1 Retirement Readiness in New York City: Trends in Plan Sponsorship, Participation and Income Security Figures and Tables by the Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA) Joelle Saad Lessler, Teresa Ghilarducci, and Kate Bahn April 2, 2014 The percentage of workers in the New York region who have any type of retirement plan a traditional plan or a more widespread 401(k) plan is falling steadily, having decreased from 49% to a mere 41%. In the U.S., the coverage rates are higher, but they too are falling. 70% Figure 1. Sponsorship rates in NYC and the US, 2001 and % 50% 40% 30% 49% 41% 61% 53% 20% 10% 0% New York City US Source: Current Population Survey, March Supplement, and Sample is limited to persons ages who worked at some point in the last calendar year. NYC sample is limited to residents of the five counties of NYC.
2 Older workers, public sector workers, white workers, people working for large firms, are slightly better off than men. Those in unions are much better off, yet still saw a decrease. Table 1. Declines in Retirement Plan Sponsorship Rates by Social, Economic and Personal Worker Characteristics, New York City and US, 2001 and 2011 New York City United States Change % Change Average Coverage rates 49% 41% 17% 61% 53% 13% Men are worse off 47% 38% 19% 61% 52% 15% 55 64, near retirees a little higher 55% 50% 10% 60% 56% 6% Whites are a little better off 59% 50% 15% 65% 57% 11% Employees: Big firms better off 75% 65% 13% 82% 75% 9% Workers covered by a Union Contract are better off 71% 70% 1% 85% 82% 4% Source: CPS March Supplement, and Note: NYC sample is limited to residents of NYC age who worked in the previous calendar year. US sample is limited to US residents age who worked in the previous calendar year. Percentages in the table are rounded. See the status for the whole population in the appendix. The average wealth of older worker households those at their peak wealth years looks large. But the median where half are above and below is very small. Single households have $22,521, while married couples have much more at $417,394. Table 2a. Net Worth (including home equity) of Older s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State, 2011 Single Person Married Couple Other s Average $151,778 $550,202 $174,052 Median $22,521 $417,394 $27,334 metropolitan areas. Age of the household is based on the age of the household reference person. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel. Net worth consists of investment, business equity, real estate, home equity, the value of mobile homes, retirement savings less debt owed. Other households include unmarried partner households, and households where the parent of the reference person lives in the household.
3 The average wealth of all worker households is less, and so is the median. Table 2b. Net Worth of All s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State, 2011 Single Person Married Couple Other s Average $121,536 $408,202 $114,659 Median $8,507 $299,200 $4,000 metropolitan areas. Age of the household is based on the age of the household reference person. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel. Net worth consists of investment, business equity, real estate, home equity, the value of mobile homes, retirement savings less debt owed. Other households include unmarried partner households and households where the parent of the reference person lives in the household. Median wealth stretched over a lifetime does not yield a livable replacement rate without a DB plan. Older workers replacement rate at age 65 the highest year of their retirement life is only % for workers without DB plans. Table 3. Replacement Rates of Near Retirement Individuals Aged by Primary Retirement Plan Type Primary Retirement Plan Type DB DC None Replacement Rate 90% 48% 51% Source: 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Panel. Replacement rates were calculated using the AARP retirement calculator for a single male age 62 in 2014, assuming the rate of return on savings before and after retirement of 3%, an annual raise rate of 1%, inflation rate of 1%, income tax rate of 11%, tax rate in retirement of 8%, and end of life at age 87. We used median values of earnings from the primary job/business, the value of liquid assets and retirement savings minus debt, and the projected value of DB balances for those who have them in the calculator. A complete table with the values of those inputs in available in the technical appendix.
4 APPENDIX Appendix Figure 1. Employment Status and Sponsorship for NYC Residents, 2011 Not Working 31% (1,378,820) Working 69% (3,090,201) Sponsored 41% (1,259,496) Not Sponsored 59% (1,830,705) New York City Working Age Civilian Population = 4,469,021 Source: Average of three years of pooled data from Current Population Survey, March Supplement. Percentages in chart are rounded. Working includes those at work, or those who have a job, but were not at work. Not working includes the unemployed and those out of the labor force. Sample excludes those serving in the Armed Forces. Appendix Figure 2: Sponsorship and Participation Rates for New York City Workers, 2011 Not Sponsored 59% Sponsored 41% Participating 87% Not Participating 13% New York City Employed Population = 3,090,201 Source: Current Population Survey, March Supplement. Notes: Sample is limited to NYC residents age who worked at some point in the previous calendar year and were not serving in the Armed forces. Percentages in chart are rounded.
5 Appendix Table 1: Detailed Analysis of DB and DC Participation by Social, Economic, and Personal Characteristics for Workers in NY State Metropolitan Areas, Defined Benefit Defined Contribution No Plan at Work All Workers 12% 38% 50% Gender Female 10% 39% 51% Male 14% 38% 48% Race White 13% 42% 45% Black 10% 33% 57% Asian 8% 42% 50% Hispanic 11% 29% 59% Other 6% 27% 68% Age % 36% 56% % 39% 46% Worker Classification % 42% 41% Private Sector Worker 8% 39% 53% Public Sector Worker 32% 48% 20% Self Employed 4% 12% 85% Firm Size* Under 51 employees 2% 38% 60% 51 to 100 employees 19% 38% 44% 101 to 500 employees 10% 57% 33% More than 500 employees 13% 37% 50% Income Group Low ($1 $30,008) 7% 20% 74% Middle ($30,009 $57,312) 13% 43% 44% High (more than $57,312) 17% 53% 30% Industry Construction 5% 28% 67% Manufacturing 17% 49% 34% Wholesale Trade 5% 41% 54% Retail Trade 8% 29% 63% Transportation, Warehousing and 22% 33% 45% Information Services 11% 48% 41% Finance, Insurance & Real Estate 10% 59% 31% Professional, Scientific, Management 5% 40% 55% Education, Health Care, Social 15% 40% 44% Arts, recreation, accommodation & 2% 22% 76% Other Services 3% 19% 78% Public Administration 34% 47% 19% Source: 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Panel. Sample limited to residents of NY State metropolitan areas ages who worked at some point in the reference period (December 2011 Mar 2012), had positive earnings, were not unpaid family workers, and were not in the agriculture, forestry, or fishing sectors. Firm size is tabulated for workers for their primary job (not for business owners). Firm size refers to numbers of employees at this employer at all locations.
