1 Pathways, Potholes and Partnerships: Rethinking the Future of Graduate Education Debra W. Stewart President Emerita and Senior Scholar Council of Graduate Schools Council of Colleges of Arts and Sciences San Antonio, Texas November 2014
2 Why does Graduate School pathway matter? The knowledge based economy of the 21 st century increasingly requires the advanced knowledge and skills acquired in graduate school Graduate education trains creative thinkers able to produce cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research Number of jobs requiring advanced degree at entry-level to grow by 1.1 million between 2012 and 2022: master s +18.4% and doctoral/professional +16.0%. Problem is that technology is growing faster than our ability to educate resulting in more domestic inequality and more outsourcing (Tyler Cowen, 2007)
3 Growth of Master s Degree Total Number of Master's and Doctorate Degrees Awarded, Total Master's Degrees Awarded Total Doctorate Degrees Awarded Data Source: CGS/GRE Graduate Enrollment and Degree Surveys
4 Mean Earnings of Workers 18 Years and Over by Educational Attainment, (In 2012US$) $100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $- Not a High School Graduate High School Graduate Some College/Associate's Degree Bachelor's Degree Advanced Degree Data Source: US Census Bureau (2013). Table A-3. Mean Earnings of Workers 18 Years and Over, by Educational Attainment, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: 1975 to 2012 [Data file]. Retrieved from
5 International Trends Other countries recognize graduate education and human capital development as engine of economic competitiveness International students have increasing options China and India are investing substantially in graduate programs Canada, Australia, and others are more welcoming to internationals For international students educated in the US increasingly find viable career options in their home countries Europe and China now produce more doctorates in the sciences and engineering than the U.S.
6 Median Cumulative Borrowing for Graduate Education by Graduate Degree Recipients, by Degree Types, Data Source: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, Computation via: NCES PowerStats Ver. 1.0
7 Students Don t Feel Informed About the Jobs They Might Get
10 Graduate Deans Confirm Student Voice Students enter graduate school without good understanding of career options Many leave graduate school still lacking good knowledge of career options Graduate deans recognize importance of illuminating career pathways Graduate deans are dissatisfied with ability to track career outcomes
11 Pattern of PhD Placement
12 Obscure Career Pathways Percentage of Life Sciences Doctorate Recipients with Defined Commitment for Employment or Postdoctoral Study and Number of Doctorate Recipients, , , ,000 10,000 9,000 8,000 7, ,000 % with defined commitmment Life sciences Data Source: National Science Foundation, Survey of Earned Doctorates
13 Low Completion Rates The current state of attrition and completion in US doctoral programs wastes human and financial resources Humanities Math & P hys ical S ciences S ocial S ciences 12% 29% 23% 21% 41% 49% 48% 55% 56% C ompleted within 5 years C ompleted within 7 years C ompleted within 10 years L ife S ciences 22% 54% 63% E ngineering 35% 57% 64% Source: CGS. (2008) PhD Completion and Attrition: Analysis of Baseline Program Data from the PhD Completion Project.
14 What skills do employers think students need? Entrepreneurship
15 Are We Aligning Education with Skills Sets Required? Students Perceived Importance and Level of Preparedness Across Skills Very Very Skill important prepared Creativity 55% 39% Oral communication 83% 54% Teamwork 72% 47% Resilience 67% 47% Planning and organization 78% 52% Ethics and integrity 75% 54% Technological comfort and savvy 50% 39% Publications 20% 30% Research skills 38% 56% Writing skills 70% 66% Analysis/synthesis of data 65% 62% Teaching and training 45% 38% Chelsea Ezzo, Graduate Student Perceptions of Graduate School Preparation for the Workforce. Paper presented at Northeastern Educational Research Association, Rocky Hill, CT, October 2013.
16 Doctorate Students by Type of Support Basic Biomedical National Institutes of Health. Biomedical research workforce working group draft report: A working group of the Advisory Committee to the Director. (2012) Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, p. 18.
17 Environmental Influences Decreased public funding High accountability Pressure to increase enrollment Global competition for students Digital technology
18 State Budget Declines
20 First time U.S. enrollment declining % Change in First-time Graduate Enrollment of U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents, % 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00% -0.50% -1.00% Average annual % change, 2002 to 2012 Average annual % change, 2007 to 2012 % change 2011 to 2012 % change 2012 to % % change in first-time graduate enrollment of U.S. citizens and permanent residents Data Source: Allum, J.R. (2013/2014). Graduate enrollment and degrees. Washington, DC: Council of Graduate Schools.
