Tennessee Agricultural Production and Rural Infrastructure

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1 Tennessee Trends in Agricultural Production and Infrastructure Highlights - In many states the percentage of the state population designated by the U.S. Census Bureau as living in rural areas has declined, but in Tennessee, the absolute number of residents in rural areas has actually increased in recent decades. - The percentage drop in the area of land in farms in Tennessee has far exceeded the percentage drop in land in farms in the U.S.; between 1950 and 2010 Tennessee farm acreage declined by 43% compared to 23% for the U.S. - While the value of agricultural production in Tennessee increased by 591% from 1950 to 2007, the number of farms decreased by 68%. Did you know? - In Tennessee in 2007, there were an average of 329 soybean acres per soybean farm, while for the U.S. the average soybean area per soybean farm was 229 acres. Production Consumed on Farm Rural Population Trends - Home consumption of a farm's production has changed dramatically. In 1950, the value of farm production consumed at home in Tennessee was 17.34%. - In contrast, in 2010 just 0.44% of the value of production in Tennessee was consumed at home. This shift amounts to an even greater reliance by agricultural producers on rural infrastructure to transport farm products. - In 1930 there were 1,720,018 people living in Tennessee, with 65.7% of that population in rural areas. - Broilers are a major consumer of soybean meal. In 2007, there were million broilers sold in Tennessee and 8,915 million broilers sold in the U.S. - Average farm size in the U.S. increased from 213 acres in 1950 to 418 acres in 2010, while average farm size in Tennessee increased from 79 acres to 139 acres over the same period. Agricultural Production - By comparison, in 2010 there were 6,346,105 people living in Tennessee, with 33.6% of that population in rural areas. - In Tennessee in 1945, there were 2,969 grain combines, while in 2007 there were 3,657 selfpropelled grain and bean combines in the state. Consolidation Trends: Number of Farms Farmland Trends: Land in Farms (Acres) Average Farm Size (Acres) Population Trends: Population Density (Pop. per Square Mile) Production Trends: Volume of Production (Million Bushels) Then of U.S. Now of U.S. Change , % , % -67.8% ,100, % ,900, % -42.9% % % 77% % % 142.5% % % 111% Miles of Road by Owner for Tennessee Towns and Cities 19,492 Other 339 Federal Agency 1,273 State Highway Agency 13,881 Tennessee Agriculture and Rural Infrastructure Highlights Roads Railroad Waterways Bridges With 92,173 miles of road as of 2008, Tennessee accounts for 2.3% of U.S. road miles. Tennessee had 4,078 miles of railroad in 1920 (around the time of the peak rail mileage), but this mileage had fallen to 3,339 miles in 1965 and decreased even further to 2,635 freight railroad miles in Tennessee has approximately 950 miles of inland waterways. Tennessee has 19,937 bridges, and approximately 19.3 percent of those are considered structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. 1 County 57,188

2 Consolidation Trends: Fewer Farms and Larger Average Farm Size Number of Farms Number of Farms No. of Farms Avg. Farm Size Corn for Grain 125, acres 4, acres -96% 1,188% Soybeans 5, acres 2, acres -44% 781% Wheat 19, acres 1, acres -93% 1,737% Cattle and Calves Inventory Then (1954) Now (2007) Change Average acreage or number of head per farm for farms with production Average acreage or number of head per farm for farms with production 158, head 46, head -71% 309% Hogs Sold 56, head 1, head -98% 2,342% Broilers Sold ,541 head ,661 head 35% 2,353% All Farms 203, acres 79, acres -61% 59% Farm Equipment Farm Equipment Used: Number of Tractors of Various Sizes, 2007 Less than 40 HP 44, to 99 HP 76, HP or greater 14, , , ,000 Number of Tractors Farm Input Trends: Tennessee Farm Inputs by Type, Production Expenses by Category (Million Dollars) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, Miscellaneous and other production Capital consumption, excluding operator dwellings Interest, excluding operator dwellings Total labor Marketing, storage, and transportation Repair and maintenance, excluding operator dwellings Fuel and oil Pesticide Fertilizer and lime Purchased seed Purchased livestock and poultry Purchased feed 2

3 Rural Infrastructure Trends Then Now Change Off Farm Storage (million bushels) On Farm Storage (million bushels) Estimated Average Tractor Weight (lbs.) of U.S. of U.S % % -17% % % -29% , % , % 69% Railroad Miles , % 2009 freight 2, % -35% Road Miles , % , % 1,117% Estimated Number of Semi Trailer Loads Required to Haul Tennessee's Grain and Oilseed Production (Includes Corn, Soybeans, Wheat, Sorghum, Barley, and Oats) 250,000 Number of Semis Trailer Loads 200, , ,000 50, , ,757 0 Note: Assumes 26 tons of grain per semi trailer load. Estimated number of semi trailer loads if all production is initially hauled by semi trailer. Based on Informa crop production forecasts. 3

4 Tennessee: Agricultural Production and Infrastructure Infrastructure Tennessee crop production consists primarily of corn, Crops are moved from production regions by truck, rail, and/or barge to elevators and processing facilities. Tennessee has 1,097 miles of interstate; 2,635 miles of rail lines; 19,937 bridges; 950 miles of waterways and 92,173 miles of roadways. Tennessee has three ethanol plants; 12 river elevators and 44 grain elevators. 4

5 Tennessee: Production from 1950 to 2010 Production Crop production has been increasing throughout the majority of the state, specifically the western and central portion. Production decreased in the northeastern portion of the state. Production of grains and soybeans in Tennessee has increased by nearly 120 million bushels from 1950 to In the past, agricultural production has centered on Currently, production is focused on corn, Funded by the soybean checkoff 5

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