5TH GRADE FITNESS STUDY GUIDE

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1 PHYSICAL EDUCATION 5 TH GRADE FITNESS STUDY GUIDE PART I. Revised 5-13 DIRECTIONS: Review the following terms and concepts. Do not try to memorize the definitions, rather think about and understand: 1) what the concepts mean to you, 2) how the concepts compare and contrast, 3) the ideas, concepts, and examples we discussed, and 4) how we have worked on physical fitness in class. What is wellness? Wellness is a state of excellent health which includes areas that are mental, physical, and spiritual. Wellness can be more easily achieved by being physically fit, eating healthy, and getting plenty of rest. What is physical fitness? Physical fitness is the capacity of the heart, lungs, and muscles to function efficiently in order for the body to work at its best. It is important for health, physical performance, and mental well being. It does not mean that you are the best at a given sport or sport skill. Fitness is personal. Its goal is self improvement toward a healthy active lifestyle. Physical Fitness is made up to 2 parts: Health & Skill related components. (*see last page) What does it mean to be physically fit? Children who are physically fit have enough endurance to participate in moderate to vigorous (high energy) activities before the body fatigues (gets tired). These children can participate longer and play harder than those less fit. Children who are physically fit develop a positive attitude toward an active and healthy lifestyle. Physical Activity: Body movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles. Exercise: A physical activity participated in with the intention of developing physical fitness. Recommendations: Children should accumulate at least 60 minutes, and up to several hours of age-appropriate physical activity on all or most days of the week. Children should participate in several bouts of moderate to vigorous (high energy) exercise lasting 20 to 30 minutes each day. Long term benefits of physical activity (physical activity as a lifestyle): Increased flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardio-respiratory endurance, muscle/fat ratio, mental well being, health, physical ability, and ability to perform every day activities. What are the parts (components) of health-related physical fitness? The 5 components (parts) of health-related physical fitness are: Cardio-respiratory (Heart & Lung) Endurance Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Flexibility Body Composition What do the health-related components mean? Health-Related Physical Fitness Health-related physical fitness consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health. Possessing good health-related fitness is related to lower risk of illness and improved quality of life. 1

2 Cardio-respiratory (Heart & Lung) Endurance - The ability of the heart and lungs to maintain prolonged exercise. - The heart is a muscle that benefits from exercise, as do other muscles. - Moderate to vigorous physical activity performed every day or at least most days of the week for 20 to 30 minutes increases cardio-respiratory endurance. - Cardio-respiratory endurance contributes to feeling good and being healthy. - Some exercises and activities that raise our heart rate and increase our lung capacity include; jumping rope, jogging, swimming, power walking, & bike riding. Immediate body changes or reactions associated with Cardio-respiratory endurance (how the body reacts just after completion of exercise): sweat, tired, fast heart beat, heavy breathing, thirsty, and increased body temperature. Muscular Strength - The amount of power a muscle can produce. The maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can produce during high intensity (heavy work load) & short repetition activities (short/small # of repeated movements). - Muscular strength is specific. Different muscles require different exercises. For instance, the standing long jump is a measure of leg strength/power. - Some activities that increase muscular strength include: pull-ups, push-ups, weightlifting. Muscular Endurance - The muscle s ability to produce power for a long duration. The ability to repeat a movement at low intensity (light work load) & high repetition (large # of repeated movements). - The moderate to vigorous physical activities that develop cardiorespiratory endurance may also develop muscular strength and endurance in the legs. - Upper body strength and endurance (including abdominal muscles) is enhanced through activities that focus on supporting weight on hands, transferring weight involving hands, balances requiring muscular tension, and challenging activities on gymnastics and playground equipment. - Some activities that increase muscular endurance include; curl-ups/seat balances, flexed arm hang. Lifting light weights for many repetitions Flexibility - The ability of muscles to stretch at a joint through a potential range of motion. The ability to bend, stretch, and twist. - Stretching should be performed by breathing out and holding the position for 20 to 30 seconds in order to allow the muscles to relax and lengthen. Stretching should be performed without bouncing. When stretching, mild discomfort is normal. 2

3 - Warm-up activities warm the body to help prepare the needed muscles to stretch more effectively. Both static (without movement) & dynamic (with movement) warm up activities should be included. - Exercises (done as part of a warm-up and cool down routine) that stretch large muscles of the upper and lower body increase flexibility, help reduce the chance of injury to muscles, and prepares the body for physical activity. Body Composition - The relationship between fat mass and fat-free mass in the body (muscle compared to fat). Fat-free mass is made up of all the body s nonfat tissue, including bone, muscle, and vital organs. - Body composition is affected by nutrition, level of physical activity, and heredity (family characteristics or traits from our parents and grandparents ). - A certain amount of body fat is needed for protecting bones and organs, and for proper functioning of the body. - Good nutrition is necessary for good health and total fitness. - Moderate to vigorous physical activity can help decrease the percentage of body fat. The activities that help reduce body fat are the same as those that increase cardiorespiratory endurance. Being physically active is very important for improving this part of health related physical fitness. What is the President s Physical Fitness Challenge? The President s Challenge is a nation-wide program consisting of 5 physical fitness challenges: 1 Mile Run / PACER Cardio-respiratory Endurance Pull-ups / Flexed Arm Hang Upper body Muscular Strength / Endurance Push-ups Upper body muscular strength Standing Long Jump Lower body muscular strength & power Curl-ups Muscular Endurance & Strength (Abdominal) Sit and Reach / Back Saver Flexibility (Low back, hip and hamstring muscles) Why do we participate in the President s Challenge? Training for and participating in the President s Challenge may help us Set goals and strive to reach a higher level of physical fitness; Learn about our health, our strengths and weaknesses and how to improve; Learn the concepts of physical fitness and their importance to our health; Develop proper exercise habits for an active and healthy lifestyle. 3

