Achievement in America: Going the Distance to Improve Results and Close Gaps

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1 Achievement in America: Going the Distance to Improve Results and Close Gaps Washington Technology Alliance September, 2009

2 4 th Grade Reading: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

3 4 th Grade Math: Record Performance with Gap Narrowing *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

4 8 th Grade Reading: Not Much Progress *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

5 8 th Grade Math: Progress for All Groups, Some Gap Narrowing *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

6 Progress Even Clearer When Examined Over a Decade

7 1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

8 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Math Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

9 NAEP Grade 4 Math 1996 Compared to 2007 Source: NAEP Data Explorer, NCES

10 High schools, however, are another matter

11 Achievement Flat or Declining in Reading Source: NAEP Long Term Trends, NCES (2004)

12 NAEP math scores have remained flat over time * Denotes previous assessment format Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress

13 And gaps between groups are wider today than in THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

14 12 th Grade Reading: No Progress, Gaps Wider than 1988 *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

15 12 Grade Math: Results Mostly Flat Mostly Widening Gaps for Blacks *Denotes previous assessment format Source: NAEP 2008 Trends in Academic Progress, NCES

16 Internationally?

17 PISA Performance U.S.A. Ranks Near Bottom, Has Fallen Since 2000 Subject Mathematics Science 2000 Rank (out of 26) 17 th 13 th 2003 Rank (out of 26) 22 nd Tied 17 th 2006 Rank (out of 26) 22 nd 19 th Note: Rankings are for the 26 OECD countries participating in PISA in 2000, 2003, and Source: PISA 2006 Results, OECD

18 A closer look at math THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

19 Of 29 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 24 th U.S.A. Source: PISA 2003 Results, OECD

20 Problems are not limited to our high poverty and high minority schools...

21 U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at

22 U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest Performing Students* * Students at the 95 th Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation Percentile and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at

23 U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High SES Students Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at

24 Problems not limited to math, either.

25 Science? THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

26 Of 30 OECD Countries, U.S.A. Ranked 21 st U.S.A. Source: PISA 2006 Results, OECD Higher than U.S. average Not measurably different from U.S. average Lower than U.S. average

27 Immigrants? The U.S.A. does have a larger percentage of immigrants and children of immigrants than most OECD countries 50.0% 2nd Generation 1st Generation 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% U.S.A. Percent of Students 10.0% 0.0% Luxembourg Switzerland Australia New Zealand Canada United States Germany Belgium Austria France Netherlands Sweden OECD Average United Kingdom Denmark Greece Spain Norway Portugal Ireland Italy Mexico Czech Repub Iceland Hungary Finland Turkey Slovak Repub Japan Poland Source: OECD, PISA 2006 Results, table 4.2c,

28 But ranks 21 st out of 30 OECD countries when only taking into account native student* scores PISA 2006 Science U.S.A. *Students born in the country of assessment with at least one parent born in the same country Source: OECD, PISA 2006 Results, table 4.2c,

29 Even in problem solving, something we consider an American strength THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

30 U.S.A. Ranks 24 th Out of 29 OECD Countries in Problem Solving U.S.A. Source: PISA 2003 Results, OECD

31 Only place we rank high? Inequality.

32 PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD Countries Mathematical Literacy Problem Solving Rank in Performance Gaps Between Highest and Lowest Achieving Students * 8 th 6 th *Of 29 OECD countries, based on scores of students at the 5 th and 95 th percentiles. Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results, data available at

33 Among OECD Countries, U.S.A. has the 4 th Largest Gap Between High SES and Low SES Students U.S.A. Source: PISA 2006 Results, OECD, table 4.8b

34 We used to make up for this by sending far more of our students to college but no longer.

35 U.S: 3 rd Out of 30 OECD Countries in Overall Postsecondary Attainment United States (38%) Source: 2007 OECD Education at a Glance, Note: data is for 2005.

36 U.S. tied for 9 th out of 30 OECD nations in the percentage of younger workers with an associates degree or higher United States (39%) Source: 2007 OECD Education at a Glance, Note: data is for 2005.

37 U.S. is one of only two OECD nations where today s young people are not better educated than their parents United States (0) Source: 2007 OECD Education at a Glance, Note: data is for 2005.

38 What about Washington?

39 4 th Grade Reading: WASL

40 4 th Grade Reading: WA Kids on National Assessment

41 8 th Grade Math: WASL

42 8 th Grade Math: WA Kids on National Assessment

43 Compared to other states?

44 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Reading Average Overall Scale Scores by State Washington National Average Proficient Scale Score: 238 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,

45 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Reading Average White Scale Scores by State National Average Proficient Scale Score: 238 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,

46 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Reading Average Latino Scale Scores by State National Average Proficient Scale Score: 238 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,

47 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Reading Average African American Scale Scores by State National Average Proficient Scale Score: 238 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,

48 2007 NAEP Grade 8 Math Average Overall Scale Scores by State National Average Proficient Scale Score: 299 Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer,

49 In other words, mostly average performance

50 Improvement over time?

51 4 th Grade Reading Improvements: WA vs. Leading Improvers Source:

