2013 Nova Scotia. Labour Market Review

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1 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

2 Crown Copyright Province of Nova Scotia, Nova Scotia Department of Labour and Advanced Education, 2014 For more information on Nova Scotia s labour market please visit Recent career publications: High Opportunity Career Options in Nova Scotia, Guide to a Successful Job Search Guide to Planning for Post-Secondary Study Guide to Managing and Growing Your Career Guide to Career Planning with Your Teenager Guide to Understanding Labour Market Information This publication is available online at: This material may be freely copied for educational purposes. ISSN ISBN

3 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review The Nova Scotia Labour Market Review is an annual summary of recent provincial labour market trends on topics such as employment, unemployment, wages, regions, industries, and demographics. It provides labour market information and analysis which enable Nova Scotians to make informed career and employment decisions. The report also helps employers and industries understand and address labour market issues while producing the information needed for the public sector to strategically plan program and service delivery. The primary sources of data for this document come from Statistics Canada s Labour Force Survey, the 2011 National Household Survey and previous Census releases. Overview of the Labour Market Nova Scotia s labour market was relatively stagnant in 2013, with overall employment decreasing by 1,700 (-0.4 per cent) in 2013 compared to The number of people available for work also decreased by 1,500 (-0.3 per cent), and 45,100 (+0.4 per cent) individuals were unemployed. Consequently, the labour force participation rate fell by 0.3 percentage points to 63.8 per cent, and the unemployment rate stayed the same as in 2012 at 9.0 per cent. Overview of Labour Market Labour Force Characteristic Change % Change Population (15 yrs and over) 780, ,400 1, % Labour force 500, ,900-1, % Employment 455, ,800-1, % Full-time employment 366, ,300-1, % Part-time employment 89,300 88, % Unemployment 44,900 45, % Not in labour force 279, ,500 2, % Unemployment rate (%) Participation rate (%) Employment rate (%) Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 1

4 Labour market trends were largely influenced by youth (ages 15 to 24) and those in the 55 and over age groups. While overall full-time employment declined 0.3 per cent, full-time employment for youth grew significantly, by 6.8 per cent (+2,100) in This was the first time there has been positive year-overyear growth in youth full-time employment since The unemployment rate for females was 7.6 per cent in 2013, compared to 10.5 per cent for males. Some regions and sectors performed well during the economic downturn. The Annapolis Valley experienced employment growth of 0.4 per cent, and Halifax grew at 1.0 per cent. On the other hand, employment decreased in three out of the five economic regions of the province in The North Shore had the largest employment decline, at 4.6 per cent. The unemployment rate in Halifax was 6.6 per cent in Though relatively lower than that of other economic regions in Nova Scotia, it was the highest level for the region since Nova Scotia s public and private sectors saw employment declines of 2.8 per cent and 1.4 per cent, respectively, while selfemployment grew by 9.0 per cent. The outlook for Nova Scotia s labour market is expected to improve over the next five years, with positive employment growth and a shrinking number of unemployed. According to the 2014 budget assumptions released by the Nova Scotia Department of Finance, Nova Scotia s real GDP in 2014 is expected to grow by 1.4 per cent. In 2015, Nova Scotia s economic prospects are expected to improve, with real GDP expected to grow by 2.1 per. Nova Scotia s recovery is expected to be supported by improving conditions in the global economy and investment activities in major provincial projects. In all, manufacturing in Nova Scotia is forecast to advance by 2.6 per cent this year, and by a robust 10.1 per cent in Additional jobs will come from the resource sector and the finance insurance industry, as well as from other service-oriented industries. Rising production at the Deep Panuke offshore oil field will help to boost output in Halifax s primary and utilities sector for the second year in a row, following a decline in According to the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council (APEC), labour market requirements for major projects are expected to increase by 5.2 per cent in 2014, taking into consideration major projects that are already under way, in addition to those that are under development or review. Labour Force Participation Rates The labour force participation rate gives an indication of the willingness of those of working age to participate in the labour market. The participation rate for females was lower than for males, with the exception of the 15 to 24 age category. Participation rates decreased from 2012 by 0.4 and 0.2 percentage points for males and females, respectively. Males aged 55 to 64 had the largest increase in participation rates, up 2.5 percentage points in Educational enrolment contributes to lower labour force participation rates for youth. Additionally, retirees are considered non-participants, contributing to the lower participation rates of the higher age groups. Labour Force Participation Rates by Age and Gender, Nova Scotia Ages Males Females Males Females Males Females 15 years and over 67.6% 61.0% 67.2% 60.8% to 24 years 64.0% 66.4% 64.6% 65.9% to 54 years 88.8% 84.0% 88.8% 84.5% to 64 years 66.0% 56.2% 68.5% 57.5% years and over 18.1% 8.4% 16.6% 8.1% Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 *PP = percentage point 2 l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review PP Changes