4 PART II. What are the parts (components) of skill-related physical fitness? The 6 components (parts) of skill-related physical fitness are: Agility Balance Coordination Power Speed Reaction Time What do the skill-related components mean? Skill-related Physical Fitness: consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship with enhanced performance in sports and motor skills. The components are commonly defined as agility, balance, coordination, power, speed and reaction time. Fitness tests that are not directly related to improved health were designated as skill-related physical fitness components. Possession of skill-related fitness abilities enhances ability to perform in sports and games. It is assumed that people who possess skill-related fitness will be more likely to engage in regular activity and for this reason will have enhanced healthrelated fitness and a lower risk of diseases. Agility: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy. - Agility is typically measured using a shuttle or zig-zag run. Tests of agility are common as screening tests among sports teams. - Examples: Shuttle run, dodging & tagging, dance, quickly changing directions Balance: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium (stillness) while stationary or moving. - Balance is typically measured using a balance beam or tests that require holding a stationary posture after changing body positions. Balance is generally considered to be; static (without moving) or dynamic (while you are moving) and symmetrical (seen as similar when viewed from other directions) and asymmetrical (seen as different when viewed from other directions). - Examples: scale/arabesque, riding a bike, walking on a beam, still on 1 foot Coordination: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to use the senses, such as sight and hearing, together with body parts in performing motor tasks smoothly and accurately. - Coordination is typically assessed using measures of hand-eye or foot-eye coordination such as juggling, dribbling a ball or hitting an object. There are, however, many different types of coordination. - Examples: striking a ball, swimming, dance, gymnastics skills, skipping, catching 4

5 Power: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates ability to the rate at which one can perform work. The ability to combine strength and speed. - Power is considered to be a combination of strength and speed (strength + speed = power). It has also been defined as the ability to exert muscle force quickly. For this reason some consider it to be a combination of skill and health-related physical fitness. Examples of power include putting the shot and vertical jumping. There are, however, many different types of power. - Examples: sprinting, high-jumping, distance throwing/jumping, lifting heavy weights quickly Speed: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to perform a movement within a short period of time. The time it takes you to move a certain distance. - There are many different types of speed such as running speed, swimming speed, speed of hand or foot movement to name but a few. Among athletes a 40 yard dash is often used to measure speed. - Examples: running sprints, football receiver, shuttle run, track races Reaction Time: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the time elapsed between one of your senses recognizing a stimulus (body s senses influencing reaction or movement) and the beginning of the body moving in response. - An example of reaction time is when you first begin to move once you hear go to begin the shuttle run. - Another example is moving your fingers to squeeze your brakes on your bike when you need to stop. This example illustrates the fact that in many cases, the total response time more important. Total response time includes stimulus to beginning of movement (reaction time) to end of movement (movement time). Like other measures of skill-related fitness there are many different types of reaction time. - Examples: how long it takes to begin movement during: shuttle run, catching striking. The time it takes the hand to move away from something hot. The Principles of Health-Related Fitness including the FITT Principle A. Frequency: how many times a week a person exercises [should be 4 days or more] B. Intensity: how difficult the activity becomes for a person s heart and muscles to improve [should cause heart rate to increase between 65-85% of heart rate max] C. Time: How long you exercise to improve [should be for 20-30min out of 60min for total daily exercise] D. Type: The exercise used for a specific type of fitness [use a variety of exercises for each part of fitness] E. Specific: only muscles that are worked benefit from exercise & the exercise that is being tested is the best exercise for preparation [include a variety of intensity, time, and type of exercises but spend most time practicing the exercise as it will be performed for test or competition] F. Progression: increase of amount exercise and intensity [should be gradual according to your ability] G. Overload: increase the work to increase fitness [exercise should be performed to exhaustion] Heart Rates A. Resting Heart Rate: the rate of the heart when a person is at rest B. Working Heart Rate: the rate of the heart when a person is involved in physical activity or exercise C. Maximum Heart Rate: the most a person s heart can beat in 1 minute D. Target Heart Rate: the rate the heart must beat during cardio respiratory exercise in order to strengthen the muscle of the heart, usually between 65% to 85% of the maximum heart rate 5

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