6 Appendix Table 2a. Total Liquid Assets of Near Retirement s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State, Includes those with no assets. Total Liquid Assets No. of s Percent of Total s Mean Income Median Income Less than $10, ,485 40% $39,132 $21,984 $10,000 to $99, ,095 17% $57,712 $51,708 $100,000 to $299, ,041 20% $98,597 $74,424 $300,000 or more 304,928 24% $132,264 $105,204 Total 1,278,549 metropolitan areas. Age of the household is based on the age of the household reference person. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel. Liquid assets comprise of financial investments, retirement savings, money owed for the sale of a business and other assets, including real estate and mobile homes not used as primary residence. Appendix Table 2b. Total Liquid Assets of All s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State, Includes those with no assets. Total Liquid Assets No. of s Percent of Total s Mean Income Median Income Less than $10,000 2,136,922 44% $39,981 $29,100 $10,000 to $99, ,707 20% $76,602 $55,044 $100,000 to $299, ,442 18% $100,445 $80,016 $300,000 or more 910,960 19% $129,248 $103,920 Total 4,869,031 metropolitan areas. Age of the household is based on the age of the household reference person. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel. Liquid assets comprise of financial investments, retirement savings, money owed for the sale of a business and other assets, including real estate and mobile homes not used as primary residence.
7 Appendix Table 3a. Total Liquid Assets of Near Retirement s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State by Retirement Plan Type, Includes those with no assets. s with DB Plans s with DC Plans s without a Retirement Plan with Their Current Employer Assets/Liabilities Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Investments $133,356 $21,600 $142,859 $50,000 $43,886 $600 Other Assets $37,119 $0 $45,020 $0 $13,480 $0 Retirement Savings (IRA, $82,136 $43,889 $120,034 $60,000 $15,803 $0 KEOGH, 401K, 403B) Debt $7,896 $300 $6,106 $800 $2,561 $0 Total Assets less Debt Number of s 183, , ,724 Home Equity $110,427 $68,000 $135,960 $74,000 $88,328 $0 Income $109,739 $91,224 $121,674 $91,140 $54,690 $43,344 metropolitan areas who worked at some point in the reference period (December 2011 Mar 2012), had positive earnings, were not unpaid family workers, and were not in the agriculture, forestry, or fishing sectors. s with DB plans may also have a DC plan, while households with DC plans are defined as those who only have a DC plan. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel.
8 Appendix Table 3b. Total Liquid Assets of All s Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State by Retirement Plan Type, Includes those with no assets. s with DB Plans s with DC Plans s without a Retirement Plan with Their Current Employer Assets/Liabilities Mean Median Mean Median Mean Median Investments $161,969 $57,400 $123,413 $22,000 $32,503 $200 Other Assets $25,946 $0 $17,015 $0 $26,692 $0 Retirement Savings (IRA, $98,997 $47,000 $75,124 $24,600 $13,881 $0 KEOGH, 401K, 403B) Debt $11,985 $1000 $7,488 $800 $7,092 $0 Total Assets less Debt Number of s 599,132 1,678,481 1,656,850 Home Equity $118,632 $69,000 $91,115 $18,000 $53,044 $0 Income $117,258 $96,408 $108,143 $81,240 $52,183 $40,680 metropolitan areas who worked at some point in the reference period (December 2011 Mar 2012), had positive earnings, were not unpaid family workers, and were not in the agriculture, forestry, or fishing sectors. s with DB plans may also have a DC plan, while households with DC plans are defined as those who only have a DC plan. Information on assets 2012) of the SIPP 2008 panel.
9 Appendix Table 4. Replacement Rates of Near Retirement Individuals Aged in Metropolitan Areas of New York State, by Primary Retirement Plan Type Primary Retirement Plan Type DB DC None Replacement Rate 90% 48% 51% Earnings $57,996 $51,840 $21,600 Liquid Assets $24,877 $27,500 $2,000 Retirement Savings $19,000 $50,000 $ Debt $ $200 $ Assets minus debt $43,877 $77,300 $2,000 Projected DB Balance $24,491 $ $ Source: 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) Panel. Replacement rates were calculated using the AARP retirement calculator for a single male age 62 in 2014, assuming the rate of return on savings before and after retirement of 3%, an annual raise rate of 1%, inflation rate of 1%, income tax rate of 11%, tax rate in retirement of 8%, and end of life at age 87. We used median values of earnings from the primary job/business, the value of liquid assets and retirement savings minus debt, and the projected value of DB balances for those who have them in the calculator.
10 Appendix Figure 3. Pension Sponsorship and Participation in Historical Perspective, US and NYC 60% 55% 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% US Participation Rate NYC Participation Rate US Sponsorship Rate NYC Sponsorship Rate Source: March Supplement data from the CPS, from the IPUMS data.
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