5 Employment Age Changing demographics are largely behind the pattern of growth of employment observed in the different age groups over the past decade. The 55 and over age group was the only one to experience positive employment growth (+2.7 per cent) in The 15 to 24 and 25 to 54 age groups had employment declines of 1.7 per cent and 1.1 per cent, respectively. Employment for the 55 and over age group has almost doubled since 2003, while it has declined for other age groups. Employment by Age Groups, Nova Scotia Age Group Year % Change % Change 15 years and over 431, , , % -0.4% 15 to 24 years 68,900 63,000 61, % -1.7% 25 to 54 years 311, , , % -1.1% 55 years and over 50,600 95,800 98, % 2.7% Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Gender Employment for females caught up with male employment in 2012 and was slightly higher in Nova Scotia employment has grown by 0.4 per cent since 2008, and female employment, which grew by 1.6 per cent, was responsible for the growth, while male employment decreased by 0.7 per cent during this period. There continue to be differences in the types of industries in which males and females are employed. In 2013, 93.4 per cent of females were employed in the service sector, in comparison to only 68.8 per cent of males. Furthermore, a higher percentage of males (87.6 per cent) were employed in full-time work, in comparison to 73.5 per cent of females in Employment By Gender, Nova Scotia Category Gender Employment (x 1,000) % Change % Change Total, All industries Both sexes % -0.4% Males % -0.7% Females % 0.0% Goods-producing sector Both sexes % 0.4% Males % 1.2% Females % -3.8% Services-producing sector Both sexes % -0.5% Males % -1.6% Females % 0.2% Full-time employment Both sexes % -0.3% Males % -0.3% Females % -0.3% Part-time employment Both sexes % -0.9% Males % -3.8% Females % 0.7% Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 3

6 Employment Type While overall employment declined in Nova Scotia in 2013, the distribution of employment between the different types remained relatively unchanged. Nonetheless, parttime employment decreased overall, while voluntary part-time increased for females (+2.0 per cent) and decreased for males (-4.7 per cent). Involuntary part-time decreased for females (-2.5 per cent) and increased for males (+4.4 per cent). Involuntary part-time represents those who are working part-time due to business conditions or could not find work with full-time hours. Someone may be voluntarily employed part-time because they are in school, or have personal preferences among other reasons. Full-time vs Part-Time, Nova Scotia, 2012 and , , , , , ,000 60, ,300 Involuntary Part-time Voluntary Part-time Full-time 455, , ,800 59, ,300 Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Unemployment Unemployment Trends Unemployment rates in Nova Scotia were generally above the Canadian average for all the different age categories, with the exception of 55 to 59 year olds. In Nova Scotia and Canada, youth tend to have the highest rates of unemployment among the various age categories. Furthermore, youth aged 15 to 24 in Nova Scotia had an unemployment rate of 18.3 per cent in 2013, which was the highest rate among the 10 Canadian provinces. In Nova Scotia, the 55 to 59 years age group had the lowest unemployment rate, at 5.8 per cent, whereas in Canada overall, the 65 years and over age category had the lowest unemployment rate, at 4.3 per cent. Unemployment Rates by Age Groups, Canada and Nova Scotia, 2013 Canada % % % % % Nova Scotia % 15 to 19 years 20 to 24 years 25 to 54 years 55 to 59 years 60 to 64 years 65 years and over Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

