 1 Structure stretch but no fiber torn Painful but functional and stable Grade 2 Structural damage including some fiber tearing Structure not totally functional or stable Grade 3 Structure detached with instability and loss of function Common muscles involved Hamstring muscle Quadriceps muscle Calf muscle

21 Stress Fracture Bony pain at site of fracture Overuse syndrome Stress to the bone

22

23 Not 100% avoidable, BUT it can be minimized by observing certain

24 Preventive Measures 1. Primary Prevention - Health promotion

25 Preventive Measures 2. Secondary Prevention (Acute) - Early diagnosis and intervention - Limit the development of disability - Reduce the risk of reinjury - (e.g. early RICE treatment of an ankle sprain)

26 Preventive Measures 3. Tertiary Prevention (Chronic/Surgery) - Rehabilitation to reduce and/or correct an existing disability caused by the underlying disease.

27 Injuries Prevention Method Warm up & cool down exercise General warm up (jogging) Stretching Strengthening exercises Taping/Bracing Appropriate Running Gears

28 Warm up Low BENEFITS intensity Increased blood flow to muscles Increased oxygen delivery to muscles Better muscle performance (mild sweating but not to the extent of fatigue) Effect lasts approximately up to Better joint sense 30 Better min body reflex action Better heart adaptation to sudden strenuous exercise

29 Cool down Cool Down Stretching exercise is important!!! 1. Enable muscle to relax. 2. Minimise delay onset muscle soreness. 3. Minimise muscle tightness (cramps).

30 Types of Stretches

31 Hip Flexors Stretch (Iliopsoas) 1. Kneel on right side of the knee and extend your left leg out behind with your foot flat on surface. 2. Shift your weight forward until you feel a stretch in your hip. Hold for seconds. Repeat for your other side.

32 Quadriceps Stretch 1. Stand on Lt leg and pull the other foot up behind your bottom. 2. Keep your knees together and push your hips forwards to increase the stretch. 3. MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSITION! 4. Hold for between 10 and 15 seconds. (Repeat on other leg)

33 Piriformis Stretch (Gluteus) 1. Stand/Balance on one leg,while bringing the other on top. 2. Sit on balancing leg 3. LEAN TRUNK FORWARD, DO NOT SLOUCH!! 4. Hold secs. Switch sides.

34 Hamstrings Stretch 1. Stand with Lt leg front of the other leg 2. Bend the back knee and rest your weight on the hind knee 3. Tilt the hips forwards 4. DO NOT COLLAPSED YOUR BACK!! 5. Hold for between 10 and 15 seconds (Repeat other leg)

35 ITB Band Stretch 1. Start by placing the leg you want to stretch behind the other one. 2. Keep the foot on the floor and push your hips out to the other side until a stretch is felt in the outer hip and/or thigh. 3. Hold for seconds. Repeat for your other side. 4. DO NOT SLOUCH FORWARD!!

36 Calf Stretch 1. Stand facing a wall from several feet away. 2. Lean forward and rest your hands on the wall, Extend either leg behind. 3. KEEP THE HEEL ON GROUND!! 4. Hold for seconds and then switch sides.

37 Calf Stretch 1. Stand with your feet apart, one in front and the other behind. 2. Bend both knees, SIT ON HIND LEG. 3. Hold secs. Switch sides.

38 Principles of Stretching 1. Stretch gently and slowly 2. Amount of force applied is up to where tension is felt 3. Pain free 4. Before and after sports

39 Strengthening (Runners Muscles)

40 Types of Strength Training Weights Resistance Agility Endurance training

41 TYPES OF SHOES

42 Myths Of Suitable Footwear Myths 1 The shoe must have an arch for it to be good Counterpart The arch is palliative (comfort but not functional) 2 One brand is more suitable than another brand in terms of function All brands have the potential to make suitable shoes and unsuitable shoes 3 The lighter the shoe the better The lighter the shoe the less stable the shoe 4 The more expensive the shoe the better 5 The more the flexible the shoe the better Price does not necessarily contribute to function The more flexible the shoe the less function it will provide

43 Suitable Shoes? >15⁰ <15⁰

44

45

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