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1 CURRICULUM FOR STATISTICS & PROBABILITY GRADES 11 & 12

2 This curriculum is part of the Educational Program of Studies of the Rahway Public Schools. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Christine H. Salcito, Director of Curriculum and Instruction Kevin Robinson, Program Supervisor of STEM The Board acknowledges the following who contributed to the preparation of this curriculum. Vincent Vinci Subject/Course Title: Date of Board Adoptions: Statistics & Probability September 18, 2012 Grades 11 & 12

3 RAHWAY PUBLIC SCHOOLS CURRICULUM UNIT OVERVIEW UNIT: One Content Area: Statistics & Probability Unit Title: Exploring and Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Target Course/Grade Level: Statistics & Probability, Grades 11th/12th Unit Summary: Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables Interpret linear models Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies Approximate Length of Unit: 11 weeks Primary interdisciplinary connections: Business, Economics, Social Studies, Psychology, Language Arts, and Biology LEARNING TARGETS Content Area Domain Content Area Cluster Standard Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables S-ID.1, S-ID.2, S-ID.3, S-ID.4 S-ID.5, S-ID.6a,c Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Interpret linear models S-ID.8,9 Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample S-IC.6 surveys, experiments, and observational studies 21st Century Workplace Readiness Standards Standard/Strand Cumulative Progress Indicator CPI# 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/?Creativity and Innovation 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics Personal Financial Literacy/Money Management Apply critical thinking and problem-solving strategies during structured learning experiences Present resources and data in a format that effectively communicates the meaning of the data and its implications for solving problems, using multiple perspectives. Demonstrate how productivity and accountability contribute to realizing individual or group work goals within or outside the classroom Compare strategies for saving and investing and the factors that influence how much should be saved or invested to meet financial goals. Apply the concepts, processes, guiding principles, and standards of school mathematics to solve science, engineering, and mathematics problems. Develop an understanding of how science and mathematics function to provide results, answers, and algorithms for engineering activities to solve problems and issues in the real world A B F B O.(1) O.(2).1

4 Unit Understandings Students will understand that Statistics play a large role in the complexity of our world. The Five W s (Who, What, Where, Why, and When) are vital to our computations. We treat variables in two basic ways: categorical and quantitative. Imagery and displays are useful tools for data analysis. Unit Essential Questions Identify the context of any data set (Who, What, Why, Where, When, and How). Discover the differences and similarities between categorical and quantitative variables. Sketch charts (pie,bar) that show correct and incorrect usage of the Area Principle. Identify patterns in histograms. (uniform, symmetric, skewed, gaps). Find the median and mean of a batch of numbers. Why is standard deviation only appropriate for symmetric data? What is the difference between the variance and standard deviation? Compare groups with boxplots and histograms. For example, compare the speeds of wood and steel roller coasters. Why is rescaling sometimes necessary in order to be honest with our displays? Does standardizing into z-scores change the shape, center, and spread of the distribution of a variable? Knowledge and Skills Students will know Vocabulary o context, data, data table, case, population, sample, variable, unites, categorical variables, quantitative variable o frequency table, distribution, pie chart, categorical data condition, contingency table, marginal distribution, conditional distribution, independence, association o histogram, gap, stem-and-leaf display, dotplot, shape, center, spread, mode, bimodial, uniform, symmetric, tails, skewed, outliers, median, range, quartile, interquartile range, percentile, s-number summary, mean, variance, standard deviation o boxplot, timeplot, rescaling o standardizing, normal model, parameter, statistic, z-score, standard normal distribution, normal percentile Formulas o Variance o Standard Deviation Area Principle Rule Students will be able to identify the who, what, when, where, why and how, of data indentify the cases and variables in any data set classify a variable as categorical or quantitative summarize the distribution of a categorical variable with a frequency table create and interpret a contingency table know the basic properties of the mean and median use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentage know that the standard deviation summarizes how spread out all the data are around the mean understand that the median and IQR resist the effects of outliers fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association distinguish between correlation and causation guess the shape of the distribution of a variable by knowing something about the data compute the median and IQR of a data set evaluate reports based on data compute the standard deviation and mean of a data set compare side-by-side histograms create a timeplot of data and distinguish when one is appropriate describe trends and patterns compare the distributions of two or more groups by comparing their shapes, centers, and spreads discuss how outliers effect the overall pattern of data use mathematical vocabulary fluently make sense of problems and persevere in solving them reason abstractly and quantitatively construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others model with mathematics