7 In Nova Scotia, those with a postsecondary education (PSE) had a lower unemployment rate (7.4 per cent) than the overall provincial unemployment rate. However, the unemployment rates differ across different types of postsecondary education and depend upon where the PSE credential was obtained. Overall, those with a postsecondary education credential obtained in Nova Scotia had a higher unemployment rate than those who obtained their PSE outside Nova Scotia. This trend is highly influenced by those who had a postsecondary education credential below a bachelor level degree. Those with PSE credentials lower than a bachelor s level degree that was obtained in Nova Scotia had higher unemployment rates than those with similar credentials obtained outside Nova Scotia. On the other Unemployment Rates by Postsecondary Education (PSE) and Location of Study, Nova Scotia, 2011 Postsecondary, Overall Apprenticeship or Trades Certificate or Diploma Postsecondary, Below Bachelor s Degree University, Bachelor s Degree University, Above Bachelor s Degree Degree in Medicine, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine or Optometry Master s Degree Earned Doctorate Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) * All age groups with PSE as highest educational attainment Obtained PSE outside Nova Scotia Obtained PSE in Nova Scotia All PSE 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12% hand, those with PSE credentials higher than a bachelor level degree obtained in Nova Scotia had lower unemployment rates, with the exception of those with a degree in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or optometry. Employment Insurance (EI) The seasonally-adjusted number of Nova Scotians receiving regular Employment Insurance benefits has been falling steadily since peaking in the summer of May 2013 saw the lowest number of regular beneficiaries in Nova Scotia since June However, unemployment in the province is still elevated. Regular Employment Insurance Beneficiaries (Seasonally Adjusted), Nova Scotia, April 2007 December 2013 Number of Beneficiaries 40,000 37,500 35,000 32,500 30,000 27,500 25,000 Apr. 07 Aug. 07 Dec. 07 Apr. 08 Aug. 08 Dec. 08 Apr. 09 Aug. 09 Dec. 09 Apr. 10 Aug. 10 Dec. 10 Apr. 11 Aug. 11 Dec. 11 Apr. 12 Aug. 12 Dec. 12 Apr. 13 Aug. 13 Dec. 13 Source: Statistics Canada, Employment Insurance program (EI), CANSIM Table , seasonally adjusted, monthly (persons), Accessed March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 5

8 Regions Population In the past 5 years, all economic regions showed population decline, with the exception of Halifax (+4.8 per cent) and the Annapolis Valley (virtually unchanged). The largest population decline on a percentage basis during these years was in Cape Breton (-5.2 per cent). North Shore and Southern regions showed population declines of 1.6 and 3.3 per cent, respectively over Overall, Nova Scotia s population grew by 0.5 per cent between 2008 and Population Change By Economic Region, Nova Scotia, % 4% 2% 0% -2% -4% 4.8% -5.2% -1.6% 0.1% -3.3% -6% Cape Breton North Shore Halifax Annapolis Valley Southern Source: Statistics Canada, Estimates of population by economic region, CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Employment Halifax and the Annapolis Valley are the only regions in Nova Scotia that had employment gains between 2012 and Halifax had the highest employment gain (1.0 per cent) and North Shore had the highest employment decline (-4.6 per cent) of all regions in Nova Scotia between 2012 and The Halifax region is the only region in Nova Scotia that has had employment gains since 2008 (+7.3 per cent). The Southern region has had the largest decline in employment (-10.9 per cent) of all five economic regions during the same period. Employment by Region, Nova Scotia Region Employment (x 1,000) % Change (count) % Change (count) Nova Scotia % (1,800) -0.4% (-1,700) Cape Breton % (-2,600) -0.2% (-100) North Shore % (-3,100) -4.6% (-3,300) Annapolis Valley % (-1,800) 0.4% (200) Southern % (-6,000) -1.4% (-700) Halifax % (15,400) 1.0% (2,200) Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Unemployment The Halifax region continues to have the lowest unemployment rate (6.6 per cent) in Nova Scotia, with Cape Breton posting the highest (14.1 per cent) in The Southern region posted the largest decline in unemployment rate (-1.0 points) from 2012 to 2013 as the labour force declined at a faster pace than declines in employment. Unemployment rates for all regions were higher in 2013 than they were in 2008, largely due to the lingering effects of the global economic recession. The North Shore region had the highest unemployment rate increase (+2.2 per cent) from 2008, and Cape Breton the lowest (0.9 per cent). Unemployment Rate by Region, Nova Scotia Region Unemployment Rate (%) Change Change Nova Scotia Cape Breton North Shore Annapolis Valley Southern Halifax Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

