2 Present Value Helps us answer the question: What s the value in today s dollars of a sum of money to be received in the future? It lets us strip away the effects of inflation can also be used to determine how much to pay for stocks and bonds.
3 Discount Rate Inverse compounding the interest rate used to bring future dollars back to the present.
4 Finding the Present Value Equation Start with: FV = PV (1 + i) n Solve for PV
5 Present-Value Interest Factor The value [1/(1+i) n ] used as a multiplier to calculate an amount s present value. Table 3.3, pg. 70 Appendix B
6 Present Value Example 1 You re on vacation in Florida and you see an advertisement stating that you ll receive $100 simply for taking a tour of a model condominium. However, when you investigate, you discover that the $100 is in the form of a savings bond that will not pay you the $100 for ten years. What is the present value of $100 to be received ten years from today if your discount rate is 6 percent?
7 Present Value Example 2 Let s consider the impatient son of wealthy parents who wants his inheritance NOW! He s been promised $500,000 in 40 years. Assuming the appropriate discount rate is 6 percent, what is the present value of the $500,000?
8 Keep in mind that there is really only one time value of money equation the logic behind both equations is the same: To adjust for the time value of money, we must compare dollar values, present and future, in the same time period.
9 Stop & Think pg. 73
10 To this point, We ve been examining single deposits moving them back and forth in time
11 Now Annuities Annuity a series of equal dollar payments coming at the end of each time period for a specified number of time periods. Examples: mortgage payments, pension funds, insurance obligations, and interest received from bonds
12 Compound Annuities Compound Annuity an investment that involves depositing an equal sum of money at the end of each year for a certain number of years and allowing it to grow. Examples: saving money for education, a new car, or a vacation home
13 Future Value of an Annuity FV n = PMT (FVIFA) where, FV n = Future Value of an Annuity PMT = Annual Payment FVIFA = Future-Value Interest Factor of an Annuity (Table 3.5, pg. 74/Appendix C)
14 Future Value of an Annuity Example 1 To provide for a college education you are going to deposit $500 at the end of each year for the next five years in a bank where it will earn 6 percent interest, how much will you have at the end of five years?
15 Future Value of an Annuity Example 2 Rather than ask how much you ll accumulate if you deposit an equal sum in a savings account each year, a more common question is, how much must you deposit each year to accumulate a certain amount of savings?
16 Example 2 Cont d For example, you may know that you ll need $10,000 for education in eight years. How much must you put away at the end of each year at 6 percent interest to have the college money ready?
17 Present Value of an Annuity PV n = PMT (PVIFA) where, PV n = Present Value of an Annuity PMT = Annual Payment PVIFA = Future-Value Interest Factor of an Annuity (Table 3.7, pg. 77/Appendix D)
18 Present Value of an Annuity Example 1 As part of a class action law suit settlement against Lee s Press On Abs (they caused a nasty rash), you are slated to receive $1,000 at the end of each year for the next ten years. What is the present value of this ten-year, $1,000 annuity discounted back to the present at 5%?
19 Amortized Loans You re not always on the receiving end of an annuity. More often, your annuity will involve paying off a loan in equal installments over time. Examples: car loans and mortgages
20 Amortized Loan Example 1 Suppose you borrowed $16,000 at 8 percent interest to buy a car and wish to repay it in four equal payments at the end of each of the next four years.
21 Perpetuities Perpetuity an annuity that continues forever. PV = PP/i where, PV = the present value of the perpetuity PP = the annual dollar amount provided by the perpetuity i = the annual interest (or discount) rate
22 Perpetuity Example 1 What is the present value of a perpetuity that pays a constant dividend of $10 per share forever if the appropriate discount rate is 5 percent?
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