Climate and Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates. The Suitability of Passive Houses for Iran's Dry and Cold Climate. Farshad Nasrollahi

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1 Climate and Energy Responsive Housing in Continental Climates The Suitability of Passive Houses for Iran's Dry and Cold Climate Farshad Nasrollahi

2 Table of Contents Abstract German Abstract Introduction 1 Research Problem 1 State of Knowledge 2 Research Questions 2 Research Area 2 Methodology and Structure 3 Chapter One: Climate and Architecture 6 Introduction 7 Energy 9 Climate 9 Macro Climate 10 Meso Climate 10 Local Climate 10 Microclimate 10 Climatic Factors 11 Air Temperature 12 Wind 12 Solar Radiation 12 Components of Solar Radiation 12 Amount of Solar Radiation 13 Cloudiness Index 14 Precipitation 14 Atmospheric Humidity 14 Indoor Climate 15 Comfort Zone 15 Difference in Comfort Zones 17 Climate Responsive Buildings 19 Building 19 Building Shape 19 Compactness and Elongation 20 Orientation 20 Floor Plan Design (Room Location and Arrangement) 21 Thermal Envelope 23 Windows 23 Walls 24 Roofs 24 Colours of the Wallsand Roofs 24 Materials 25 Thermal Insulation 25 Bioclimatic Chart 26 Building Bioclimatic Chart 26 Heating 28 External Gains.28 Solar Heating 28 Passive Solar Heating Systems 29 Direct Gain 29 XIV XVI IV

3 Non-Diffusing Direct Gain System 29 Diffusing Direct Gain System 29 Direct Gain Sunspace 30 Indirect Gain 30 Mass Wall 30 TrombeWall 30 Water Wall 30 Remote Storage Wall 30 Simple U-Tube Collector 30 Thermosiphoning Wall 30 Roof Pond 31 Shaded Storage Roof 31 Isolated Gain 31 Sunspace System 31 Barra-Costantini System 31 Black Attic System 31 Thermosiphon System 31 Dual Gain 31 Internal Gains 33 Household Appliances 33 Lighting 33 Occupancy Heat 33 Cooling 33 Passive Cooling 33 Solar Control 35 Shading Devices 35 Shading Coefficient 35 Typology of Shading Devices 36 Positional Typology of Shading Devices 36 External Shading Devices 36 Internal Shading Devices 37 Mid-Pane Shading Devices 37 Moveability Typology of Shading Devices 37 Fixed Shading Devices 38 Movable Shading Devices 38 Retractable Shading Devices 39 Overhang 39 Awning 39 Vegetation 40 Tree 40 Vine 41 Venetian Blind 41 Exterior Venetian Blind 41 Interior Venetian Blind 41 Louver 42 Roller Blind 42 Sunscreen 42 Drapery 43 Egg-crate 43 Conclusion 43 Thermal Mass 45 Natural Ventilation 45 Single Side Ventilation 46 Cross Ventilation 46 Stack Ventilation 46 Wind Scope 47 Evaporative Cooling 48 V

4 Water 48 Vegetation 49 Evaporative Cooling and Natural Ventilation 49 Natural Ventilation over Water Ponds and Vegetation 49 Wind Tower with Water Pond 50 Earth Cooling and Natural Ventilation 51 Earth Cooling, Natural Ventilation, and Evaporative Cooling 51 Green Roofs 51 Night Cooling 52 Night Structural Cooling (with Thermal Mass) 52 Night Radiative Cooling 52 Green Roofs, Evaporative Cooling and Natural Ventilation 53 Natural Ventilation and Evaporative Cooling (Wind Towers, Windows and Vents with Wet Surfaces) 53 Hybrid Cooling 53 Subsoil Heat Exchanger (Earth Cooling) 54 Night Cooling (with Storage of Night-Cooled Water) 54 Green Roof and Evaporative Cooling 55 Night Cooling and Evaporative Cooling 55 Chapter Two: Iran 57 State of Knowledge 58 Iranian Fuel Conservation Organization (IFCO) 58 Iran Energy Efficiency Organization (IEEO) 58 Renewable Energy Organization of Iran (SUNA) 59 Literature Analysis 59 Building Energy Regulations 59 Practical Experiences 60 Result 60 Climate 61 Climatic Zones 61 General Climatic Regions 61 Winter and Summer Climatic Regions 62 Cold Climatic Zone 63 Climate of the City of Tabriz 63 Climatic Parameters of Tabriz (Climatic Data) 64 Air Temperature 64 Air Humidity 65 Solar Radiation 66 Orientation and Solar Radiation 68 Solar Radiation Incident for Tilted South-Facing Surfaces 69 Orientation and Solar Radiation in Heating and Cooling Periods 70 Precipitation 70 Wind 71 Energy 72 Natural Gas 73 Electricity 74 Renewable Energy 75 Energy Consumption by Sectors 75 Energy Consumption by Buildings 77 Residential and Commercial Energy Consumption by Fuel Type 77 Energy Price 78 Building 80 Introduction 80 Traditional Housing in Tabriz 80 VI

