1 HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE CONNECTED AGE Ca the Curret Model of Higher Educatio MOOCs Olie Learig? Survive& By Hery C. Lucas, Jr. hat do Borders, Kodak, ad Blockbuster have i commo with America higher educatio? All three orgaizatios failed ad are curretly i bakruptcy. Borders is goe, Kodak is sufferig a ligerig death, ad Blockbuster was bought by Dish, which is gradually shrikig what was left of the compay. Is the same fate i store for U.S. colleges ad uiversities? Most people would argue that the aswer is o, just as the maagers of these three compaies argued that ew techologies would Wot affect their busiess models. 54 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013 ILLUSTRATION BY GEMMA ROBINSON, 2013
2 I do ot believe that all U.S. colleges ad uiversities will disappear as a result of ew techologies, but clearly some will. If higher educatio istitutios embrace the status quo, they will o loger be i cotrol of their ow fate. What is the evidece that there is a serious threat to America higher educatio? The Mierva Project (http://www.miervaproject.com/) proposes to create a top-tier for-profit research uiversity. Studets will live together o differet campuses aroud the world, ad top professors i their fields will stream olie classes to studet semiars. 1 Georgia Tech has aouced a professioal Olie Master of Sciece degree i Computer Sciece (OMS CS) eared through MOOCs i cojuctio with Udacity (http://www.udacity.com) ad AT&T. The program estimates tuitio at below $7,000 for the three years of coursework, expects to eroll 10,000 studets at ay give time, ad has arragemets with 4,500 ceters for proctorig examiatios. 2 Te large public uiversity systems flagship uiversities are formig a partership with Coursera (https://www.coursera.org): Joiig Coursera will be the State Uiversity of New York system, the Teessee Board of Regets ad the Uiversity of Teessee systems, the Uiversity of Colorado system, the Uiversity of Housto system, the Uiversity of Ketucky, the Uiversity of Nebraska, the Uiversity of New Mexico, the Uiversity System of Georgia ad West Virgiia Uiversity. Some systems pla to bled olie materials with faculty-led classroom sessios. Others will offer credit to studets who take the courses olie followed by a proctored exam o campus. 3 Geeratio Rwada (http://www.geeratiorwada.org/) is startig a Ca colleges ad uiversities imagie a future that differs from the higher educatio experiece of the last two hudred years? uiversity based etirely o Massive Ope Olie Courses (MOOCs). The goal is to have a 400-perso uiversity i Rwada with MOOCs providig the cotet ad with teachig fellows hadlig discussios ad tutorig studets. Souther New Hampshire Uiversity will test ad certify associate s degrees. Full-year tuitio is estimated at $1,500 a year or less. Curretly oly 1 percet of Rwada s populatio has a college degree. 4 The Art of Survival How ca istitutios address the threat to higher educatio? I The Search for Survival, I proposed a model for survivig disruptive techologies. 5 New techologies eable a iovator to develop a ew product or service that is great for the iovator but that ca prove extremely disruptive for icumbets. Icumbets ofte fail to respod because of various factors that ihibit recogizig the threat ad takig actio: 1. Deial. We are all accomplished at deyig that somethig will happe. Amherst s faculty voted agaist participatig i MOOCs, Duke s faculty voted agaist a agreemet to joi a cosortium offerig olie courses, ad faculty i the philosophy departmet at Sa Jose State set a ope letter to Michael Sadel, a Harvard professor with a MOOC survey course, refusig their dea s request that they use the course. Deial i higher educatio is alive ad well History. Colleges ad uiversities go back to the coloial days i the Uited States, but a past history of success is o guaratee of future success. 3. Resistace to chage. Most of us resist chage because it is full of ucertaity ad risk. 4. Mid-set. Kodak maagers ad employees had a mid-set that stressed film, ot digital photography. Our mid-set i higher educatio is the traditioal class that meets i a physical classroom. 5. Brad. Just as Borders, Kodak, ad Blockbuster had well-kow brads, may of our colleges ad uiversities work hard to create ad maitai a brad, for example the Ivy League ad the Big Te. 6. Suk costs. Kodak had a huge idustrial campus with maufacturig plats, a large suk cost that was ot eeded for digital photography. Colleges ad uiversities have very large ivestmets i buildigs ad grouds, laboratories, ad libraries, all of which are suk costs. Accoutats say to igore suk costs i makig decisios, but that is hard to do whe the physical campus cotributes to brad ad to emotio, especially alumi emotios. 7. Profitability. Profitability is ot a issue per se for o-profit higher educatio istitutios, but colleges ad uiversities must remai fiscally soud to cotiue i busiess. 8. Lack of imagiatio. Kodak could ot imagie film beig replaced by the Iteret i the world of digital photography. Blockbuster could ot imagie trips to the video store beig replaced by mailed DVDs ad streamig videos. Ca colleges ad uiversities imagie a future that differs from the higher educatio experiece of the last two hudred years? Whether or ot icumbets recogize the threat ad take actio will determie their fate. There are three outcomes i the survival model. The first is to morph oe s busiess model to accommodate a 56 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