9 Industries/Occupations Goods-producing Sector Strong employment growth in utilities (+9.5 per cent) and construction (+7.4 per cent) helped to push employment in the goods-producing sector up 0.4 per cent in 2013, compared to Every other industry in the sector experienced declines in employment. In spite of the gains, the unemployment rate continues to be high in goods-producing industries, particularly forestry, where the rate was 23.3 per cent in Agriculture had the highest unemployment rate increase, at 2.9 percentage points. Service-producing Sector Employment in the service-producing sector fell 0.5 per cent overall in 2013, although individual industries within the sector experienced more volatile employment movements. Business, building, and other support services (+15.8 per cent) and professional, scientific, and technical services (+9.4 per cent) grew the fastest among the service industries. The professional, scientific, and technical services have had employment growth for the sixth straight year, contributing towards the thirdlowest unemployment rate among service-producing industries, at 2.8 per cent. Due to significant employment growth, business, building and other support services had the highest decline in the unemployment rate (-2.5 points) from Despite the employment gains in 2013, business, building and other support services had the second-highest unemployment rate (9.2 per cent) in the service-producing sector. Accommodation and food services had the highest unemployment rate (11.3 per cent). Industry Employment & Unemployment Rate, Nova Scotia Industry Group Employment (x 1,000) Unemployment % change Rate (%) 2013 Goods-producing sector % 13.0 Agriculture % 17.2 Forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, oil and gas % 23.3 Utilities % x Construction % 13.8 Manufacturing % 8.1 Services-producing sector % 5.0 Trade % 4.7 Transportation and warehousing % 5.7 Finance, insurance, real estate and leasing % 2.6 Professional, scientific and technical services % 2.8 Business, building and other support services % 9.2 Educational services % 3.9 Health care and social assistance % 2.1 Information, culture and recreation % 9.0 Accommodation and food services % 11.3 Other services % 5.6 Public administration % 3.3 Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 7

10 Occupations In 2013, six out of ten occupational groups had increased employment, though overall employment decreased by 0.4 per cent from Business, finance, and administrative occupations experienced the largest decrease (-5.7 per cent) in employment from 2012 to Occupations in art, culture, recreation, and sport had the largest employment increase (+12.0 per cent). Sales and service occupations continued to employ the largest number of people, accounting for 26 per cent of overall employment. Despite having employment growth of 2.6 per cent, occupations unique to primary industry had the largest unemployment rate (22 per cent) in Management occupations had the lowest unemployment rate (+2.8 per cent). The overall unemployment rate in Nova Scotia was 9.0 per cent. The highest median hourly wage in 2013 was in management occupations ($32.05), while the lowest was in sales and service occupations ($14.30). Occupational Employment, Unemployment & Median Hourly Wage, Nova Scotia Occupation Group Employment (x 1,000) % Change Unemployment Rate (%) 2013 Median Hourly Wage, 2013* Total, all occupations % 9.0 $20.00 Management occupations % 2.8 $32.05 Business, finance and administrative occupations % 4.2 $19.78 Natural and applied sciences and related occupations % 5.2 $29.00 Health occupations % x $24.00 Occupations in social science, education, government service and religion % 3.9 $26.44 Occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport % 6.3 $21.98 Sales and service occupations % 6.4 $14.30 Trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations % 11.8 $20.91 Occupations unique to primary industry % 22.0 $14.50 Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities % 9.6 $18.23 Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 * For workers aged The share of employment in the service-producing sector increased nationally and provincially between 1993 and Halifax and Cape Breton regions had the highest share of employment in the serviceproducing sector in That year, Cape Breton had five times the number of individuals employed in the service-producing sector as in the goods-producing sector, while in Halifax that ratio was just shy of 7:1. With the exception of Halifax, the other four economic regions experienced an employment shift towards the service-producing sector in 2013, compared to The North Shore and Cape Breton regions experienced the largest employment shifts towards the service-producing sector. Between 1993 and 2013, the number of individuals employed in the service-producing sector in Halifax fluctuated between six to eight times that of individuals employed in the goods-producing sector. 8 l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

