Mobile & Wireless Networking. Lecture 5: Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) [Schiller, Section 4.4]

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1 Mobile & Wireless Networking Lecture 5: Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) [Schiller, Section 4.4] Geert Heijenk

2 Outline of Lecture 5 Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) q Evolution of cellular systems q GSM l GSM Network Architecture l GSM radio interface l GPRS l EDGE q 3G UMTS l UMTS Network Architecture l Wideband CDMA 2

3 Evolution of cellular systems Source: Agilent Technologies,

4 GSM Architecture NSS with OSS OMC, EIR, AUC HLR GMSC fixed network VLR MSC VLR MSC BSC BSC RSS 4

5 GSM Radio Interface: TDMA/FDMA MHz 124 channels (200 khz) downlink GSM TDMA frame MHz 124 channels (200 khz) uplink higher GSM frame structures time ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space tail user data S Training S user data tail 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 guard space µs 577 µs

6 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) q packet switching q using free slots only if data packets ready to send q (~reservation Aloha) q Few changes to base station (software) q New core network architecture (router-based) Class Receiving slots Sending slots Maximum number of slots Coding scheme 1 slot 2 slots 3 slots 4 slots 5 slots 6 slots 7 slots 8 slots CS CS CS CS

7 GPRS architecture and interfaces SGSN G n MS BSS SGSN GGSN PDN U m G b G n G i MSC HLR/ GR VLR EIR 7

8 EDGE EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution): q New modulation technique: 8PSK instead of GMSK (bitrate x3) q Can be combined with GPRS q Adaptive Modulation and Coding q Incremental Redundancy (Hybrid ARQ) q New BS hardware 8

9 Outline of Lecture 5 Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) q Evolution of cellular systems q GSM l GSM Network Architecture l GSM radio interface l GPRS l EDGE q 3G UMTS l UMTS Network Architecture l Wideband CDMA 9

10 UMTS architecture (original release (R99)) UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network) q Cell level mobility q Radio Network Subsystem (RNS) q Encapsulation of all radio specific tasks UE (User Equipment) CN (Core Network) q Inter system handover q Location management if there is no dedicated connection between UE and UTRAN U u I u UE UTRAN CN 10

11 UTRAN architecture RNS RNC: Radio Network Controller RNS: Radio Network Subsystem UE 1 Node B I ub I u RNC CN UE 2 Node B UTRAN comprises several RNSs UE 3 Node B Node B I ub I ur RNC Node B can support FDD or TDD or both RNC is responsible for handover decisions requiring signalingto the UE Cell offers FDD or TDD Node B RNS 11

12 Core network: architecture BTS A bis BSS I u VLR BSC MSC GMSC PSTN Node BTS B I u CS AuC EIR HLR Node B I ub GR Node B RNC SGSN G n GGSN G i Node B RNS I u PS CN 12

13 UMTS Protocol Architecture - User Plane App App TCP TCP IP IP IP PDCP PDCP GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U RLC RLC UDP UDP UDP UDP L2 L2 MAC PHY PHY FP L2 L1 MAC FP L2 L1 IP L2 L1 IP L2 L1 IP L2 L1 IP L2 L1 L1 L1 UE Uu Node B RNC SGSN GGSN Iub IuPS Gn Gi Host Legend: UMTS UMTS Transport Network Internet Other 13

14 UMTS Protocol Architecture Control Plane UMM/SM UMM/SM RRC RRC RANAP RANAP RLC RLC SCCP SCCP MAC PHY PHY NBAP L2 L1 MAC NBAP L2 L1 Signalling Bearer L2 L1 Signalling Bearer L2 L1 UE Uu Node B Iub RNC IuPS SGSN Legend: UMTS UMTS Transport Network 14

15 Outline of Lecture 5 Cellular Systems (UMTS / LTE) (1/2) q Evolution of cellular systems q GSM l GSM Network Architecture l GSM radio interface l GPRS l EDGE q 3G UMTS l UMTS Network Architecture l Wideband CDMA 15

16 Wideband CDMA Direct Sequence CDMA, also known as Wideband CDMA Chip rate 3.84 Mc/s Carrier spacing 5 MHz Channel coding Transport channels Channel coding Multiplexing Transport-channel processing Mapping to physical channels Physical channels Physical-layer procedures and measurements Spreading Spreading 3.84 Mc/s Modulation Modulation 5 MHz 16

17 How do we spread the data? The operation of spreading in a CDMA system is divided into two separate parts q Spreading code = Scrambling code + Channelization code Scrambling q Separates different mobiles (in uplink) and different cells/sectors (in downlink) Channelization q Separates different physical channels that are transmitted on the same scrambling code q The purpose of channelization is most evident in the downlink 17

18 Spreading and scrambling of user data Constant chipping rate of 3.84 Mchip/s Different user data rates supported via different spreading factors q higher data rate: less chips per bit and vice versa User separation via unique, quasi orthogonal scrambling codes q users are not separated via orthogonal spreading codes q much simpler management of codes: each station can use the same orthogonal spreading codes q precise synchronisation not necessary as the scrambling codes stay quasiorthogonal data 1 data 2 data 3 data 4 data 5 spr. code 1 spr. code 2 spr. code 3 spr. code 1 spr. code 4 scrambling code 1 scrambling code 2 sender 1 sender 2 18