3 techological disruptio. This outcome is the least traumatic ad the easiest to accomplish. The secod is to abado oe s preset busiess model ad adopt a ew oe. This outcome is a very difficult udertakig. The last is to fail. This outcome meas declarig bakruptcy ad/or goig out of busiess etirely (e.g., Borders). MOOCs ad Olie Learig The debate about olie educatio ad MOOCs i particular geerates much cofusio because there are so may optios for how these techologies ca be applied. Geerally, however, use of these techologies falls ito four categories: Traditioal Classes. This category of istructio is what we have doe for hudreds of years, with limited techology. Studets meet with a istructor i a classroom settig. Olie Classes. These classes are probably the most misuderstood. There are two subsets withi olie: sychroous ad asychroous. Asychroous olie meas that studets work o their ow schedule, without live iteractio with a faculty member. This kid of class is associated, ufortuately, with forprofit istitutios ad their sometimes dubious busiess practices. Sychroous olie represets the high ed, where all studets ad the istructor meet together olie ad each appears i a video widow. Bleded Classes. May istructors regard bleded classes as the best alterative to traditioal classes. I a bleded course, there is little or o live lecturig: the istructor provides video lectures ad other multimedia materials for studets to view at their coveiece, ad class time is devoted to iteractio through discussio ad problem-solvig. Usually a bleded class is shorter tha a traditioal class because studets are viewig the lectures outside of class time. MOOCs. This relatively ew techological iovatio has captured the most attetio i the press, partially because of courses that have tes of thousads of studets participatig. MOOCs bega as free courses to exted the reach of istitutios ad are evolvig ito a ew way of teachig for-credit courses ad programs. My Experiece I the academic year, I taught a sychroous, fully olie course to 24 parttime MBAs at three of our campuses, usig Adobe Coect. Our sessios lasted 60 miutes, twice a week, durig which we discussed the issues i the course; all lectures were recorded o video, ad studets viewed them at their coveiece. The software for the iteractive sessios placed me ad each studet i a separate widow o the scree, with live audio ad video. 7 I also taught aother techologyehaced course, to full-time MBAs. This was a bleded course. I did o lecturig i class; studets viewed video lectures, ad class time was devoted to cases ad discussio. My third techology-ehaced class was a MOOC Survivig Disruptive Techologies which I offered through the Uiversity of Marylad ad Coursera. I spet may hours, well over 100, plaig the cotet for each of the seve weeks of the course, developig PowerPoit slides for each video, ad recordig ad editig the videos. Coursera recommeds that videos be ot much loger tha te miutes which takes a lot of plaig, give that a typical iclass lecture lasts for a hour or more. I adopted the techology platform recommeded by Coursera: a Wacom tablet coected to my desktop computer ruig Camtasia video capture ad editig software. The tablet displays a scree that duplicates the moitor o my PC ad that lets me aotate slides by uderliig ad circlig poits or by writig o the slide with a pe. Coursera recommeds that istructors provide some actio o the scree; o oe wats to experiece death by PowerPoit. Camtasia also lets me use a widow o the slide to show a video recordig of me while I preset the materials. Some istructors do ot like to appear i these videos. I icluded my video as a part of the presetatio because I wated to create a sese that the studet ad I were havig a coversatio. I had two superb associates helpig me prepare ad offer the course. The 58 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
4 first was Frakie, a miiature dachshud. I the first video for each lesso, I held Frakie i frot of the camera ad discussed a overview of the topics for each week. I may respects, Frakie was more popular tha I was, ad he helped establish a iformal toe for the class. My secod, huma associate worked durig the class to moitor discussio boards ad let me kow whe I should eter a respose. She also chose people, from those participatig i the discussio boards, to ivite to weekly Google Hagouts. 8 I additio, I had excellet support from the istructioal desig staff at the Uiversity of Marylad Divisio of Iformatio Techology. I am ot fod of objective, multiple-choice tests. Istead, the MOOC studets completed two assigmets: a midterm; ad a fial project that required them to idetify a disruptive techology i their coutries ad aswer a series of questios about it. Both exercises employed peer gradig. If studets wated credit for their submissio, they had to grade (aoymously) four other submissios. Coursera s platform supports peer gradig; it performs the radom assigmets of papers to be graded ad awards the media grade to each studet. Compared with some of the very large MOOCs, mie was more like a semiar. Of the 16,000 studets who registered, 8,000 started the class. The first week, about 4,000 were active, a umber that had dropped to 2,800 by the last week. Betwee 600 ad 700 studets completed the term project. The discussio boards were very active, with thousads of posts durig the course. A few hudred studets completed a prelimiary survey, ad I couted slightly uder 100 coutries represeted. Google Hagouts were popular with a small umber of studets; I foud that these sessios made me feel more like I was teachig a regular course because I had direct, iteractive cotact. My course was free to the studets, ad Coursera ecourages istructors ot to use texts or materials that require purchase by the studets. As a result, I did ot give college credit ad I would ot do so i the future for the course as offered. However, with the purchase of articles ad cases ad with a way to verify studets idetities o their submitted work, I would be very comfortable offerig a MOOC for credit. We should wish for MOOCs to cotiue to improve because they offer great potetial, ot