11 Service-to-Goods Sector Employment Ratios by Region, Nova Scotia, 1993 and Canada Nova Scotia Southern Annapolis Valley North Shore Cape Breton Halifax Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed April, 2014 Hiring Demand Job Postings Online job postings follow a seasonal pattern, with peak postings taking place in the spring and summer months. Since February 2010, the highest number of online job postings occurred in May 2010, and the lowest in December The monthly average of online job postings in 2013 was 2,825, which was higher than the monthly average (2,630) in 2012 but lower than the monthly average (2,926) observed in Online Job Postings, Nova Scotia 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 Number of Postings 3-Month Moving Average (Job Postings) 1,500 Feb Jun Oct Feb Jun Oct Feb Jun Oct Feb Jun Oct Feb Source: Wanted Technologies, New Jobs (Excludes Bulk employers, Anonymous employers, third party postings and Kijiji), Accessed, March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 9

12 Job Postings by Occupation Natural and Applied Sciences and Related Occupations, Health Occupations, and Management Occupations were the only occupational groups with monthly average online job postings in 2013 that were higher than those observed in However, all occupational groups, with the exception of Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing, and utilities, had gains in monthly online job postings in 2013 compared to Average Monthly Online Job Postings by Occupation; Nova Scotia, Management Occupations Business, Finance and Administrative Occupations Natural and Applied Sciences and Related Occupations Health Occupations Occupations in Social Science, Education, Government Service and Religion Occupations in Art, Culture, Recreation and Sport Sales and Service Occupations Trades, Transport and Equipment Operators and Related Occupations Occupations Unique to Primary Industry Occupations Unique to Processing, Manufacturing and Utilities Source: Wanted Technologies, New Jobs (Excludes Bulk employers, Anonymous employers, third party postings and Kijiji), Accessed, March, l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

13 Diversity Groups A comparison of selected diversity groups in Nova Scotia reveals that only immigrants had a lower unemployment rate (8.7 per cent) than that of the province as a whole (10.0 per cent) in Aboriginal peoples experienced the highest unemployment rates, at 15.0 per cent for the overall population and 27.6 per cent for those living on-reserve. While the participation rate for those aged 15 to 64 in Nova Scotia as whole was 74.9 per cent, the rates for selected diversity groups in 2011 were lower with the exception of immigrants (75.4 per cent). While most groups fell below the provincial average rate, the largest disparity was for aboriginal identity living on reserve. Diversity Overview, Nova Scotia, 2011 Population Group Population Aged 15 and Over Employment Unemployment Rate Participation Rate (Aged 15-64) Nova Scotia 768, , % 74.9% Visible Minority, Total 35,965 19, % 66.6% Visible Minority, Black 14,905 8, % 70.5% Aboriginal Identity, Total 25,685 13, % 67.5% Aboriginal Identity, On Reserve 5,995 2, % 53.0% Immigrants, Total 44,655 24, % 75.4% Immigrated, ,485 5, % 69.0% Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) Unemployment Rate After the economic downturn in 2009, Nova Scotia recorded an increased unemployment rate. The increased unemployment rate was more pronounced for visible minorities (+2.5 per cent) than for all of Nova Scotia (+0.8 per cent). The increase was highest for the black population in particular (+2.7 per cent). Unemployment Rate Visible Minorities, Age 15-64, Nova Scotia % % 10% % % 0% Nova Scotia, Total Visible Minorities, Total Visible Minorities, Black Source: Statistics Canada, Census 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 11

14 Employment Growth Immigrants and non-permanent residents (student, work permit holders, temporary foreign workers or refugee claimants) constituted 5.7 per cent and 0.5 per cent, respectively, of employed people in Nova Scotia in Between 2006 and 2011, Nova Scotia s employment growth was largely due to the contribution of immigrants and non-permanent residents. Their respective shares of the overall employment growth in Nova Scotia were 13.4 per cent and 28.1 per cent, respectively. Share of Employment by Immigration Status, Nova Scotia, Ages 24 to % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0.5% 5.7% 93.8% Non-immigrants Immigrants Non-permanent residents 28.1% 13.4% 58.6% 0 Share of Employment, 2011 Share of Employment Growth, Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Educational Attainment Rates of postsecondary educational attainment vary across diversity groups, with immigrants having the highest rate in Nova Scotia, at 77 per cent, in 2011 (among adults aged 25 to 64). Postsecondary educational attainment for recent immigrants (those who immigrated between 2001 and 2011) was 84 per cent. The black population and those who reported Aboriginal identity had the lowest percentages of postsecondary educational attainment (54 per cent and 59 per cent, respectively) and were also the only groups with a postsecondary educational attainment lower than that of Nova Scotia as a whole (64 per cent). Educational Attainment by Diversity Groups, Nova Scotia, Ages 25-64, % % Less than High School % High School % Postsecondary 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Nova Scotia Aboriginal Identity Visible Minority, Total Visible Minority, Black Nonimmigrants Immigrants, Total Immigrants, Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) 12 l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