5 Traditional Housing Examples for Tabriz 82 House 1 82 House 2 83 House 3 84 House 4 85 Results 85 New Individual Low-Rise Houses of Tabriz 86 Houses and Neighbourhood Typology 88 Privacy 89 Construction Materials 90 Energy Saving Regulation in Buildings 90 Heating and Cooling 91 Chapter Three: Germany 93 State of Knowledge 94 Comparison of Iran and Germany 95 Climate 96 Climatic Zones 96 Solar Radiation 100 Precipitation 102 Climate of Munich 103 Climatic Parameters of Munich (Climatic Data) 104 Air Temperature 104 Comparison of Surfaces with Different Orientations 104 Energy 106 Energy Consumption 106 Electricity Generation 106 Energy Import 107 Renewable Energy 108 Building 109 Normal Buildings 109 Low Energy Houses 110 Passive Houses Ill Heat Loss 112 Insulation 113 Thermal Bridge 113 Air Tightness 114 Blower Door Test 115 Air Change with Ventilation Systems 115 Heat Exchanger 116 Subsoil Heat Exchanger 119 Heating System 120 Windows 120 Window Orientation 120 Window Glass 120 Solar Heat Gain of Windows 121 Window Frame 122 Passive House Windows 122 Advantages of Passive House Windows 122 External Doors 123 Passive House Characteristics 123 Passive House Standards 124 Energy Supply of Passive Houses 125 Use of Passive Solar Heating System in Passive Houses 126 Use of Direct Gain in Passive Houses 126 VII

6 Use of Indirect Gain in Passive Houses 126 Remote Storage Wall System 127 Use of Remote Storage Wall Systems in Passive Houses 127 Simple U-Tube Collector 127 Use of U-tube Collectors in Passive Houses 128 Passive Houses in Summer 128 Energy Use of Household Appliances 128 Chapter Four: Analysis 129 Introduction 130 Comparison of Iran and Germany 131 Climate 131 Comparison of Climate of Tabriz and Munich 131 Air Temperature 133 Relative Humidity 133 Solar Radiation 135 Wind 136 Heating and Cooling Degree Days 137 Psychrometric Chart Comparison 140 Climate Comparison Results 141 Heating (Winter) 141 Cooling (Summer) 142 Energy 143 Building 145 Indoor Air Temperature (Comfort Zone) 145 Energy Consumption of Buildings 146 Building HVAC System 146 Economy 147 Building Energy Simulation in Iran 148 Building Energy Software Tools 148 EnergyPlus 149 DesignBuilder 150 Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) 151 Climate Consultant 151 GAEA 151 Economic Evaluation (Oeko-Rat) 152 Input Data 152 Climate Data Analysis 153 Psychrometric Analysis 153 Heating 154 Cooling 154 Temperature Timetable Plot 155 Sun Chart and Sun Shading Chart 156 Passive Houses in the Cold Climatic Region in Iran 159 Introduction 159 Energy Demand of Buildings with the Same Insulation 161 Comparison of Buildings 4 and Comparison of Buildings 4 and 5 with Equal Insulation Thickness 162 Comparison of Buildings 4 and 5 with Equal Energy Needs 164 Effect of the Number of Stories on Insulation 164 Insulation Material of Single-Level Passive Houses 164 Insulation Material of 1 and 3-Story Passive Houses 165 Insulation Material of Multi-Story Passive Houses 167 Comparison of Buildings with and without a Basement 168 VIII