just for college studets i the Uited States but for curret ad potetial studets aroud the world. Probably because the course was free ad studets kew I was voluteerig to teach it, I received extremely positive feedback throughout the seve weeks. Near the ed of the course, a group of studets started a thak you topic o the discussio board, where they posted expressios of appreciatio to me (ad to Frakie). What is my coclusio, based o a sample size of oe? I believe that MOOCs have great potetial. I am amazed at studets acceptace of MOOCs. Give that we have about a year s experiece with MOOCs, compared with hudreds of years of experiece with traditioal courses, I thik MOOCs are here to stay. We will solve the problems of verifyig studets idetificatio, providig course materials, proctorig exams ad exercises, ad givig more persoal attetio to studets i these massive classes. I recetly read a article by a academic, writig i a leadig joural, who wished that MOOCs would just go away. I believe that is the wrog attitude. We should wish for MOOCs to cotiue to improve because they offer great potetial, ot just for college studets i the Uited States but for curret ad potetial studets aroud the world. The Opportuities Techology-ehaced learig has the potetial to trasform educatio ad to raise the level of educatio globally. Millios of studets ca experiece a highly regarded faculty member teach a course that they could ever atted o campus. Imagie what this ability could do for developig coutries with udereducated populatios. Colleges ad uiversities ca exted their educatioal missio aroud the globe. Geeratio Rwada is a great example of creatig a uiversity based o MOOCs taught by faculty at leadig istitutios. MOOCs ad olie learig also have the potetial to chage the cost structure of higher educatio. As oted above, Geeratio Rwada expects to offer tuitio of $1,500 or less per year, ad Georgia Tech s olie MS i computer sciece is targeted at uder $7,000 for the etire program. MOOCs do ot require classrooms, dorms, or athletic teams. To maitai quality ad itegrity, however, for-credit MOOCs eed proctorig ad, hopefully, some local discussio of the issues i the courses. The key word here is flexibility. Eve with a heavy travel schedule, a studet ca take the ew olie MBA program (startig i Jauary 2014) offered by the Robert H. Smith School of Busiess at my istitutio, the Uiversity of Marylad. Studets ca joi a sychroous olie class from a hotel room or a Starbucks. I additio, we hope to move to a bleded format for our part-time MBA program; doig so will reduce the 60 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
5 legthy time spet i class after a full day of work (curretly, classes are held from 6:30 to 10:00 p.m.). At the udergraduate level as well, studets ca sped less time o campus ad substitute olie classes for part of their college careers. This strategy would make college available to more studets, sice they could live at home part of the year ad have part-time jobs. A udergraduate who has limited or eve o time o campus misses much of the college experiece, of course, but if the optio is betwee gettig o college educatio or gettig a college educatio olie, the the olie alterative is good for the studet ad his/her coutry. The Threats The first threat to America higher educatio is that MOOCs ad olie courses will raise the level of competitio too high for some istitutios to survive. Colleges ad uiversities have always competed to admit the best studets, but for the most part, oce a studet matriculated, he/she teded to stay at the same istitutio. With olie courses ad MOOCs available from a umber of istitutios, competitio will become more itese ad will move to the level of idividual courses. Will a studet at the Uiversity of Marylad wat to take a freshma ecoomics course from a Marylad faculty member, or will the studet prefer to take a proctored MOOC from a Noble Prize wiig ecoomist at aother uiversity? The secod major threat to America higher educatio is that gettig a college degree will become so uaffordable that studets will be forced ito olie alteratives that do ot ivolve beig o a campus. Colleges ad uiversities could lose studets to alteratives that are based completely o MOOCs, with local discussio leaders ad proctors. A MOOC-based uiversity could operate with a cost structure that is orders of magitude less tha a traditioal U.S. uiversity. A fial threat to America higher educatio ivolves the faculty, who are the oes ultimately resposible for copig with disruptive learig techologies. How should faculty members respod? Some are i a state of deial ad are tryig to keep their istitutios from participatig i MOOCs ad other kids of olie learig. This strategy is a little like Kodak tryig to stop digital photography or Blockbuster tryig to stop streamig videos. It is simply ot goig to work. Some faculty have suggested takig a wait-ad-see attitude. I a recet meetig, a colleague of mie asked if we could just ot do aythig for two years ad see how thigs develop. Two years of doig othig is likely to put a uiversity too far behid to ever catch up. College ad uiversity leaders should ot assume that sice the curret model has bee successful to date, it will cotiue to survive. People used film for almost oe hudred years before they quickly switched to digital photography because it was more coveiet, more fu, ad cost a lot less tha film. All three compaies oted at the begiig of this article Kodak, Blockbuster, ad Borders thought that they could tell customers what to buy. They were wrog. The customers were i charge, ad the customers voted agaist these three compaies. Colleges ad uiversities have ejoyed a ear moopoly o quality higher educatio, but they are ulikely to remai i that positio. A Strategy for Survival To survive, colleges ad uiversities eed to morph their busiess model, as suggested by the first outcome of the survival model. Ca higher educatio leaders overcome faculty members resistace to chage? Colleges ad uiversities are used to maitaiig a leisurely pace of chage; that pace will ot work with today s fast-movig techologies. College ad uiversity leaders should ot assume that sice the curret model has bee successful to date, it will cotiue to survive. Coursera, fouded fiftee moths ago, couts more tha four millio studets havig take its courses. 