Combined Heat & Power. Discussion with Connecticut Energy Advisory Board. February 23, 2010

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1 Combined Heat & Power Discussion with Connecticut Energy Advisory Board February 23, 2010

2 Discussion Topics Introduce NRG Thermal Representative NRG Thermal projects District Energy Combined Heat and Power What is Combined Heat and Power (CHP)? Why do clients consider CHP? Reliability benefits Economic benefits Environmental benefits Financial structuring benefits What clients are good candidates for CHP? 1

3 Discussion Topics What challenges do CHP projects face? What government initiatives are being taken to promote CHP? Thoughts for consideration 2

4 Introduce NRG Thermal 3

5 NRG Energy (parent company) NRG Energy is an Independent Power Producer Annual revenues ~$7 billion Listed on NYSE under NRG Owner and Operator of ~24,000 MW of generation Strong regional presence in Northeast South Central Texas California Fuels include gas, oil, coal, nuclear, wind, solar 4

6 NRG Thermal NRG Thermal is a wholly owned subsidiary of NRG Energy created to develop own operate and maintain thermal energy systems primarily (i.e., steam, hot water, chilled water & electricity) ~$150 million in annual sales 3 billion pounds of steam 100 million tons-hours of chilled water 135 million kilowatt-hours of electricity primary focus is on: district energy systems combined heat and power (CHP) plants 5

7 NRG Thermal District Energy Systems: NRG Energy Center Minneapolis NRG Energy Center Harrisburg NRG Energy Center Pittsburgh NRG Energy Center San Francisco NRG Energy Center San Diego Minnesota New Jersey Washington California Pennsylvania Delaware Combined Heat and Power Plants: NRG Energy Center Dover (coal & nat gas) NRG Energy Center Paxton (nat gas) NRG Energy Center Freehold (nat gas) Camas (Camas, WA) (biomass) Saguaro (Henderson, NV) (nat gas) NRG Energy Center San Diego (nat gas) University Medical Center of Princeton (nat gas) 6

8 Representative NRG Thermal projects 7

9 NRG Thermal District Energy Systems: NRG Energy Center Minneapolis 8

10 NRG Energy Center Minneapolis Installed Capacities steam 1.2 million pounds per hour chilled water 35,000 tons ~150 customers 9

11 NRG Energy Center Minneapolis 10

12 NRG Energy Center Minneapolis 11

13 NRG Thermal District Energy Systems: NRG Energy Center Minneapolis Combined Heat and Power Plants: NRG Energy Center Dover 12

14 NRG Energy Center Dover Installed capacities steam - 70,000 pounds per hour electricity megawatts (14+2x44) Serving Kraft Foods Proctor & Gamble PJM grid 13

15 NRG Thermal District Energy Systems: NRG Energy Center Minneapolis Combined Heat and Power Plants: NRG Energy Center Dover University Medical Center of Princeton at Plainsboro 14

16 University Medical Center of Princeton CHP plant (to be on line December 2011) 15

17 University Medical Center of Princeton CHP plant (to be on line December 2011) NRG Thermal will: design build own operate maintain finance the entire project. 16

18 What is combined heat and power (CHP)? 17

19 What is Combined Heat and Power (CHP)? exhaust heat fuel CHP Plant power Typically Fuel - natural gas Heat - steam and/or hot water Power - electricity Note: steam or hot water or electricity can be used to generate chilled water 18

20 What is Combined Heat and Power (CHP)? exhaust ~25% fuel 100% CHP Plant heat ~40% power ~35% System shown has efficiency of ~75% Note: conventional systems: ~ 45% - 50% efficient (electric only systems: ~30%-35%) CHP systems: ~ 65% - 85% efficient 19

21 Why do clients consider CHP? 20

22 Why CHP? 1. Reliability benefits 2. Economic benefits 3. Environmental benefits 4. Financial structuring benefits 21

23 1. Reliability Benefits Why CHP? Improved reliability derives from: on-site electric generation (in addition to grid electric supply) additional redundancy 22

24 1. Reliability Benefits Why CHP? University Medical Center of Princeton - CHP Example electricity grid supply (2 feeds) emergency backup generators 4.6 mw gas turbine generator steam conventional boilers heat recovery steam boilers with gas turbine system duct fired boilers with gas turbine system chilled water electric chillers absorption chiller thermal storage Note: conventional plant + CHP addition 23

25 2. Economic benefits Why CHP? Improved operating economics derive from: significantly higher operating efficiencies ~75% for CHP ~50% for conventional heat & power (~33% power only) For a given amount of useful energy generated, CHP systems consume less fuel (because they are more efficient), and therefore lower costs to run very sophisticated software & hardware operating methodologies 24

26 2. Economic benefits Why CHP? 25

27 Why CHP? 3. Environmental benefits Less environmental impact derives from: significantly higher operating efficiencies ~75% for CHP ~50% for conventional heat & power (~33% power only) For a given amount of useful energy generated, CHP systems consume less fuel (because they are more efficient), and therefore generate fewer emissions natural gas is a very clean fuel 26

28 Why CHP? 3. Environmental benefits (e.g., less CO 2 ) CHP emits less than ½ of the carbon emitted with conventional electric generation and heating in most buildings 27

29 Why CHP? 4. Financial structuring benefits Financial structuring benefits derive from firms like NRG Thermal investing their capital to: design build own operate maintain in CHP systems Clients can get the benefits (reliability, economic, environmental), without having to invest their capital freeing up that for investments in their core competencies 28

30 What clients are good potential candidates for CHP? 29

31 Potential candidates for CHP? Clients who: 1. need very reliable energy supplies (e.g., hospitals, data centers, pharmaceutical & other research facilities, high-value commercial real estate) 2. have large loads and high energy densities (i.e., energy required / square foot) 3. have coincident electrical & thermal loads (preferably 24/7/365 requirements) 4. are paying high prices for electricity 5. value environmental stewardship 30

32 What challenges do CHP projects face? 31

33 Challenges to CHP? 1. Utility electric rate structures 2. Interconnection issues 3. Environmental permitting 4. Tax treatment 32

34 What government initiatives are being taken to promote CHP? 33

35 Government initiatives to promote CHP 1. Significant support from DOE and EPA 2. Favorable federal tax treatment - Investment tax credit - Accelerated depreciation 3. Relaxed constraints on selling power generated by CHP plants 4. Feed-in tariffs for CHP in some states 5. Alternative compliance payments for CHP in some states 6. Steps toward standardized interconnection requirements 34

36 Thoughts for consideration 35

37 THANK YOU Tim Johnson NRG Thermal LLC (302)

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