Borderless Diseases By Sunny Thai

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1 Borderless Diseases By Sunny Thai

2 Millennium Development Goal #6 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other borderless diseases. A. Halt and begin reversing spread of HIV by B. Achieve universal access to care for those in need of HIV/AIDS treatment. C. Halt and reverse spread of malaria and other diseases by 2015.

3 Borderless Diseases Infectious diseases with exceptional global mobility. Increased speed of travel More human migration Larger urbanization What are some examples of technology that might help borderless diseases move about?

4 Three Borderless Diseases HIV/AIDS Malaria Tuberculosis

5

6 What is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Virus that attacks and weakens the immune system Leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) What exactly does our immune system do, and why is it a bad thing if it fails?

7 How does one get HIV/AIDS? Transmission Primarily spread through bodily fluids during: Unprotected sex Breastfeeding from infected mother to child Drug use through shared needles.

8 How is HIV/AIDS treated? Currently no cure for HIV/AIDS Mutates too quickly for a single vaccine to work Standard treatment: Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Consists of drug cocktail of 3+ drugs Attempts to slow HIV progression Best if caught early

9 Preventing HIV/AIDS Education Teaches people to protect themselves and others Awareness (Nearly one in seven people affected in the US do not know they are infected) Safe sex practices ART for infected people

10 HIV/AIDS Geographic Distribution Prevalent in sub-saharan Africa 25.8 million people living with HIV and accounts for 66% of the global total for new infections Compare this to 2.4 million in Western Europe and North America Due to: Widespread poverty Crippled education structure Traditional culture

11 HIV/AIDS Geographic Distribution

12 Impact of HIV/AIDS Massive death toll What are some differences that you can see between the two population pyramids?

13 Social Impact of HIV/AIDS Lessened economic productivity Labor shortages Less demand Cycle of poverty 14.8 million children in sub-saharan Africa lost a parent to AIDS Leads to more broken homes, generation of orphans Higher burden on already inadequate health care systems

14 NGOs Against HIV/AIDS (RED) Integrated NGO with MNC s The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Fund AIDS fighting organizations

15 Difficulties with treating HIV in Africa Social stigma Associated with immoral behavior, such as prostitution Keep affliction secret Traditional Culture Gender inequality Concurrent relationships AIDS superhighway

16 Progress against HIV/AIDS Good, not great Globally, HIV infections declined by about 40% since 2000 Reduction in AIDS related deaths from 2.4 to 1.5 million from However, no change among adolescent deaths ART Treatment for 13.6 million in 2014 compared to 375,000 in 2003 Developing regions still need more treatment

17 Progress against HIV/AIDS: UNICEF Three primary goals to end AIDS: 1. Reduce new HIV infections in children by 90%, especially transmissions from mother to child. 2. Reduce new infections amongst adolescents by half. 3. Provide universal care for those with HIV/AIDS.

18

19 What is Malaria? Disease caused by bacteria of the Plasmodium genus Bacteria heads to liver before spreading to bloodstream and killing cells

20 How does one get Malaria? Primarily transmitted from person to person by means of bite by Anopheles mosquitoes Can also be transmitted through blood transfusions

21 Who is at risk? Approximately half of the world s population is at-risk for Malaria Most cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa Children who have not developed immunity People with HIV/AIDS Non-immune and semi-immune pregnant women Non-immune international travelers

22 What are the symptoms of Malaria? Symptoms Fever and chills Nausea and vomiting Increased perspiration Headaches Soreness

23 How is Malaria treated? Antimalarial antibiotics Drug treatment based on: Exact species of Plasmodium bacteria Patient s age/pregnancy Malaria severity Why might these factors matter?

24 How does one avoid getting malaria? When travelling, research malaria prevalence in intended locale Prevent mosquito bites Nets Bug repellant

25 Malaria Geographic Distribution Most prevalent along the equator Due to higher mosquito population

26 Social Impact of Malaria Killed approximately 584,000 people in 2013 alone Mainly children in Africa Hinders economic development Incites cycle of poverty Affects poorest of society How might the incidence of malaria limit a country s economic prospects?

27 NGO against Malaria: Nothing but Nets Raises money to purchase nets and distributes them around the world Has raised $45 million and delivered 7 million nets

28 Progress against Malaria Malaria incidence rate has fallen by 37% and mortality rate has decreased by 58% Still 214 million cases and 472,000 deaths globally in billion people still at risk for infection Clinical trials for malaria vaccine currently underway

29

30 What is Tuberculosis (TB)? Infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis Usually attacks the lungs, creating scar tissue Can also spread to other parts of body Also cases of latent TB Person carries bacterium, but is not ill or infectious

31 How does TB spread? Airborne disease Spreads when infected person coughs, sneezes, or speaks

32 What are the symptoms of TB? Symptoms Chills and fever Perspiration at night Lack of appetite and severe weight loss Fatigue Severe coughing and chest pain

33 How is TB treated? Typically treated using a combination of drugs Currently ten drugs approved to fight TB Must change drug usage due to growing resistances Emergence of resistant strains, antibiotic usage not keeping up

34 How does one avoid getting TB? Easy prevention with vaccination Isolation Use of respiratory protection devices

35 Geographic Distribution Mainly prevalent in Africa Due to lack of adequate medical facilities Per 100,000 people.

36 Social Impact of Tuberculosis Economic Impact Hinders economic development Creates excess burden on many families Loss of labor capacity Personal Impact Patients often put under quarantine

37 NGO against Tuberculosis: TB Alert Goal: Control and ultimate elimination of TB 4 key areas of work: 1. Information and outreach 2. Patient support 3. Connecting TB organizations 4. Developing policy and advocating resources for TB care

38 The Fight Against Disease Since MDG #6 creation, various NGOs have picked up the efforts.

39 Progress Made Appearance of new HIV cases has dropped by 33% worldwide 7 million mosquito nets provided to prevent malaria transmission Various NGOs working to eradicate TB. Questions?

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