21 International Graduate Applications Uneven
22 Digital technology could undermine financial support for graduate education
23 A friendship founded on business is a good deal better than a business founded on friendship. -John Rockefeller
24 Call to Action for all Deans Promoting financial education Tracking career outcomes Increasing faculty awareness about student outcomes Increasing completion rates Supporting professional development for graduate students Taking Political Action for graduate support
The Path Forward The Future of Graduate Education in the United States The Path Forward The Future of Graduate Education in the United States Suggested citation*: Council of Graduate Schools and Educational
Pathways through College: Strategies for Improving Community College Student Success April 2013 Bob Rath Kathryn Rock Ashley Laferriere Our Piece of the Pie, Inc. This report was published in April 2013
Which Path? A Roadmap to a Student s Best College National College Access Network National Conference Mary Nguyen Barry September 16, 2014 THE EDUCATION TRUST WHO WE ARE The Education Trust works for the
A National Talent Strategy Ideas For Securing U.S. Competitiveness and Economic Growth Executive Summary The United States faces a growing economic challenge a substantial and increasing shortage of individuals
DEGREES FOR WHAT JOBS? Raising Expectations for Universities and Colleges in a Global Economy THE NATIONAL GOVERNORS ASSOCIATION (NGA), founded in 1908, is the instrument through which the nation s governors
U.S. Department of Education Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2014 2018 U.S. Department of Education Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2014 18 CONTENTS MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY.2 DEPARTMENT S MISSION STATEMENT...
Master s Degree in Agriculture Plant Health Management Option Option Title: Department(s) or Program(s): College(s): Contact Name: Master of Science (MS) in Agriculture: Plant Health Management Supported
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY STRATEGIC PLAN 212 MOUNTAINS & MINDS: LEARNERS AND LEADERS www.montana.edu/strategicplan MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY STRATEGIC PLAN 212 MOUNTAINS & MINDS: LEARNERS AND LEADERS Introduction
Increasing Capacity and Efficiency in Programs Leading to Initial RN Licensure in Texas Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board Jerry Farrington (Chairman) Robert
Boosting California s Postsecondary Education Performance A Policy Statement and Call to Action Boosting California s Postsecondary Education Performance Acknowledgments Patrick M. Callan, President of
Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge and Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21 st Century U.S. Workforce about this report In collaboration, The Conference Board,
Texas Early Childhood Care and Education Institutions of Higher Education Capacity Survey Final Report July 2013 This report was prepared with funds provided from the Texas Early Learning Council to the
A Skilled and Educated Workforce 2013 Update A Joint Agency Report: Washington Student Achievement Council Daryl Monear, Ph.D., Associate Director, Academic Affairs and Policy Randy Spaulding, Ph.D., Director
Non-Traditional Women and Graduate Students: Enrollment Trends and Challenges Related to the Collection of National Data and Measures of Accountability BECKY COPPER DIRECTOR OF DISTRIBUTED LEARNING, MINNESOTA
http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos014.htm Medical and Health Services Managers * Nature of the Work * Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement * Employment * Job Outlook * Projections Data * Earnings *
MEASURING UP 2008 THE NATIONAL REPORT CARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY AND HIGHER EDUCATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS Chairman THE HONORABLE JAMES B. HUNT JR. Womble Carlyle Sandridge
Health Administration program guide Table of Contents From the Chair.... 1 A.T. Still University.... 2 School of Health Management... 2 Curriculum.... 2 Requirements for Admission.... 2 Program Statistics...
Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.09 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY http://cshe.berkeley.edu/ THE GLOBAL COMPETITION FOR TALENT The Rapidly Changing Market for International Students and the
Prepared Testimony by Algernon Austin Director Program on Race, Ethnicity and the Economy Economic Policy Institute Before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor Ensuring Economic
STATE POLICIES TO OVERCOME BARRIERS FOR ADULT LEARNERS National Summit on Adult Learning Washington, DC ~ October 8, 2009 Bruce Chaloux Director, Student Access Programs and Services (SREB) The Adult Learner
Shifting from College Access to College Success NACAC September 24, 2011 THE EDUCATION TRUST WHO WE ARE The Education Trust works for the high academic achievement of all students at all levels, prekindergarten
COLLEGE READINESS Crisis at the Core Preparing All Students for College and Work Crisis at the Core Preparing All Students for College and Work Founded in 1959, ACT is an independent, not-for-profit organization
Massachusetts Association of Colleges of Nursing (MACN) The Voice for Baccalaureate and Higher Education in Nursing Throughout the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Ensuring an Educated Nursing Workforce for
Education Pays in Colorado: Earnings 1, 5, and 10 Years After College Mark Schneider President, College Measures Vice President, American Institutes for Research A product of the College Measures Economic
Committee on the Future of PhD Education Final Report September 2013 Executive Summary Vibrant, innovative PhD programs that attract top national and international students and develop them into world-class