19 Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) coding X 1,1,1,1 1,1 1,1,-1,-1 X,X 1 X,-X 1,-1,1,-1 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1 1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1 1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1 1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1 1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1, SF=n SF=2n 1,-1 1,-1,-1,1 1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1 1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1 1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1... SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 19

20 10 ms" µs" µs" UMTS FDD frame structure Radio frame" 0" 1" 2"..." 12" 13" 14" Time slot" Pilot" TFCI" FBI" TPC" 2560 chips, 10 bits" Data" 2560 chips, 10*2 k-1 bits (k = 1...7)" uplink DPCCH" uplink DPDCH" W-CDMA MHz uplink MHz downlink chipping rate: Mchip/s soft handover QPSK complex power control (1500 power control cycles/s) spreading: UL: 4-256; DL: µs" Data 1 " TPC"TFCI" Data 2 " Pilot" DPDCH" DPCCH"DPDCH" DPCCH" 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k = 0...7)" downlink DPCH" Slot structure NOT for user separation but synchronisation for periodic functions! FBI: Feedback Information TPC: Transmit Power Control TFCI: Transport Format Combination Indicator DPCCH: Dedicated Physical Control Channel DPDCH: Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCH: Dedicated Physical Channel 20

21 Bit rates and Spreading Factors k Channel bit rate [kbps] User bit rate (bef. coding) [kbps] Spreading factor Uplink Downlink Uplink Downlink N/A 15 kbps N/A 6 kbps kbps 30 kbps 15 kbps 24 kbps kbps 60 kbps 30 kbps 51 kbps kbps 120 kbps 60 kbps 90 kbps kbps 240 kbps 120 kbps 210 kbps kbps 480 kbps 240 kbps 432 kbps kbps 960 kbps 480 kbps 912 kbps kbps 1920 kbps 960 kbps 1872 kbps 21

22 Fading Path loss fading due to distance q 1/distance α (α between 3 and 4) Long term (slow) fading caused by shadowing q Log-normal Short term (fast) fading caused by multipath propagation q Rayleigh fading amplitude Signal level (db) Path loss Long term fading Distance (log) Short term fading 22

23 Purpose of Power Control Goal q mobile station transmitted power is controlled such that all users in the cell experience the same SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) at the base station receiver Open Loop (initial power setting) q compensate for pathloss and slow fading q uses downlink pilot channel Closed Loop (fast power control) q compensates also for fast fading q needs dedicated downlink control channel for power control commands 23

24 Dynamic Range of Power Control P I P C Worst case: P C (db) P I (db) = 80 db! Interferers are rejected by the processing gain: R chip 10 G = = 6 = db 10 4 R bit C I = = 60 db! Power control with a large dynamic range is essential! 24

25 Why Soft Handover? Soft handover essential for power control Soft handover reception q combines signals from different base stations RNC BS 1 BS 2 25

26 Time Dispersion Rake receiver Channel Estimation h 0 Channel r(n) C(n) τ 2 τ 1 C(n) C(n) h 2 h 1 g g g τ 1 τ 2 a 2 a 1 a 0 Diversity Combination To Decoder Diversity Combination Selective Channel Estimation Delay a 2 a 1 a τ 1 τ 2 a 0 a 1 Equal gain Delay 1/3 1/3 1/3 τ 2 Maximum Ratio Delay and complex amplitudes h 2 * h 1 * h 0 * a 2 26

27 Mobile Soft Handover Implementation with Rake Receiver h 1 h 2 τ 1 τ 2 BS 1 BS 2 C 1 (n) τ 1 τ 2 C 1 (n) C 2 (n) g g C 2 (n) a 1 a 2 Diversity Combination To Decoder 27

28 Softer Handover Softer handover reception q combines signals from one base station BS 28

29 One cell reuse is typical for CDMA In CDMA, all cells use the same carrier frequency (frequency reuse = 1) q makes soft handover possible q requires efficient power control q makes system load control more complex FDMA/TDMA (reuse > 1) CDMA (reuse = 1) 29

30 Capacity WCDMA capacity limited by q Amount of interference that can be tolerated q Amount of interference generated by each user q Amount of downlink orthogonal codes Any reduction in generated interference directly improves capacity q Voice activity q Bursty transmission (packet-like services) q Narrow-beam antennas 30

31 Resource Planning versus Power Planning GSM (TDMA) CDMA q Frequency planning q Slot assignment q Increased output power increased interference lower capacity q Power planning! Reducing interference (by any means) direct increase of capacity 31

32 Cellbreathing GSM UMTS q Users have their own dedicated time(/frequency) slot q Number of users in cell does not directly influence cell size q Cellsize is closely related to cell capacity q Capacity is determined by signal to noise ratio q Interference adds to the noise: l other cells l other users in the same cell q If there is a lot of noise, users at the cell border cannot increase their signal any further à cannot communicate q So: cell size decreases as number of active users increases: Cell breathing q Number of active users should be limited q This complicates cell planning 32

33 Cell breathing: example 33

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