7 Building Components of Passive Houses 169 Windows 169 Effect of Triple Glazed Windows on Energy Need 169 Effect of Double Glazed Window on Energy Need 170 Comparison of Double and Triple Glazed Windows 171 Use of Conventional Masonry Materials for Walls of Passive Houses 172 Thickness of Brick Walls in Passive Houses 172 Use of Hollow Clay Tile or Solid Brick in the Walls 173 Proportion of Wall and Roof Insulation Thickness 174 Thickness of Insulation Material in Iran's Passive Houses 175 Depth of Subsoil Heat Exchanger 175 A Simulation of the Subsoil Heat Exchanger 177 Results of Simulations 179 Simulation of Architectural Elements 180 Introduction 180 Windows 181 Different Window Area for a Single Orientation 181 Triple Glazed Window with External Blind 181 Matching Window Ratio at Every Orientation 185 Double Glazed Windows with External Shading Devices 185 Varying Amounts of East, West and North-Facing Window Areas in Buildings with a 100% South- Facing Window Ratio 186 East and West-Facing Windows 186 North-Facing Windows 187 Shading Devices 188 Effect of Shading Devices on Energy Demand in Triple Glazed Windows with Same Window Ratio in Different Orientations 188 Effect of the Size of External Shading Devices on Energy Demand 190 Comparison of Different External Shading Devices 192 Comparison of Internal and External Blinds 193 Operation Type of Shading Devices (External Blinds) 193 Effect of External Blinds and Overhangs 194 Effect of Overhang Size on Buildings with External Blinds 195 Result of Shading Devices 196 Elongation 197 Orientation 198 Roof 199 Roof Pitch 199 Skylights on Flat Roofs 200 Simulation of Buildings with Different Architectural Designs 201 Introduction 201 Comparison of Energy Demand of All Simulated Buildings 208 Comparison of Energy Demands of Similar Buildings 208 Effect of Insulation on Energy Consumption 208 Comparison of Building 2 and Similar Buildings 209 Comparison of Building 3 and a Similar Building 209 Comparison of Building 4 and a Similar Building 210 Comparison of Building 5 with a Similar Building 210 Comparison of Building 6 with a Similar Building 211 Comparison of Building 7 with a Similar Building 211 Comparison of Building 8 with Similar Buildings 212 Comparison of Building 9 and Similar Buildings 212 Comparison of Heating and Cooling Energy Demands 213 Comparison of an Existing Building and Other Insulated Buildings 213 Comparison of Insulated and Uninsulated Existing Buildings and Other Insulated Designed Buildings 213 Comparison of Insulated Designed Buildings (in Four Groups) 214 IX

8 Comparison of Heating, Cooling and Total Energy Demands of Insulated Buildings 214 Comparison of the Least and the Most Efficient Buildings 215 Results 219 Economic Analysis 221 Economic Evaluation with the Energy Price in Iran 223 Economic Evaluation with the Average Energy Price of other Countries 224 Heating and Cooling Mechanical Equipment (HVAC System) 226 Introduction 226 Heating Systems 226 Classification of Central Heating Systems Based on Fuel Type 226 Classification of Central Heating Systems Based on the Type of Medium 226 Cooling Systems 227 Classification of Cooling Systems Based on Cooling Medium 227 Heat Pump 227 Choosing an Appropriate HVAC System for Passive Houses of Iran 228 Ventilation System 230 Results 232 Heater-Cooler System 232 Heat Pump System 233 Chapter Five: Conclusion and Recommendation 235 Conclusion 236 Technological Evaluation Economic Evaluation 237 Results 238 Windows 239 Shading Devices 239 Results of Simulation 240 Recommendations 243 Recommendations to the Government and Energy Authorities 243 Recommendations to the Researchers 243 Discussion 244 References Appendix 258 Climate 258 Cloudiness Index 259 Energy Consumption of Buildings in Tabriz and Munich 261 Atmospheric Comfort and Danger Zones 262 Daily Graphs of Simulated Buildings 263 EnergyPlus output data of simulation of one of simulated buildings S X

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