1 1 CGF & Data Fusion for Simulating Harbor Protection & Asymmetric Marine Scenarios Agostino G. Bruzzone MISS DIPTEM Genoa University URL:
2 2 Objectives To provide an Overview on the Modern Complex Scenarios and to identify the related Challenges To present the Potential of Modeling & Simulation (M&S) within this Framework To Outline on enabling Technologies and Solutions for succeeding: i.e. CGF (Computer Generated Forces) and Data Fusion Methodologies To present Examples and Approaches in this context
3 3 The Real World: Multi Dimension and Multi Layer Resolution A Real World on 5 Dimensions: Surface Underwater Air Space Cyber A Multi Layers & Resolutions Frame Fleets and Parties Ships and Commercial Traffic Crew & People Acceding Ports/Vessels Services & Infrastructures
4 M&S for Port Protection and Asymmetric Naval Warfare 4 It is necessary to Create Models and Modules able to Interoperate within a Federation for including the critical Components of such Scenarios: Non Conventional Operations Human Behaviors on (i.e.crew, Stakeholders, Domestic Opinion) Services & Infrastructures Commercial Traffic & Yachting Port Infrastructures and Resources Joint Operations (i.e.ship Inspections, Litoral Control, C5I2 ) Community, Consensus, Cooperation, Communication, Cybernetics, Intelligence and Intuition, Command & Control, Computers, Communication, Co-ordination, Intelligence & Information Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Counter-Measures, Intelligence and Inter-Operability
5 5 Using IA, CGF and HBM in Marine Frameworks New IA (Intelligent Agents), CGF (Computer Generated Forces) & HBM (Human Behavior Modeling) represent Strategic Issues in different Application Areas such as: Simulation Based Acquisition and Test & Analsysis Capability to Proceed in Data Farming on Different Hypotheses on Vessel and System Design on Virtual Prototypes Training and Exercise Reduction of human personnel for Training & Exercising New Scenarios involving Dynamic Simulated Complex System vs. the old pre-defined scripts Operational Planning Reducing Time for Planning Development due to the reduction of human experts employed in the different roles Possibility to Experiments different Alternatives by replicated runs carried out in Automatic way Mission rehearsal and conduct operations Capability to keep the simulation on-line and to conduct statistical experimental analysis
6 6 Vessel Modeling: Critical Elements & CGF Role Vessel Platform Weapon Systems Vessel Systems Vessel Subsystems Crew & Human Factors Threats Ship Services Logistics Infrastructures External Traffic Litoral Resources NEC Players
7 7 Vessel Traffic and Naval Asymmetric Warfare The IA-CGFs need : To be able to adopt Intelligent Behaviors conservative and smart use of sensors adopting behavior of general traffic compromising info source grouping and desegregating on the coast To have Capabilities in Scenario Awareness and To have Capabilities in term of Autonomy To have capabilities in Coordinating different Agents
8 Intelligent Agents Measurable Characteristics 8
9 IA-CGF Experiences & Background 9 Experiences and Demonstration have been achieved by use of Intelligent CGF (i.e. PIOVRA, Polyfunctional Intelligent Operational Virtual Reality Agents) where the following Object was created: Comportment Objects are dedicated to the simulation of actors that represents behaviors of Parties, Movements or other Entities (i.e. Pirates, Local Authorities, etc.). Action Objects representing active entities (i.e.vessels, Terrorist, Cargo) or events (i.e. Riots); Action Objects are referencing corresponding Comportment Object with mutual and are characterized by mutual influence Support Objects include objects representing influent phenomena corresponding to boundary conditions such as Environment Data Representation including Zone, Layer and Weather Objects.