5 use appropriate tools strategically attend to precision look for and make use of structure look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning EVIDENCE OF LEARNING Assessment What evidence will be collected and deemed acceptable to show that students truly understand? Unit tests, quizzes, quarterly formative assessments Open-ended problems that involve written responses Daily student work Student/group presentations Daily Homework Long term projects Learning Activities What differentiated learning experiences and instruction will enable all students to achieve the desired results? All examples and assigned problems will involve real-world situations and data, making it easier for all students to relate to the study at hand. Construct and analyze graphical displays Mathematical investigations khanacademy.org exercises and videos What Can Go Wrong? Activities that explain all possible pitfalls and common mistakes. Create a Who,What, Why, When, Where, and How table to identify the variable. Design a frequency table of NBA statistics (Text-Stats in Your World) Comparing Distributions in Your World Research Activity (Text-Stats in Your World) Guess the Ages Laying the Foundation Activity/Project scatter plot, linear association RESOURCES Teacher Resources: Stats in Your World Textbook: Teachers Edition & accompanying resources, e.g. Transparencies, practice worksheets, assessments, writing assignments Teacher s Edition CD compiled of real data (no artificial sets) Teacher developed worksheets and activities ESPN.com for sports statistics Microsoft Excel TI-83/TI-84 Equipment Needed: ELMO Projector Graph paper Calculators Rulers Colored Pencils/Markers Statistics Study Card

6 RAHWAY PUBLIC SCHOOLS CURRICULUM UNIT OVERVIEW UNIT: Two Content Area: Statistics & Probability Unit Title: Relationships Between Variables Target Course/Grade Level: Statistics & Probability, Grades 11 th /12 th Unit Summary: Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables Interpret linear models Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies Approximate Length of Unit: 7 weeks Primary interdisciplinary connections: Arts & Literature, Business, Health, Finance, Economics, Social Studies, Psychology, Language Arts, and Science LEARNING TARGETS Content Area Domain Content Area Cluster Standard Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables S-ID.3, S-ID.4 S-ID.5, S-ID.6a,b, & c Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data Interpret linear models S-ID.8,9 Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies S-IC.6 21st Century Workplace Readiness Standards Standard/Strand Cumulative Progress Indicator CPI# 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/?Creativity and Innovation 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics Personal Financial Literacy/Money Management Apply critical thinking and problem-solving strategies during structured learning experiences Present resources and data in a format that effectively communicates the meaning of the data and its implications for solving problems, using multiple perspectives. Demonstrate how productivity and accountability contribute to realizing individual or group work goals within or outside the classroom Compare strategies for saving and investing and the factors that influence how much should be saved or invested to meet financial goals. Apply the concepts, processes, guiding principles, and standards of school mathematics to solve science, engineering, and mathematics problems. Develop an understanding of how science and mathematics function to provide results, answers, and algorithms for engineering activities to solve problems and issues in the real world A B F B O.(1) O.(2).1

7 Unit Understandings Students will understand that The direction and form of scatterplots are needed to identify possible linear relationships. There are differences between correlation and causation Extrapolations can push you beyond your model and become untrustworthy Not all models are linear Unit Essential Questions What are the essential correlation properties? When would we use exponential models? Why is a high correlation not evidence of a cause-and-effect relationship? (lurking variables) How do residuals affect our model? What does the correlation tell us about the regression? Knowledge and Skills Students will know Vocabulary o scatterplots, association, outlier, response variable, explanatory variable, correlation coefficient o model, linear, predicted value, residuals, least squares, regression line, intercept, regression to the mean, extrapolation, lurking variable o exponential model o power model Formulas o Correlation coefficient o Residuals o Slope o Exponential Model o Power Model Straight Enough Condition Outlier Condition Students will be able to interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets use the means and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggest a linear association informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data interpret the slope and the intercept of a linear model in the context of the data distinguish between correlation and causation know the conditions for correlation and how to check them know that correlation has no units describe the direction, form, and strength of a scatterplot use a linear model to predict a value for x and y discuss possible lurking variables justify their choice of model make sense of problems and persevere in solving them reason abstractly and quantitatively construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others model with mathematics use appropriate tools strategically attend to precision look for and make use of structure look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

