Fuel Recovery from Landfill Mining

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1 Fuel Recovery from Landfill Mining Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker Dipl.-Ing. Martin Rotheut RWTH Aachen University Unit of Technology of Fuels Working Group on Energy Recovery Meeting April 2015 Vienna, Austria

2 Quelle: 2 von 61

3 Content I. Introduction i. Project structure ii. Goals & Approach II. RDF-Production i. Landfill material excavation ii. Mechanical treatment of landfill material III. Trials for thermal recovery of RDF i. RDF power plant Minden ii. iii. iv. Waste incineration plant EEW Hannover RDF power plant Bernburg Cement plant CEMEX Beckum IV. Conclusion 3 von 61

4 Introduction

5 Introduction Project structure Funding from Federal Ministry of Education and Research Program r³ Innovative Technologies for Resource Efficiency Strategic Metals and Minerals Project period: August 2012 July 2015 Project partners Companies Universities Institutes 5 von 61

6 Introduction Ambition & Approach Development of methods for recovery of selected resources from municipal waste and slag landfills Excavation and treatment of 8,000 Mg old-deposit (80s to 2010s) Study on landfill reclamation and resource usage: Technology Ecology Economy Preparation of guidelines for the implementation of landfill mining projects Our task Thermal recycling of RDF-fractions generated from landfill material Pyrolytic treatment of mechanically generated metal concentrations (disintegration of composite material) 6 von 61

7 RDF-Production Landfill material excavation

8 Landfill Pohlsche Heide District Minden-Lübecke von 61

9 Landfill material excavation 9 von 61

10 Landfill material excavation 10 von 61

11 Landfill material excavation 11 von 61

12 RDF-Production Mechanical treatment of landfill material

13 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Overview Raw landfill material Rohdeponat K1, 2 und 3 K1, 2 and t Interim Zwischenlager storage ca. 25 t Preconditioning Vorkonditionierung Lightweight Leichtfraktion fraction Schwerfraktion Heavy fraction ca. 200 t Leichtfraktion MBT MBA Pohlsche Pohlsche Heide Heide LVP Sortieranlage Gewerbeabfallsortieranlage ca. 180 t Fresh Frisch-EBS RDF (Minden) Landfill Deponat-EBS material RDF Kunststoffe Plastics Folien Foils Admixture Zumischung ca. 80 t ca. 100 t ca. 75 t Admixture Zumischung Frischmüll Fresh (Hannover) waste EAB Bernburg CHP HKW Minden EEW Hannover Fluff Produktion production ca. 75 t Cement Zementwerk plant 13 von 61

14 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output RDF material analysis (from mechanical-biological waste treatment plant in Pohlsche Heide) Sampling according to LAGA PN 98: Several samples (320 liter) Foil Plastics 3D < 20 mm Sorting residue Minerals 20 to 40 mm 40 to 60 mm Fines Non-ferrous Wood 60 to 80 mm Iron Paper and board Textiles > 80 mm 14 von 61

15 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output Plastics 3-D 15 von 61

16 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output Foils 16 von 61

17 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output High calorific material Calorific value [kj/kg] Chlorine content [%] up to 2,5 Ash content [%] ca Water content [%] ca von 61

18 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output Fines 18 von 61

19 Mechanical treatment of landfill material Output Sorting residue 19 von 61

20 Trials for thermal use of RDF Refuse-derived fuel power plant Minden (Energos)

21 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Systems engineering 1 Rohabfall-Bunker 2 Schredder 3 Metallabscheider 4 Polypgreifer-Kran 5 Brennstoffbunker 6 Einfülltrichter 7 Primärkammer zur Vergasung 8 Nachbrennkammer 9 Dampfkessel 10 Kalk- und Kohlesilo 11 Gewebefilter 12 Silo Abgasreinigungsrückstand 13 Saugzug 14 Kamin 15 Bettaschelogistik 16 Dampfturbine 17 Luftkondensator Grate animation Quelle: von 61

22 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Input Treatment in MBT Pohlsche Heide Combustion of RDF from landfill material (by MBT) in mixture with fresh waste 22 von 61