52 4 th Grade Reading: Gaps Narrowing in WA? Source:

53 WA: 4 th Grade Reading Gaps Over Time Source:

54 8 th Grade Math Improvements: WA versus Leading Improvers Source:

55 8 th Grade Math: Gaps Narrowing in WA? Source:

56 WA 8 th Grade Math Gaps Over Time Source:

57 High School Completion Source:

58 What about college?

59 College Going Rate for Recent High School Graduates: 2004 Washington Third from Bottom Source: Postsecondary.org

60 When High School Dropout Rate is Factored In, State Performance Rises a Bit But Stays Near Bottom (HS Grad. Rate x College Continuation Rate, 2004) Source: Postsecondary.org

61 Six Year College Graduation Rates: Washington Performance in Top Third (2005) Source: Ed Trust Analysis of IPEDS data. First-time, full-time freshmen

62 Adults Ages with at least Associate s Degrees: Washington #12 Source: NCHEMS - calculated using data from U.S. Census Bureau

63 Adults 25+ with at least Bachelor s Degrees Washington #13 Source: Postsecondary.org Educational Attainment by State 1977 to 2007

64 What Can We Do?

65 #1. STICK WITH THE JOB YOU HAVE STARTED: Put all kids not just some in a demanding high school core curriculum.

66 The single biggest predictor post high school success is the QUALITY AND INTENSITY OF THE HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM Cliff Adelman, The Toolbox Revisited, U.S. Department of Education

67 Rigorous course of study in high school ALSO has benefits far beyond college.

68 Students of all sorts will learn more...

69 Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses* *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement. Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation

70 They will also fail less often...

71 Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles Source: SREB, Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link. Unpublished Draft, 2002.

72 And they ll be better prepared for the workplace.

73 Leading states are making college prep the default curriculum. Texas, Indiana, Arkansas, Michigan, Oklahoma, South Dakota, New York and 13 others

74 #2. Teachers matter a lot. Make sure yours have the help they need to succeed THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

75 10 Percentile Point Average Difference for Students who have Top and Bottom QuartileTeachers Source: Gordon, R., Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective teachers Using Performance on the Job. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

76 Cumulative Teacher Effects On Students Math Scores in Dallas Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank= 55 Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank= 57 Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement (1997)

77 Today, you are asking even the weaker ones to get 100% students through advanced courses, when they typically got fewer than half of their students through. They need help (or to be helped OUT of profession).

78 Stimulus/ARRA: Teacher Effectiveness a top priority To participate, states will have to link teacher and student data. For Race to the Top, will likely have to be on a track to use that data in evaluation and compensation.

79 #3. Get serious about improvement especially in low performing schools THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

80 Washington 10 th Grade Reading Performance by level of 2004 performance

81 Washington 10 th Grade Math Performance by level of 2004 performance

82 You started down the path of improved accountability, now How about ARRA?

83 #4. Get serious about getting more students into and through college THE THE EDUCATION EDUCATION TRUST TRUST

84 Current College Completion Rates: 4 Year Colleges Approximately 4 in 10 entering freshmen obtain a Bachelor s degree within 4 years; Within six years of entry, that proportion rises to about 6 in 10. If you go further, to look at graduation from ANY institution, numbers grow to about twothirds.

85 But graduation rates vary widely across the nation s postsecondary institutions

86 Some of these differences are clearly attributable to differences in student preparation and/or institutional mission.

87 But when you dig underneath the averages, one thing is very clear: Some colleges are far more successful than their students stats would suggest.

88 College Results Online

89

90 So, what do you learn? Some institutions that have same mission, same focus and serve essentially same students get far better results.

91 Research Institutions Similar Students, Different Results Median SAT Size % Pell % URM Overall Grad Rate URM Grad Rate Penn State University University of Wisconsin University of Washington Purdue University University of Minnesota 1,190 33, % 7.4% 84.2% 68.8% 1,260 27, % 5.9% 76.7% 57% 1,200 24, % 8.7% 74.3% 63.7% 1,145 30, % 6.6% 66.4% 52.4% 1,165 28, % 7.2% 60.7% 41.4% Source: College Results Online 2005 data

92 Masters Institutions Large Similar Students, Different Results University of Northern Iowa Montclair State Western Illinois University of Wisconsin Whitewater Southern Illinois Edwardsville Median SAT Size % Pell Overall Graduation Rate 1,045 10, % 65% 1,045 10, % 58.3% , % 55.4% 1,030 8,844 21% 50% 1,045 9, % 44.8% Source: College Results Online 2005 data

93 Historically Black Colleges Similar Students, Different Results Median SAT Size % Pell Overall Graduation Rate Elizabeth City 835 2, % 48.8% Delaware State University of Arkansas Pine Bluff 810 3, % 35.1% 775 2, % 30.3% Norfolk State 880 4, % 29.2% Coppin State 2, % 20.2% Source: College Results Online 2005 data

94 Source: Lots To Do. A good start? Include college going (overall and by group) in high school and college accountability systems; Hold colleges accountable for improving success and closing gaps between groups; Make sure financial aid (state and institutional) is focused on the students who need help the most; and, Reverse disinvestment in public higher ed.

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