9 The oly way to succeed i a competitive market is to compete vigorously. Blockbuster waited too log to start a DVD-by-mail program ad a streamigvideo busiess; it failed at both partially because it could ot execute. Colleges ad uiversities caot afford to follow the same path. Oe strategy is to compete by offerig a wide rage of products to meet the eeds of customers that is, studets. If a istitutio caot compete by offerig a wide variety of courses ad programs, aother strategy is to become a iche player ad become the best i the world i a few, specialized courses or programs. Colleges ad uiversities also eed to compete o quality as a service busiess. Studets will cotiue to choose courses primarily o the reputatio of the istructor but also, ow, o the reputatio of the istitutio offerig the course. Fially, istitutios eed to compete by providig a variety of ways for studets to participate i programs, from olie ad bleded courses ad degrees to MOOCs. The college or uiversity will wat to produce ad market its ow MOOCs ad allow studets to take proctored MOOCs from other istitutios as a part of their programs of study. Colleges ad uiversities also eed to look at their cost structures. There is growig cocer that higher educatio is becomig uaffordable except for 62 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
6 the wealthy. The total studet debt i the Uited States reached $1 trillio i 2012, ad as of September 2012, about 15 percet of all studet loa borrowers were i default at the ed of the last six fiscal years. 10 Ad the there is the ubouded growth of college ad uiversity admiistrators: At uiversities atiowide, employmet of admiistrators jumped 60 percet from 1993 to 2009, 10 times the growth rate for teured faculty. A 2010 study foud that from 1993 to 2007, spedig o admiistratio rose almost twice as fast as fudig for research ad teachig at 198 leadig U.S. uiversities. 11 What are all of these people doig? I recetly saw a positio postig for a graduate school associate provost for studet success. Istitutios might wat to examie admiistrative positios to see if they are all really ecessary. Colleges ad uiversities also eed to re-examie their edifice complexes. Cosider the followig: Overall debt levels more tha doubled from 2000 to 2011 at the more tha 500 istitutios rated by Moody s.... I the same time, the amout of cash, pledged gifts ad ivestmets that colleges maitai declied more tha 40 percet relative to the amout they owe.... Some colleges ad uiversities have also borrowed heavily, spedig moey o vast expasios ad ameities aimed at lurig better studets: studet uios with movie theaters ad wie bars; workout facilities with climbig walls ad lazy rivers ; ad dormitories with sigle rooms ad private baths. The debt totaled $205 billio outstadig i With olie courses ad MOOCs, how may ew buildigs does a campus eed?
7 What about the faculty? If ay respose to disruptive techologies is to succeed, faculty members must be persuaded to adopt ew techologies. Based o my ow experiece, I ca testify that (1) teachig i a ew way is frighteig, ad (2) preparig olie ad bleded courses ad MOOCs takes a icredible amout of time ad effort. To have a chace of success, colleges ad uiversities will eed to make massive ivestmets i supportig faculty through salary overloads, teachig assistats, ad a techological ad cosultig ifrastructure for developig ew courses. The best ad possibly the oly strategy for idividual faculty is to figure out how to adopt techology ad how to add value. A faculty member does much more tha teach; he/she decides which topics are the most importat i a course, structures the course, develops teachig materials, ad delivers istructio. What should the ecoomics professor do whe cofroted by a ecoomics MOOC from a Noble Prize wier? Oe aswer is to icorporate ito the class ot oly that MOOC but also a MOOC from aother ecoomist who disagrees with the first oe. A ecoomics course featurig parts of MOOCs from Larry Summers ad Gle Hubbard would be compellig. The professor could desig the course to iclude their debates ad could lead discussios of the topics i the course. I that way, the professor is adoptig techology to add value to the ecoomics course. But let s retur to the survival model for higher educatio istitutios. What do college or uiversity leaders eed to do immediately to compete? Create a sese of urgecy that the istitutio eeds to be proactive i meetig the challeges of techology-ehaced learig. Establish a associate provost positio for bleded ad olie learig to provide leadership o campus. Develop programs for differet markets; beig a first-mover will be a advatage i establishig your brad ad attractig studets. Provide faculty icetives for trasitioig their courses to bleded ad olie formats; it takes a icredible amout of time to create ay type of olie course. Offer ew olie degree programs at the high ed, with sychroous olie classes ad iteractio betwee faculty ad studets. Create ad offer MOOCs to build your brad ad to have a favorable balace of paymets whe studets start takig MOOCs from other istitutios. Cosider offerig a degree through MOOCs. Create a support staff to provide ifrastructure ad cosultig for faculty ad studets. Strive to become more efficiet ad reduce overhead; look first at the umber of admiistrators who do ot teach. Close