23 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Findings Massive problems with RDF delivery Blockaded feed screw conveyor Duplex grate not suitable for material No stoking possibility Bad allocation of fuel bed Partially too high emission values (only clean gas measurement available) SO 2 clean gas values up to 270 mg/m³ i.n. With low HCl values (chlorine missing for SO x separation) Problematic characteristics of RDF High water content Calorific value lower than common RDF High portion of winded, dulled and blockaded components 23 von 61

24 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Post-treatment of RDF from landfill material MBT Pohlsche Heide Landfill material RDF RDF out of Fresh waste ca Mg ca. 700 Mg Open storage 17 months Post-screening 25 mm Separation of fines 50 %! Mixture Combustion 24 von 61

25 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Comparison of RDF from landfill material with and without post-treatment (and mixture) RDF from landfill without post-treatment Conditioned and in mixture 25 von 61

26 Combustion test RDF power plant Minden (Energos) Results with post-treated RDF Combustion of a mixture containing RDF from landfill material and normal RDF (2 : 1) over two weeks Observations Successful combustion possible: No difference to normal operation No problems with material logistics Stable steam production Normal emissions Conclusion With great effort RDF can be processed to the extent that combustion in the mixture is possible 26 von 61

27 Trials for thermal use of RDF Waste-to-energy plant EEW Hannover

28 AC Waste Combustion test EEW Hannover Systems engineering Entrained flow reactor Clean gas Boiler Spray absorber Fabric filter Chimney Bottom ash Lime milk Dust Recirculates Filter dust Induced draft 28 von 61

29 Combustion test EEW Hannover Input Treatment in MBT Pohlsche Heide Mono-combustion of landfill material RDF from MBT Combustion of crude landfill material in mixture with fresh waste Ratio Landfill material : Fresh waste 1 : 10, 1 : 5, 1 : 3 Fresh waste Landfill material RDF Mixture 1:3 29 von 61

30 Combustion test EEW Hannover Input Fresh waste Landfill material RDF 30 von 61

31 Combustion test EEW Hannover Flame image Fresh waste Landfill material RDF Landfill material Fresh waste 1 : 3 31 von 61

32 Combustion test EEW Hannover Bottom ash Slag from fresh waste combustion Slag from landfill material combustion 32 von 61

33 Steam mass flow [Mg/h] Combustion test EEW Hannover Results 70 RDF from landfill material Steam Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture :00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 Referenzzeitraum Reference period 1 Versuchszeitraum Trial period Referenzzeitraum Reference period 2 33 von 61

34 Combustion test EEW Hannover Results HCl raw gas values (mean values over trial time) HCl concentration [mg/m³ i.n.] HCl Crude gas Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture 0 Reference Referenz period vorher1 Mono RDF Reference period 2 Mono-EBS 1:10 1:5 1:3 Referenz nachher 34 von 61

35 Combustion test EEW Hannover Results HCl clean gas values (mean values over trial time) 15 HCl Clean gas HCl concentration [mg/m³ i.n.] 10 5 Limit value Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture 0 Reference Referenz period vorher1 Mono RDF Reference period 2 Mono-EBS 1:10 1:5 1:3 Referenz nachher 35 von 61

36 Combustion test EEW Hannover Results SO 2 raw gas values (mean values over trial time) SO 2 Crude gas SO 2 concentration [mg/m³ i.n.] Reference Referenz period vorher1 Mono RDF Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture Reference period 2 Mono-EBS 1:10 1:5 1:3 Referenz nachher 36 von 61

37 CO concentration [mg/m³ i.n. ] Combustion test EEW Hannover Results CO values (mean values over trial time) CO Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture Reference Referenz period vorher1 Mono RDF Reference period 2 Mono-EBS 1:10 1:5 1:3 Referenz nachher 37 von 61

38 Wassergehalt im RG [Vol.-%] Combustion test EEW Hannover Results Moisture (mean values over trial time) Moisture 20 Crude landfill material/ Fresh waste mixture Reference Referenz period vorher1 Mono RDF Reference period 2 Mono-EBS 1:10 1:5 1:3 Referenz nachher 38 von 61

39 Combustion test EEW Hannover Results RDF monocombustion possible Raw gas values of RDF monocombustion HCl: significant increase by a factor of 2-3 Exceedence of emission limit SO 2 : moderate increase Increase of lime milk consumption (ca. factor 2) Flue gas moisture noticeably higher Target value in steam production not reached because of low calorific value Crude landfill material only applicable in very high dilution with fresh waste (>1:10) Opinon of operator: Trouble-free combustion of landfill material RDF in mixture with fresh waste (1 : 1) 39 von 61