15 Employment Income Immigrants with a postsecondary educational attainment who worked full-time, full year had a higher median employment income ($53,356) than that of non-immigrants ($49,939) and of the overall Nova Scotia median employment income ($50,008) in The median income for recent immigrants who worked full-time year-round was relatively close to that of non-immigrants. On the other hand, fewer immigrants (64 per cent) worked full-time year-round compared to non-immigrants (68 per cent). Only 53 per cent of recent immigrants (immigrated ) worked full-time year-round; hence, their median income ($33,053) for all work activity was lower than that of non-immigrants ($40,862) and of immigrants overall ($40, 090). Median Employment Income, Nova Scotia, 2010 All Work Activity Worked Full-time/Full Year $55,000 $50,000 $45,000 $40,000 $35,000 $30,000 $25,000 Total Non-immigrants Immigrants, total Immigrated, Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 13

16 Wages & Benefits Wages The median hourly wage for employees at the national level grew 2.9 per cent in 2013, while it remained the same in Nova Scotia. The average annual growth in median wages between 2008 and 2013 was 3.2 per cent for Nova Scotia, compared to 2.3 per cent for Canada. The median wage for the goods-producing sector in the province had a higher growth rate (3.6 per cent) than that of the service-producing sector (1.7 per cent) in 2013, compared to On the other hand, the five-year average growth rate in median hourly wages was higher for the service-producing sector. The median hourly wage for males grew 3.5 per cent in 2013, which was more than double the growth observed for females (+1.2 per cent). However, the five-year average growth (3.4 per cent) in median income for females was higher than for males (3.0 per cent). Lastly, the median hourly-wage growth rate for parttime employment was higher than that for full-time employment in 2013 from 2012, and on average between 2008 and Median Hourly Wages, Nova Scotia Median Hourly Wages Annual % Average Annual Category Change Change Canada $18.75 $20.40 $ % 2.3% Nova Scotia $15.38 $18.00 $ % 3.2% Goods-producing sector $17.00 $19.30 $ % 3.3% Services-producing sector $15.00 $17.50 $ % 3.5% Males $17.00 $19.05 $ % 3.0% Females $14.42 $16.80 $ % 3.4% Full-time $16.92 $19.23 $ % 3.1% Part-time $10.00 $11.50 $ % 3.8% *Minimum Wage $8.10 $10.15 $ % 5.4% Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 *Ministry of Labour, Hourly Minimum Wages in Canada for Adult Workers Unionized Wages The median hourly wage for unionized employees ($24.00) was $8.46 higher than that for non-unionized employees ($15.50) in Nova Scotia in Among the ten provinces, only Quebec ($23.44) and Manitoba ($23.55) had lower median unionized wages. Nova Scotia s median hourly-wage growth from 2012 for unionized and non-unionized wages was 2.3 per cent and 3.6 per cent, respectively. Median Hourly Wage by Union Status, Nova Scotia, $25.00 $ $15.00 $10.00 $5.00 $0.00 Union coverage No union coverage Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