margial programs; you caot afford them ay loger. Examie the physical campus ad buildig plas; cosider covertig some dorms to hotel dorms for studets who sped some time o campus ad some time away from campus takig olie courses. Develop a pla for classroom buildigs ad physical space as i-perso lectures disappear. Look at teachig potetial across a rage of possible delivery modes whe hirig ad promotig faculty; there is o eed for a star lecturer, but there is a eed for faculty members who ca coect with studets via video techology. Prepare to meet a greater demad for teachig, ad cosider the impact that this demad will have o research. Carefully review the resources devoted to varsity athletics, which are irrelevat to most olie studets. Above all else, act boldly ad imagiatively. Usig differet techology-ehaced learig optios, develop scearios for how the istitutio might look i the ear future ad i the loger term. To survive i a time of rapidly chagig techology, colleges ad uiversities eed to chage their existig busiess models. Each higher educatio istitutio eeds to develop a strategy that will take advatage of the opportuities preseted by techologyehaced learig to expad its educatioal missio ad provide flexibility for 64 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
8 its studets. Developig such a strategy requires leaders to overcome factors that ca ihibit them from takig a proactive respose to techological iovatio. I the ed, a strategy for trasformig the istitutio ad a strategy for survivig the disruptio become oe ad the same. Notes 1. Tamar Lewi, Yearly Prize of $500,000 is Created for Faculty, New York Times, April 22, 2013, educatio/mierva-project-aouces-aual prize-for-professors.html. 2. Georgia Tech College of Computig, OMS CS Public FAQ, 3. Tamar Lewi, Uiversities Team with Olie Course Provider, New York Times, May 30, 2013, uiversities-team-with-olie-course-provider.html. 4. Jessica Leber, I the Developig World, MOOCs Start to Get Real, Techology Review, March 15, 2013, -moocs-start-to-get-real/. 5. Hery C. Lucas, Jr. The Search for Survival: Lessos from Disruptive Techologies (Sata Barbara, Calif.: Praeger, 2012). 6. Steve Kolowich, Faculty Backlash Grows agaist Olie Parterships, Chroicle of Higher Educatio, May 6, 2013, article/article-cotet/139049/. 7. I feel that Adobe Coect has a practical limit of 20 to 25 studets at oe time, give the size of the video widows ad the effort required to maage a class meetig olie. 8. These weekly iteractive olie sessios usig Google Hagouts were limited to te people at a time. The sessios were streamed live to YouTube ad were recorded there for later viewig. 9. George Aders, Coursera Hits 4 Millio Studets ad Triples Its Fudig, Forbes, July 10, 2013, georgeaders/2013/07/10/coursera-hits-4 -millio-studets-ad-triples-its-fudig/. 10. Nacy Aderso, Studet Loa Debt Hits $1 Trillio, Forbes, March 29, 2012, studet-loa-debt-hits-1-trillio-pre-paid -college-tuitio-plas-may-make-a-comeback/; Adrew Marti, A Big Default Problem, but How Big? New York Times, September 8, 2012, a-big-studet-loa-default-problem-but-how -big.html. 11. Joh Hechiger, The Troublig Dea-to -Professor Ratio, Bloomberg Busiessweek, November 21, 2012, -professor-ratio. 12. Adrew Marti, Buildig a Showcase Campus, Usig a I.O.U., New York Times, December 13, 2012, busiess/colleges-debt-falls-o-studets-after -costructio-biges.html?pagewated=all& _r= Hery C. Lucas, Jr. The text of this article is licesed uder the Creative Commos Attributio (by) 3.0 Uported Licese. Hery C. Lucas, Jr. rhsmith.umd.edu) is the Robert H. Smith Professor of Iformatio Systems at the Robert H. Smith School of Busiess, Uiversity of Marylad, College Park. 66 EDUCAUSEreview SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2013
Professioal Networkig 1. Lear from people who ve bee where you are. Oe of your best resources for etworkig is alumi from your school. They ve take the classes you have take, they have bee o the job market
How to use what you OWN to reduce what you OWE Maulife Oe A Overview Most Caadias maage their fiaces by doig two thigs: 1. Depositig their icome ad other short-term assets ito chequig ad savigs accouts.
18 fast-track 18-Moth BACHELOR S DEGREE completio PROGRAMS Oe Goal. 18-Moths. Ulimited Opportuities. www.ortheaster.edu/cps Fast-Track Your Bachelor s Degree ad Career Goals Complete your bachelor s degree
Olie Bakig & The Iteret of Thigs Our icreasigly iteretcoected future will mea better bakig ad added security resposibilities for all of us. FROM DESKTOPS TO SMARTWATCHS Just a few years ago, Americas coducted
WHERE CHANGE IS POSSIBLE gree workspaces AT TIDES, WE HAVE BEEN WORKING WITH PEOPLE LIKE YOU FOR MORE THAN 30 YEARS TO MAKE THE WORLD A BETTER PLACE. Our missio is to parter with philathropists, foudatios,
Hadlig the Collectio Calls We do everythig we ca to stop collectio calls; however, i the early part of our represetatio, you ca expect some of these calls to cotiue. We uderstad that the first few moths
Makig traiig work for your busiess Itegratig core skills of laguage, literacy ad umeracy ito geeral workplace traiig makes sese. The iformatio i this pamphlet will help you pla for ad build a successful
Ke blachard College of BUSINESS a history of excellece Established i 1949, Grad Cayo Uiversity has more tha a 60-year track record of helpig studets achieve their academic goals. The Ke Blachard College
TIAA-CREF Wealth Maagemet Persoalized, objective fiacial advice for every stage of life A persoalized team approach for a trusted lifelog relatioship No matter who you are, you ca t be a expert i all aspects
PENSION ANNUITY Policy Coditios Documet referece: PPAS1(7) This is a importat documet. Please keep it i a safe place. Pesio Auity Policy Coditios Welcome to LV=, ad thak you for choosig our Pesio Auity.