8 Assessment EVIDENCE OF LEARNING What evidence will be collected and deemed acceptable to show that students truly understand? Unit tests, quizzes, quarterly formative assessments Open-ended problems that involve written responses Daily student work Student/group presentations Daily Homework Long term projects Learning Activities What differentiated learning experiences and instruction will enable all students to achieve the desired results? All examples and assigned problems will involve real-world situations and data, making it easier for all students to relate to the study at hand. Construct and analyze graphical displays Mathematical investigations khanacademy.org exercises and videos What Can Go Wrong? Activities that explain all possible pitfalls and common mistakes. Create a Who, What, Why, When, Where, and How table to identify the variable. Steroids and MLB Statistics (Text-Stats in Your World) SAT Scores and Success in College-Research Breaking Distance of Cars (Video/Website) RESOURCES Teacher Resources: Stats in Your World Textbook: Teachers Edition & accompanying resources, e.g. Transparencies, practice worksheets, assessments, writing assignments Teacher s Edition CD compiled of real data (no artificial sets) Teacher developed worksheets and activities ESPN.com for sports statistics Microsoft Excel TI-83/TI-84 Equipment Needed: ELMO Projector Graph paper Calculators Rulers Colored Pencils/Markers Statistics Study Card

9 RAHWAY PUBLIC SCHOOLS CURRICULUM UNIT OVERVIEW UNIT: Three Content Area: Statistics & Probability Unit Title: Gathering Data Target Course/Grade Level: Statistics & Probability, Grades 11 th /12 th Unit Summary: Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions Approximate Length of Unit: 8 weeks Primary interdisciplinary connections: and Science Law, Business, Finance, Economics, Social Studies, Psychology, Language Arts, Technology, LEARNING TARGETS Content Area Domain Content Area Cluster Standard Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments S-IC.1, S-IC.2 Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, S-IC.3, S-IC.4, S-IC.5, S-IC.6 experiments, and observational studies Using Probability to Make Decisions Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions S-MD.6, S-MD.7 21st Century Workplace Readiness Standards Standard/Strand Cumulative Progress Indicator CPI# 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/?Creativity and Innovation 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics Personal Financial Literacy/Money Management Apply critical thinking and problem-solving strategies during structured learning experiences Present resources and data in a format that effectively communicates the meaning of the data and its implications for solving problems, using multiple perspectives. Demonstrate how productivity and accountability contribute to realizing individual or group work goals within or outside the classroom Compare strategies for saving and investing and the factors that influence how much should be saved or invested to meet financial goals. Apply the concepts, processes, guiding principles, and standards of school mathematics to solve science, engineering, and mathematics problems. Develop an understanding of how science and mathematics function to provide results, answers, and algorithms for engineering activities to solve problems and issues in the real world A B F B O.(1) O.(2).1

10 Unit Understandings Students will understand that Bias must always be avoided during sampling There are advantages and disadvantages to sample surveys, observational studies, and randomized experiments Control groups are beneficial to experiments Simulations can help us when experimentation is too difficult Unit Essential Questions How do you choose a sample at random? When can a simulation be useful to model random behavior? What are the three basic principles of a sound experimental design? How does bias destroy our results? Knowledge and Skills Students will know Vocabulary o bias, randomization, sample size, census, population paremeter, representative, simple random sample (SRS), sampling frame, straitified random sample, cluster sample, multistage sample, systematic sample, pilot, volunatary response bias, convenience samples, undercoverage, nonresponse bias, response bias o experiment, random assignment, factor, response, experimental units, level, treatment, control group, blinding, single-blind, double-blind, placebo, placebo effect, blocking, matching, designs, confounding o simulation, simulation component, trial, response variable, statistical significance Principles of Experimental Design Control, Randomize, Replicate Students will be able to understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample for that population decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant evaluate reports based on data use probabilities to make fair decisions analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts understand the value of randomization as a defense to bias design a randomized experiments to test the effect of a single factor recognize random outcomes in a real-world situation know how to randomly assign subjects to experimental treatments make sense of problems and persevere in solving them reason abstractly and quantitatively construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others model with mathematics use appropriate tools strategically attend to precision look for and make use of structure look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning EVIDENCE OF LEARNING Assessment What evidence will be collected and deemed acceptable to show that students truly understand? Unit tests, quizzes, quarterly formative assessments Open-ended problems that involve written responses Daily student work Student/group presentations Daily Homework Long term projects

11 Learning Activities What differentiated learning experiences and instruction will enable all students to achieve the desired results? All examples and assigned problems will involve real-world situations and data, making it easier for all students to relate to the study at hand. Construct and analyze graphical displays Mathematical investigations khanacademy.org exercises and videos What Can Go Wrong? Activities that explain all possible pitfalls and common mistakes. Create a Who,What, Why, When, Where, and How table to identify the variable. Unfair Coins (Internet Activity) o Discussion of double-sided (penny taped to the back of a nickel or quarter) coins and their effects on experiments Analyze News Article: Facebook and Low Grades- A Dangerous Mix? RESOURCES Teacher Resources: Stats in Your World Textbook: Teachers Edition & accompanying resources, e.g. Transparencies, practice worksheets, assessments, writing assignments Teacher s Edition CD compiled of real data (no artificial sets) Teacher developed worksheets and activities Microsoft Excel TI-83/TI-84 Equipment Needed: Dice Decks of Cards Coins ELMO Projector Graph paper Calculators Rulers Colored Pencils/Markers Statistics Study Card