17 Education & Training Educational Attainment The level of education in Nova Scotia is substantially higher than it was 20 years ago. Close to a third of the province s population (31.2 per cent) aged 25 to 64 had less than a high school education in 1993, compared to just 12.1 per cent in Those with a postsecondary credential accounted for 46.4 per cent of the population in 1993, compared to 65.5 per cent in The proportion of the province s population with education above a bachelor s degree continues to increase and stood at 9.9 per cent in Educational Attainment, Nova Scotia, Ages 25-64, 1993 and % % % 10% % Less than High School High School Graduate Some Postsecondary Postsecondary, Below Bachelor s Bachelor s Degree Above Bachelor s Degree Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Canadian Comparison The percentage of Nova Scotians (aged 25 to 64) without a high school diploma (12.1 per cent) in 2013 was higher than the national average (10.4 per cent). On the other hand, a slightly greater share of Nova Scotia s adult population has a post-secondary education (65.5 per cent) than does Canada s (64.5 per cent). The percentage of those with at least a bachelor s degree was higher in Canada (19.2 per cent) than in Nova Scotia (16.3 per cent). However, Nova Scotia had a higher proportion of the population (aged 25 to 64) with a degree above the bachelor s level (9.9 per cent) than did Canada overall (9.1 per cent). Educational Attainment, Nova Scotia and Canada, Ages 25-64, % 36.2 Canada Nova Scotia 30% 20% % % Less than High School High School Graduate Some Postsecondary Postsecondary, Below Bachelors Bachelor s Degree Above Bachelor s Degree Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 15

18 Unemployment Rate The unemployment rate typically varies across levels of educational attainment, with lower rates for those with high levels of education. This trend is similar to unemployment rates by educational attainment observed at the national level. However, unemployment seems to be more severe for those with lower levels of education in Nova Scotia than it is overall in Canada. In Nova Scotia, those with high school as the highest educational attainment had an unemployment rate (9.6 per cent) that was more than double of that for those who had a bachelor s degree (4.0 per cent), whereas at the national level it was only 1.5 times higher. Nova Scotia s population with an educational attainment lower than a high school diploma had an unemployment rate (14.0 per cent) that was 3.4 times higher than that of those with a bachelor s degree. In comparison, at the national level, the unemployment rate Unemployment Rate by Educational Attainment, Canada vs Nova Scotia, Ages 25+, 2013 Total, all Education Levels Less than High School High School Graduate Some Postsecondary Postsecondary, Below Bachelor s Degree Bachelor s Degree Above Bachelor s Degree Canada (10.6 per cent) of those with less than a high school education was only 2.3 times higher. Generally, overall unemployment rates in Canada are lower than Nova Scotia s. However, for levels of educational attainment higher than a postsecondary credential, below a bachelor s degree, Nova Scotia s unemployment rates are lower than Canada s. Nova Scotia Unemployment Rate (%) Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey (LFS), CANSIM Table , Accessed March, 2014 Income Nova Scotia s employment income data shows that, on average, individuals with higher levels of education have higher annual employment incomes. The median income for those with a postsecondary educational attainment below bachelor level was $6,519 higher than that for those with a high school diploma, and $10,904 higher than that for those with less than high school. The differences were even greater when compared to those with a university bachelor s degree and above. The median income for those with a university bachelor s degree and above was $27,046 higher than that for those with a high school diploma and $31,431 higher than that for those with less than a high school education. Median Employment Income by Educational Attainment Nova Scotia, 2010 $75,000 All Work Activity Worked Full-time/Full Year $60,000 $45,000 $30,000 $15,000 $0 Less than High School High School Graduate Postsecondary, Below Bachelor s Degree University, Bachelor s Degree and Above Source: Statistics Canada, 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) 16 l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