10 10 Action & Comportment Objects The different Units are driven by the Agents and apply different procedures and ROE based on: Their configuration and Nature The Perception of the Scenario The Order Received The Previous Experiences
11 11 IA-CGF Elements The new IA-CGF Modules devoted to create the CIMIC simulation include: IA-CGF Units IA-CGF Human Behaviors IA-CGF Non-Conventional Frameworks
12 12 IA-CGF Units IA-CGF Units are a set of interoperable units with capability to be integrated in constructive simulation Police Gangs Pirates Local Population Cargo Traffic Yachting Local Authorities Warlords Criminal Organizations NGOs Cyber Services Air Traffic Domestic/National Situation (for instance for troops moral): Population Media Lobbies International Public Opinion International Diplomacy New Threats (i.e. 2nd Generation Terrorists) These are examples of non-conventional units controlled by IA-CGF
13 13 IA-CGF Human Behaviors Specific modules with IA-CGF Human Behaviors: Fear Stress Fatigue Training Level Aggressiveness Crew Harmony Combat Skills/Experience Other Factors (i.e. Ethnic, Religious, Social) IA-CGF Human Behaviors operate as a set of further characteristics to be added to each unit in constructive simulation. i.e. now in constructive simulation every unit in the scenario have infos about status and type of ammo, by IA-CGF it will be added dynamic information about level of fear and stress and the Units performing according to it
14 14 IA-CGF Non-Conventional Frameworks It is important to consider the integration in a scenario of the IA-CGF-Non- Conventional Frameworks (IA-CGF-NCF), each simulating specific events: IA-CGF FRAMEWORKS Food Distribution Cargo Inspection and Area Protection Logistics Support IA-CGF Homeland Security and Civil Protection FRAMEWORKS Natural Disaster (i.e. Hurricanes, Earthquakes) Man Made Disasters (i.e. Explosion, Hazardous Material Spills) Evacuation Oil Platform Accident IA-CGF PSYOPS and INTELLIGENCE FRAMEWORKS Possible integration with Sibilla Serious Game for Intelligence Officers training In non conventional scenarios for particular training purposes. We can imagine to have active different non conventional Frameworks, in different locations, with different level of detail inside the simulated theater.
15 Human Factors and Marine Simulation 15 The complexity to Coordinate Humans in not-conventional operations for improving their coordination and capabilities to face complex challenges is a well known element in Navy Today it is becoming important to models Human Factors as element of a Vessel for Simulating their capabilities in reacting to threats
16 16 Impact on Local, Regional & Domestic Population Event Direct Perception Zone Object Attenuation Factors The evolution of the situation requires models such as: Civilian Attitude Model: describes changes in population attitude as a result of Host Nation actions and insurgency activities, and perceived good/bad actions. Social Network Model: helps to describe civilian response to new factors that interact with civilian behaviors, social structures and specific communication parameters as hierarchy and message contents. Economic Model: describes how the economic decision of a Host Nation can affect and impact the attitude and activities of entities. TV Media Radio Press Media Diffusion Web Comportment Object Mutual Influence Action Comportment Zone Zone Objects Objects Impact Factors Action Object Action Object Action Object Zone Objects Social Interactions Action Object Action Object Action Object Action Object
17 17 Experimental Analysis & VV&A as Critical Elements Probabilità [%] Probability Probabilità di Identificare il Bersaglio BayesianoNO-FL) ( 1 Non Cooperatività [1-3] CooperativeBehavior Influenza [Contrasti] A B C D 2.5 Sensitivity Analysis AB BC AC AD BD 3 1 CD Variabili & Combinazioni ABC 1.5 BCD A: ESM Fusion B: Radar Fusion C: IFF Fusion D: Fuzzy Logic CDA ABD ABCD Example of Response Surface Methodology and Design of Experiments obtained by running FLODAF Air Naval Simulator on Scenarios for detecting abnormal behaviors 3 Ostilità [1-3] Hostility Level Influenza [Contrasti] A B C D Sensitivity Analysis AB BC AC AD BD CD Variabili & Combinazioni ABC BCD Probability Probabilità [%] A: ESM Fusion B: Radar Fusion C: IFF Fusion D: Fuzzy Logic CDA ABD ABCD Probabilità di Identificare il Bersaglio BayesianoFL) ( Ostilità [1-3] 1.75 Hostility Level Cooperative Behavior NonCooperatività [1-3]