Flood Emergecy Respose Pla This reprit is made available for iformatioal purposes oly i support of the isurace relatioship betwee FM Global ad its cliets. This iformatio does ot chage or supplemet policy
1/5 The Frech Govermet has three objectives : > improve Frace s fiscal competitiveess > cosolidate R&D activities > make Frace a attractive coutry for iovatio Tax icetives have become a key elemet of public
CREATIVE MARKETING PROJECT 2016 The Creative Marketig Project is a chapter project that develops i chapter members a aalytical ad creative approach to the marketig process, actively egages chapter members
Iformatio for Programs Seekig Iitial Accreditatio Aswers to Frequetly- Asked-Questios (from www.abet.org/ew-to-accreditatio/) Assurig Quality l Stimulatig Iovatio This documet iteds to aswer may of the
6. p o s I T I v e r e I f o r c e M e T The way positive reiforcemet is carried out is more importat tha the amout. B.F. Skier We all eed positive reiforcemet. Whether or ot we are cosciously aware of
Impact your future Get Set for College 1. THINK 2. CONSIDER 3. COMPARE 4. APPLY 5. PLAN 6. DECIDE Make plas with good advice from ACT. 1. Thik Thik about yourself ad your college eeds Do you start thigs
60 Baltimore Couty Public Schools offers you several ways to begi savig moey through payroll deductios. Defied Beefit Pesio Pla Tax Sheltered Auities ad Custodial Accouts Defied Beefit Pesio Pla Did you
IT Support IT Support Premier Choice Iteret has bee providig reliable, proactive & affordable IT Support solutios to compaies based i Lodo ad the South East of Eglad sice 2002. Our goal is to provide our
Grow your busiess with savigs ad debt maagemet solutios A few great reasos to provide bak ad trust products to your cliets You have the expertise to help your cliets get the best rates ad most competitive
Iformatio about Bakruptcy Isolvecy Service of Irelad Seirbhís Dócmhaieachta a héirea Isolvecy Service of Irelad Seirbhís Dócmhaieachta a héirea What is the? The Isolvecy Service of Irelad () is a idepedet
Residetial a guide to sellig at auctio Allsop is the market leader for residetial ad commercial auctios i the UK Aually sells up to 700 millio of property at auctio Holds at least seve residetial ad six
udergraduate UNDERgraduaTE DEGREE PROGRAMS Ivest i your greatest asset you. www.ortheaster.edu/cps The College of Professioal Studies Experiece Northeaster Uiversity i a whole ew way. Put yourself o track
529 DC College Savigs Pla Helpig Childre Reach a Higher Potetial reach Sposored by Govermet of the District of Columbia Office of the Mayor Office of the Chief Fiacial Officer Office of Fiace ad Treasury
Solvig Iequalities Say Thaks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythaks (No sig i required) To access a customizable versio of this book, as well as other iteractive cotet, visit www.ck12.org CK-12
Pre-Suit Collectio Strategies Writte by Charles PT Phoeix How to Decide Whether to Pursue Collectio Calculatig the Value of Collectio As with ay busiess litigatio, all factors associated with the process
Questio 1: What is a ordiary auity? Let s look at a ordiary auity that is certai ad simple. By this, we mea a auity over a fixed term whose paymet period matches the iterest coversio period. Additioally,
RECRUITMENT TRENDS SURVEY RESULTS 2 15 It s bee a turbulet few years for recruiters of academic, research ad sciece staff with ecoomic dowturs, icreased competitio ad a variety of ew chaels ad techologies.
INDEPENDENT BUSINESS PLAN EVENT 2016 The Idepedet Busiess Pla Evet ivolves the developmet of a comprehesive proposal to start a ew busiess. Ay type of busiess may be used. The Idepedet Busiess Pla Evet
New editio Jauary 2009 Are you worried about your mortgage? Get advice ow If you are strugglig to pay your mortgage, or you thik it will be difficult to pay more whe your fixed-rate deal eds, act ow to
2014 Meu of Agecy Support Services 17 TOP OF MIND TOUCH POINTS Table of Cotets Turig a moolie customer ito a multi-lie customer icreases retetio by 7x! ORGANIC GROWTH Policy Reewal Appoitmet Calls.4 Life
March 2008 Pesios Legal Alert Amedmets to employer debt Regulatios The Govermet has at last issued Regulatios which will amed the law as to employer debts uder s75 Pesios Act 1995. The amedig Regulatios
CONTRACT ACTION NETWORK Settig Up a Cotract Actio Network This is a guide for local uio reps who wat to set up a iteral actio etwork i their worksites. This etwork cosists of: The local uio represetative,
BANGLADESH INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES Uder Uiversity of Dhaka I collaboratio with Uiversity of Oslo i Norway supported by NOMA Program AN INSTITUTION OF DIABETIC ASSOCIATION OF BANGLADESH I t r o d u
The Forgotte Middle Esurig that All Studets Are o Target for College ad Career Readiess before High School Executive Summary Today, college readiess also meas career readiess. While ot every high school
FM4 CREDIT AND BORROWING Whe you purchase big ticket items such as cars, boats, televisios ad the like, retailers ad fiacial istitutios have various terms ad coditios that are implemeted for the cosumer
DRAFT GA 02-3-1 MEETING OF THE GRADUATE ASSEMBLY THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT ARLINGTON February 15, 2001 The Graduate Assembly meetig of February 15, 2001 was called to order by Chair K. Behbehai at 2:30
Determiig the sample size Oe of the most commo questios ay statisticia gets asked is How large a sample size do I eed? Researchers are ofte surprised to fid out that the aswer depeds o a umber of factors
Ivestig i Stocks Ivestig i Stocks Busiesses sell shares of stock to ivestors as a way to raise moey to fiace expasio, pay off debt ad provide operatig capital. Ecoomic coditios: Employmet, iflatio, ivetory
EXH/B IT TH// TY-SE VE'N Shatto Farms, Ic. Daa Coale Deputy Admiistrator Agricultural Marketig Service U.S. Departmet of Agriculture 1400 Idepedece Aveue, SW Washigto, DC 20250 Ma 5, 2009 Re: Respose to
Bechmarkig to Iform Plaig The EDUCAUSE Core Data Service By Leah Lag Acheck of vital sigs is the first step i ay physical examiatio. A urse measures ad records curret blood pressure, heart rate, respiratio
Measures of Cetral Tedecy A studet s grade will be determied by exam grades ( each exam couts twice ad there are three exams, HW average (couts oce, fial exam ( couts three times. Fid the average if the
A Podiatrists Guide to Earig More, Workig Less ad Ejoyig What You Do Each Day Tyso E. Frakli MOVING OUT OF YOUR COMFORT ZONE 1Years ago, if someoe had told me I d be livig i Cairs oe day I would have laughed.