19 Glossary of Labour Market Information Terms Aboriginal Identity: Includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis, or Inuk (Inuit); and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status, that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada; and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit, and Métis peoples of Canada. Baby Boom/Baby Boomers: A sharp increase in the fertility rate and in the number of births following World War II, from 1946 to 1965, caused a population boom, which is referred to as the Baby Boom period. Individuals born during this period are often referred to as baby boomers or boomers. Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System (CANSIM): Statistics Canada s key socioeconomic database. The database contains information on a wide variety of topics, including but not limited to agriculture, culture, demographics, economic accounts, education, energy, finance, health, international trade, justice, labour, natural resources, prices, and transportation. Census Metropolitan Area (CMA): A very large urban area, with a population of at least 100,000, together with adjacent urban and rural areas that have a high degree of economic and social integration with that urban area. Demographics: Refers to selected population characteristics such as age or sex. Economic Region: Defined by Statistics Canada as a grouping of complete census divisions, created as a standard geographic unit for analysis of regional economic activity. There are five Economic Regions in Nova Scotia (Annapolis Valley, Cape Breton, Halifax, North Shore, and Southern). Educational Attainment: The share of persons holding a particular level of education as their highest. For example, if 20 people out of a population of 200 hold a high school diploma as their highest level of education, then the educational attainment rate for a high school diploma would be 10 per cent. Employed: Those who worked for pay or profit, or had a job and were absent from work, as determined during the Labour Force Survey reference week. Employment Rate: The number of employed persons expressed as a percentage of the working age population (the population 15 years of age and over). Goods-producing Sector: The industries that are primarily involved in the extraction and manufacturing of goods that tend to be raw and/or unfinished in nature. These industries include agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, oil and gas extraction, utilities, manufacturing, and construction. Immigrant: Refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant/permanent resident. This person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Some immigrants have resided in Canada for a number of years, while others have arrived recently. Some immigrants are Canadian citizens, while others are not. Involuntary Part-Time Employment: Persons who are working less than 30 hours per week, and who looked for, but could not find, full-time work. The involuntary part-time employment rate is calculated by dividing the number of involuntary part-time persons by the total number of persons working part-time. Labour Force: The civilian, non-incarcerated population 15 years of age and over who, during the Labour Force Survey reference week, were employed or unemployed. Labour Force Participation Rate: The total labour force expressed as a percentage of the population aged 15 years and over. Labour Force Status: A descriptor that indicates an individual s status in the labour market. An individual is either employed, unemployed and looking for work, or not in the labour force. Labour Force Survey: A monthly survey administered by Statistics Canada capturing information on employment, unemployment, industry, unionization, wages, etc. It includes the civilian, non-institutionalized population 15 years of age and over. Excluded from the survey s coverage are residents of the Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut; persons living on reserves and other Aboriginal settlements within the provinces; full-time members of the Canadian Armed Forces; and inmates of institutions a sample representing approximately 2 per cent of the population Nova Scotia Labour Market Review l 17

20 Labour Market Information (LMI): Knowledge, facts, data, and other relevant information on the supply and demand of labour. Essentially, LMI includes any information that can be used to assist in labour market decisions. Types of decisions that rely on LMI include policy decisions by governments and other institutions; and career, job, education, training, and other decisions made by individuals in the labour market. Median: The median is the point at which exactly half of the data are above and half below. These halves meet at the median position. National Occupational Classification (NOC): The nationally accepted reference on occupations in Canada. It organizes over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions. Non-immigrants: Refers to a person who is a Canadian citizen by birth. Not in the Labour Force: Individuals who are unable or unwilling to offer or supply labour services in the labour market. Examples include stay-at-home parents, full-time students, and retired individuals. Discouraged workers who have given up looking because they believe there is no work available also fall into this category. Projected Job Openings: The Canadian Occupational Projection System (COPS) produces estimates of job openings. The numbers reflect the combination of expansion demand (net employment growth) and replacement demand (deaths plus retirements). General turnover in the labour market as individuals change jobs is not captured in the estimation approach. Temporary Layoff: Persons who have been temporarily released by their employer but have a definite date to return to work or an indication from their employer that they will be recalled in the future. Underemployment: Underutilization of human resources. There are two types of underemployment: people who work on a part-time basis but want to work full-time and are unable to find full-time employment, and people who work in full-time positions that do not use their full range of skills, experience, and education. Unemployed: Those who were available for work and were either on temporary layoff, had looked for work in the past four weeks, or had a job to start within the next four weeks (as determined during the Labour Force Survey reference week). Unemployment Rate: The number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force. Visible Minority: Refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-caucasian in race or non-white in colour. The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean, and Japanese. Working Age Population: The working age population as defined by the Labour Force Survey is those aged 15 and older. Core working age population is often referred to as those aged Recession: A period of slow or negative economic growth, indicated by two consecutive quarters of falling GDP. Seasonal Unemployment: Occurs when people in a particular occupation or industry have regular periods of unemployment during the same period each year. Service-producing Sector: The industries that are primarily concerned with the delivery and exchange of goods and services in the marketplace. This includes industries such as retail and wholesale trade; business, building, and other support services; finance, insurance, real estate, and leasing; accommodation and food services; health care and social assistance; educational services; information, culture, and recreation; and transportation and warehousing. 18 l 2013 Nova Scotia Labour Market Review

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