12 RAHWAY PUBLIC SCHOOLS CURRICULUM UNIT OVERVIEW UNIT: Four Content Area: Statistics & Probability Unit Title: Randomness & The Rules of Probability Target Course/Grade Level: Statistics & Probability, Grades 11 th /12 th Unit Summary: Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies Approximate Length of Unit: 9 weeks Primary interdisciplinary connections: Arts & Literature, Business, Health, Finance, Economics, Social Studies, Psychology, Language Arts, and Chemistry LEARNING TARGETS Content Area Domain Content Area Cluster Standard Conditional Probability & the Rules of Probability Conditional Probability & the Rules of Probability Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies S-CP.1, S-CP.2, S-CP.3, S- CP.4, S-CP.5 S-CP.6, S-CP.7, S-CP.8, S- CP.9 S-IC.6 21st Century Workplace Readiness Standards Standard/Strand Cumulative Progress Indicator CPI# 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/ Critical Thinking and Problem Solving 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/?Creativity and Innovation 21 st Century Life and Career Skills/Accountability, Productivity, and Ethics Personal Financial Literacy/Money Management Apply critical thinking and problem-solving strategies during structured learning experiences Present resources and data in a format that effectively communicates the meaning of the data and its implications for solving problems, using multiple perspectives. Demonstrate how productivity and accountability contribute to realizing individual or group work goals within or outside the classroom Compare strategies for saving and investing and the factors that influence how much should be saved or invested to meet financial goals. Apply the concepts, processes, guiding principles, and standards of school mathematics to solve science, engineering, and mathematics problems. Develop an understanding of how science and mathematics function to provide results, answers, and algorithms for engineering activities to solve problems and issues in the real world A B F B O.(1) O.(2).1

13 Unit Understandings Students will understand that Combinations can be used to find a probability The Law of Large Numbers and Law of Averages are not identical There are several rules for combing probabilities of outcomes for more complex events Two events could be either independent or disjoint, but not both Not everything is normal Unit Essential Questions What is the Law of Large Numbers? What is the Probability Assignment Rule? What is the expected value and how is it used? How is the Binomial Model used in statistics? What is the meaning of statistical significance? Knowledge and Skills Students will know Vocabulary o random phenomenon, probability, independence, permutation, combinations o disjoint legitimate probability assignments, independence assumption o tree diagram, conditional probability o random variable, probability model, expected value, variance, standard deviation, binomial probability model, 10% condition, success condition, failure condition Formulas Law of Large Numbers (LNN) Law of Averages Equally Likely Condition Fundamental Counting Principle Probability Assignment Rule Complement Rule Addition Rule Multiplication Rule Students will be able to describe events as subsets of a sample space using characteristics of the outcomes, or as unions, intersection, or complements of other events understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the same as the probability of B. construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations find the conditional probability of A given B as the fraction of B s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model. apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(B A) = P(B)P(A B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model. use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems evaluate reports based on data make sense of problems and persevere in solving them reason abstractly and quantitatively construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others model with mathematics use appropriate tools strategically attend to precision look for and make use of structure look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning

14 EVIDENCE OF LEARNING Assessment What evidence will be collected and deemed acceptable to show that students truly understand? Unit tests, quizzes, quarterly formative assessments Open-ended problems that involve written responses Daily student work Student/group presentations Daily Homework Long term projects Learning Activities What differentiated learning experiences and instruction will enable all students to achieve the desired results? All examples and assigned problems will involve real-world situations and data, making it easier for all students to relate to the study at hand. Construct and analyze graphical displays Mathematical investigations khanacademy.org exercises and videos What Can Go Wrong? Activities that explain all possible pitfalls and common mistakes. Create a Who, What, Why, When, Where, and How table to identify the variable. Spam Messages in Your Inbox (Text-Stats in Your World) RESOURCES Teacher Resources: Stats in Your World Textbook: Teachers Edition & accompanying resources, e.g. Transparencies, practice worksheets, assessments, writing assignments Teacher s Edition CD compiled of real data (no artificial sets) Teacher developed worksheets and activities Microsoft Excel TI-83/TI-84 Equipment Needed: ELMO Projector Graph paper Calculators Rulers Colored Pencils/Markers Statistics Study Card

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