STUDENTS PARTICIPATION IN ONLINE LEARNING IN BUSINESS COURSES AT UNIVERSITAS TERBUKA, INDONESIA Maya Maria, Uiversitas Terbuka, Idoesia Co-author: Amiuddi Zuhairi, Uiversitas Terbuka, Idoesia Kuria Edah
GOOD PRACTICE CHECKLIST FOR INTERPRETERS WORKING WITH DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SITUATIONS I the sprig of 2008, Stadig Together agaist Domestic Violece carried out a piece of collaborative work o domestic violece
Commercial Real Estate Wome Network About CREW Network Fouded i 1989, CREW Network is the idustry s premier busiess etworkig orgaizatio dedicated to ifluecig the success of the commercial real estate idustry
2014 Meu of Agecy Support Services 10 TOP OF MIND TOUCH POINTS Table of Cotets Turig a moolie customer ito a multi-lie customer icreases retetio by 7x! ORGANIC GROWTH Policy Reewal Appoitmet Calls.4 Life
PUBLIC RELATIONS PROJECT 2016 The purpose of the Public Relatios Project is to provide a opportuity for the chapter members to demostrate the kowledge ad skills eeded i plaig, orgaizig, implemetig ad evaluatig
ODBC Gettig Started With Sage Timberlie Office ODBC NOTICE This documet ad the Sage Timberlie Office software may be used oly i accordace with the accompayig Sage Timberlie Office Ed User Licese Agreemet.
Office of the Privacy Commissioer of Caada PIPEDA Privacy Guide for Small Busiesses: The Basics Privacy is the best policy Hadlig privacy cocers correctly ca help improve your orgaizatio s reputatio. Whe
Review for 1 sample CI Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the oe alterative that best completes the statemet or aswers the questio. Fid the margi of error for the give cofidece iterval. 1) A survey foud that
News SOLELY FOR BENEFIT December 2012 BOARD OF DIRECTORS PRESIDENT Tret White Pharmacists Associatio of Newfoudlad ad Labrador (PANL) SECRETARY/TREASURER Price Edward Islad Pharmacists Associatio (PEI)
Math C067 Samplig Distributios Sample Mea ad Sample Proportio Richard Beigel Some time betwee April 16, 2007 ad April 16, 2007 Examples of Samplig A pollster may try to estimate the proportio of voters
A Leader i Employee Beefits Solutios Special Risk Isurace Prudetial Group Isurace The Prudetial Isurace Compay of America (Prudetial) 0220801 A Results-Drive Solutio From a Name You Kow ad Trust Sice 1875,
Chapter 1 The Big Picture: A Itroductio to Data Warehousig Itroductio I 1977, Jimmy Carter was Presidet of the Uited States, Star Wars hit the big scree, ad Apple Computer, Ic. itroduced the world to the
College of Nursig ad Health care Professios a history of excellece Grad Cayo Uiversity s College of Nursig ad Health Care Professios has bee providig a outstadig health care educatio for over 25 years.
Itegrated Productio ad Ivetory Cotrol System MRP ad MRP II Framework of Maufacturig System Ivetory cotrol, productio schedulig, capacity plaig ad fiacial ad busiess decisios i a productio system are iterrelated.