40 Trials for thermal use of RDF Refuse-derived fuel power plant Bernburg

41 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Systems engineering SNCR HOK BICAR Quelle: von 61

42 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Input Processing in preconditioning plants Monocombustion of landfill material RDF from preconditioning 1 year long storage (drying!) and post-screening 42 von 61

43 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Input RDF from fresh waste RDF from landfill material 43 von 61

44 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Input RDF from fresh waste RDF from landfill material 44 von 61

45 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Flame image RDF from fresh waste RDF from landfill material 45 von 61

46 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Results Steam production Combustion of RDF from landfill material 46 von 61

47 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Results Emissions Combustion of RDF from landfill material Bicarbonate consumption SO 2 HCl HCl 47 von 61

48 Combustion test EAB Bernburg Results Monocombustion possible: No difference to normal operation No problems with material logistics But: Material is comparatively dry (storage) Crude gas values RDF monocombustion HCl: significant increase by a factor of 2-3 to mg/m³ i.n. SO 2 : unremarkable Consumption increase of sodium carbonate (ca. factor 2-3) Stabile steam generation Operating personnel: Combustion behavior of landfill material RDF better than most fresh RDF 48 von 61

49 Trials for thermal use of RDF Cement plant CEMEX Beckum

50 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Systems engineering Quelle: CEMEX Deutschland von 61

51 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Input Processing in preconditioning plants, lightweight packaging and commercial waste plant High-caloric material with MJ/kg 2 Mg/h by furnace intake (= ca. 5 % of total FWL) 51 von 61

52 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Input RDF from fresh waste RDF from landfill material 52 von 61

53 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Results Troubles in conveying Significant tendency to agglomeration Bridging by discharge screw conveyors (isolated) Frequent damer to reduce impact on rotary valve 53 von 61

54 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Ergebnisse 54 von 61

55 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Results Troubles in conveying Significant tendency to agglomeration Bridging by discharge screw conveyors (isolated) Frequent damer to reduce impact on rotary valve Too high chlorine values Values from analysis of CEMEX sampling: Average value (anhydrous) 2,45 %! Too high chlorine content in hot meal Too much chlorine in bypass dust Cl values in clinker (still) okay Mounds build-up in preheater tower Higher pressure drop and personnel expenditure 55 von 61

56 Combustion test cement plant CEMEX Beckum Results Due to difficult material handling firstly reduction in throughput from 2 to 1,5 Mg/h Conveying problems and chlorine problematic led to discontinuation of testing Conclusion Troubles in conveying Chlorine is biggest problem Heavy metal content often above acceptance criterion Drying necessary Compley treatment For the operator not applicable 56 von 61

57 Conclusion

58 Interim conclusion Landfill material Very heterogeneous with different compositions Much inert material due to mineral cover (ash content, fines) High moisture content High content of chlorine (from 0 to 2,5 %) and sulfur possible Dull and brittle plastic consistency (lack of plasticizer?) Untreated landfill material is only applicable in high mixture in waste processing plant Treatment to RDF necessary Milling Fractionation (fine and heavy product separation) Metal deposition (Storage for) Drying? (Very) low RDF production 58 von 61

59 Interim conclusion Thermal recycling Material is basically thermally recyclable Recommended conditions Treatment with separation of fines and metals Drying (perhaps due to storage) appears to be advantageous Systems engineering of choice - Classic waste treatment plant technology with good variable rust system! - With great effort (and in mixture) also for simpler systems applicable Increase in crude gas and consumptions of adsorbents expected Combustion of untreated material seems not to be reasonable But what happens with the separated fines? Application in cement plants not productive Landfill Mining for value and fuel production is unrealistic No economical operation possible 59 von 61

60 Many thanks to EEW Energy from Waste GmbH CEMEX Deutschland AG Pader Entsorgung GmbH & Co. KG and Energie Anlage Bernburg GmbH for the support with the trials and the authorities granting aid PTJ and BMBF for the funding.

61 Thank you for your attention Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Quicker RWTH Aachen University Aachen

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