18 Example of Scenario JFCOM Haiti Demo 18
19 Example of Mutual Influence among Population 19 The Attitudes among the IA are based on Fuzzy Representation and their interaction are regulated y Artificial Intelligence techniques
20 20 IA-CGF NCF Riots & IA-CGF NCF Humanitarian Support The Simulation include impact of food distribution point and tactical operation on population human factors such as aggressiveness, fear, stress and fatigue
21 21 Computer Generated Forces & Data Fusion Data Fusion is critical to support CGF in understanding the Scenario Evolution and in reproducing Complex Scenarios Usually we identify Threats based on the Platform Detection Identification and Classification In Some case the same Platform is in use on multiple sides In some case the Platform is becoming a Menace just based on own it is operating
22 Data Fusion Areas of Investigation 22 Area for Basic Processing Area for Detection, Location, Identification Mare Magnum for Complex Scenarios Sensors Alerts & Info Data Fusion Environment Level One Object Refinement Data Alignment Level Two Situation Situation Ass. Level Four Process Process Refin. Support Database Other Info Sources Preliminary Filtering & Processing Association, Correlation Database Management System Others Sources Data Collection Position Fusion Identity Fusion Level Three Impact Impact Assessment Level Five Cognitive Cognitive Refin. Situation Database Data Fusion Simulation/Evaluation Interface Man/Machine
23 23 Blended Approach in Term of Methods Data Fusion Techniques Physical Models Inferential Techniques Cognitive Models Simulation Estimation Kalman Filtering Parametric Classical Inferential Bayesian Information Theoretic Parametric Templates Neural Networks Fuzzy Set Theory Logical Templates Maximum Likelihood Syntactic Image Algebra Dempster - Shafer Generalized Evidence Processing Voting Methods Pattern Recognition Entropy Measure KBS
24 24 Creating Complex Scenarios Not-Cooperative Behaviors in Other Entities Risk of Sensors & Information Sources Compromised Failures and Services Needs Foes adopting new Strategies
25 25 Agents Driving General Traffic & Critical Entities Agents have to be devoted to create a large simulation framework where airplanes, yachts, ships, ground entities act in consistency with their nature and with the Scenario and reacting dynamically to the Simulation Evolution.
26 26 Logistics, Services and Maintenance Modeling the Impact of Maintenance and Service due to the Different Conditions: Operative Status Crew Infrastructures Environment Atlantic Ocean Impact on Radar Av. Middle East Impact on HVAC and Compressors and Fans Trend on Bath Tube Effect Sources BathTube Flat Failure Rate Poli. (BathTube) Failure Rate y = 2E-09x x ' ' ' ' ' '000 Time [h]
27 27 IA Supporting Service Simulation and Model Identification Fitness Fitness Comparisons SA - 16bit SA-8bit GAs - 16 bit GAs - 8 bit 10 Intelligent Agents for Identify and Correlating Data on Existing and New Devices respect Endogenous and Exogenous Factors Runs
28 Port and Coast Protection in a 5 Dimensional Space 28 Testing and Evaluating by Simulation the Naval Resources including Individual Sensors and Different Information Sours as protection against new threats including not conventional use of civil resources
29 29 Conclusions It becomes evident the importance to federate in a Simulation elements reproducing background environment as well as new threats To be effective the use of Intelligent Agents results really promising This approach will enable to investigate a wide spectrum of new Missions for supporting both Engineering, SAB, Test and Evaluation and Training Issues.
30 30 References MISS DIPTEM University of Genoa via Opera Pia Genova, Italy Agostino G. Bruzzone
www.simulationteam.com 1 The Simulation Team Solutions for Logistics: Virtual Port for Training Agostino G. Bruzzone University of Genoa, Italy Email agostino,@itim.unige.it URL www.itim.unige.it www.simulationteam.com
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