Predictive Modelig Data i the ACT Electroic Studet Record overview Predictive Modelig Data Added to the ACT Electroic Studet Record With the release of studet records i September 2012, predictive modelig
Wells Fargo Isurace Services Claim Cosultig Capabilities Claim Cosultig Claims are a uwelcome part of America busiess. I a recet survey coducted by Fulbright & Jaworski L.L.P., large U.S. compaies face
Health Ser vices Admiistratio, LLC HSAs the America Fidelity Way: Kowledge, Experiece, Commitmet With over 30 years experiece i providig pre-tax services, America Fidelity is a pioeer i Sectio 125 flexible
Itroductio to the Time Value of Moey Lecture Outlie I. Why is there the cocept of time value? II. Sigle cash flows over multiple periods III. Groups of cash flows IV. Warigs o doig time value calculatios
Idetity Theft is a form of fraud or Idetity theft cotiues to icrease every year ad has impacted millios of Americas. cheatig of aother perso s idetity i which someoe preteds to be someoe else by assumig
REVITALIZING STORES FOR BIG BRAND FRANCHISES Recapitalizatio Frachise ad Restaurats Growth Capital I ve spet my career buildig valuable restaurat frachises for some of the top QSR brads i America. We eeded
Istitute of Fiace Diploma i Secretarial Admiistratio Awarded by the Lodo Chamber of Commerce ad Idustry (LCCI) Startig October 2007 ope for erollmet from July 2007 Be smart start right eroll ow! Eglish
Comfort for Life CAPT CAPF CHPF CAUF CSCF Evaporator Coils www.daikicomfort.com "I'm a Daiki Comfort Pro" Those five simple words ca offer you comfort like you ve ever experieced. The words mea that the
Smart Coected Products & The Iteret of Thigs Who we are Taget delivers Talet Globally. Established for 40 years we specialise i delivery of iovative & tailored talet solutios to customers aroud the world.
Prescribig costs i primary care LONDON: The Statioery Office 13.50 Ordered by the House of Commos to be prited o 14 May 2007 REPORT BY THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL HC 454 Sessio 2006-2007 18 May
For customers Key features of the Guarateed Pesio Auity The Fiacial Coduct Authority is a fiacial services regulator. It requires us, Aego, to give you this importat iformatio to help you to decide whether
Bak Secrecy Act Whether your bak is big or small, Bak Secrecy Act (BSA) compliace ofte feels overwhelmig due to the complexities ad related processes ad procedures surroudig this ever-chagig legislatio.
Housto Housto Idepedet School District Program Name: Implemeted: Program Type: Legal Authorizatio: Weighted Studet Formula 2000-2001 School Year District-Wide School Board Policy School Empowermet Bechmarks
CCH Accoutats Starter Pack We may be a bit smaller, but fudametally we re o differet to ay other accoutig practice. Util ow, smaller firms have faced a stark choice: Buy cheaply, kowig that the practice
Desktop Maagemet 9 Desktop Maagemet Tools Mac OS X icludes three desktop maagemet tools that you might fid helpful to work more efficietly ad productively: u Stacks puts expadable folders i the Dock. Clickig
Higher Educatio: New New Models, Rules HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE CONNECTED AGE The Iteret eables ew models. I the commercial world, for example, we have ebay, Amazo.com, ad Netflix. These ew models operate
Natioal Istitute o Agig AgePage Nursig Homes: Makig The Right Choice Lucille has lived i her home for 33 years. Eve after her husbad died 3 years ago, she was able to maage o her ow. Recetly, she broke
APPENDIX V TWO-YEAR COLLEGE SURVEY GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Coferece Board of the Mathematical Scieces SURVEY OF PROGRAMS i MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE i TWO-YEAR COLLEGES 1990 This questioaire should
Trustwave Leverages OEM Parterships to Deepe SIEM Market Peetratio Accelerated lauch of ew security appliaces delivers reveue growth with assist from UNICOM Egieerig ad Dell OEM Solutios Itroductio Trustwave
Residetial a guide to buyig at auctio Allsop is the market leader for residetial ad commercial auctios i the UK Aually sells approximately 1 billio of property at auctio i the UK Holds at least seve residetial
Busiess Applicatio Services Busiess Applicatios that provide value to your eterprise. Sesiple s expertise ca help orgaizatio decode the performace issues ad trasform them ito valuable beefits that meet
Chapter 8 Key Ideas Hypothesis (Null ad Alterative), Hypothesis Test, Test Statistic, P-value Type I Error, Type II Error, Sigificace Level, Power Sectio 8-1: Overview Cofidece Itervals (Chapter 7) are
A powerful promise The 21st Cetury Scholarship Coveat Keep your eye o the prize. We ll help you reach your goal. The greatest good you ca do for aother is ot just to share your riches, but to reveal to
Health ad detal coverage that begis whe your group health beefits ed Uderwritte by The Maufacturers Life Isurace Compay Page 1 of 5 FollowMeTM Health ca be your solutio. Life is full of chages. Some are
Ideate, Ic. Traiig News 2014v1 Ideate, Ic. Traiig Solutios to Give you the Leadig Edge New Packages For All Your Traiig Needs! Bill Johso Seior MEP - Applicatio Specialist Revit MEP Fudametals Ad More!
reportig solutios Create ad cotrol olie customized score reports to measure studet progress ad to determie ways to improve istructio. isight Customized Reportig empowers you to make data-drive decisios.
How To Fid FINANCING For Your Busiess Oe of the most difficult tasks faced by the maagemet team of small busiesses today is fidig adequate fiacig for curret operatios i order to support ew ad ogoig cotracts.
Study i the Uited States Post Graduate Programs P l a c e m e t S p e c i a l i s t s f o r N o r t h A m e r i c a ISES Opes Doors Iteratioal Studet Educatio Services, Ic. specializes i placig studets
Cofidece Itervals A cofidece iterval is a iterval whose purpose is to estimate a parameter (a umber that could, i theory, be calculated from the populatio, if measuremets were available for the whole populatio).