Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) in EU strategies for MSW management. Scientific aspects and research needs

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1 Mechanical-Biological Treatment (MBT) in EU strategies for MSW management Scientific aspects and research needs Enzo Favoino Working Group on Composting And Integrated Waste Management Scuola Agraria del Parco di Monza

2 The EU approach to Landfilling: Dir 99/31 mandates reduction of biodegradable municipal waste to be landfilled Also, it mandates pretreatment of the waste to be landfilled

3 Objectives: minimizing the volume and mass of waste delivered to the landfill reducing biological and chemical processes thus preventing landfill gas production minimizing leaching of contaminants recovering recyclable materials (e.g. Fe- and non Fe-metals) and energy (SRF, biogas)

4 Main MBT approaches (1) Biological stabilsation of the whole waste stream followed by landfilling (if necessary after separation of comparatively few material components, e.g. Fe-metals). (2) Biological stabilization and separation of a high calorific fraction followed by thermal recovery or treatment of the high calorific fraction and landfilling of the biologically stabilized residue. Separation may be done before or after biological stabilization (3) Biological drying (dry stailisation) ) to a water content of approx. 15 % followed by separation of recyclables and RDF for thermal recovery.

5 Why MBT? Flexibility is important Not much dependent on throughputs Not dependent on Calorific Values of residuals Fairly Good economies of scale Suitable also at low capacities (down to a few ktpa) Rural districts Same process technologies as composting/ad Double-duty sites Delivers results (in terms of loss of biodegradability) in a comparatively short time!

6 Mechanical-Biological Treatment Fast development in EU (GER, AUT, ITA, UK ) Low-tech (e.g. passively aerated) on-site MBT may produce prompt improvement of landfill conditions in developing WM systems (new Member States!!) Establishes capacities for biological treatment ready to accept separately collected biowaste at a later stage Integration with landfilling and WtE may provide for a flexibility of MSW systems Decreasing amounts of residuals Changing LHV of residuals (increasing captures of biowaste)

7 MBT-Research project supported by the German Ministry of Research and Technology; ( ) main issue of the project Institution Landfillbehaviour LCA MBT-trials 1 Universität Potsdam x parameterevaluation gasesous emissions from MBT 2 IGW Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen x x x x 3 ITU GmbH. x 4 U.T.G.-Gesellschaft für Umwelttechnik mbh x 5 TU Braunschweig x x 6 Dr.-Ing. Steffen Ingenieurgesellschaft mbh x 7 Biotechnologie Nordhausen GmbH x 8 Schwarting-Uhde GmbH x 9 FH Hamburg x 10 Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Rhein-Hunsrück x 11 TU München x 12 RWTH Aachen x 13 Bergische Universität GH Wuppertal x 14 Fraunhofergesellschaft x x x 15 TU Darmstadt x x x 16 Universität Hannover x

8 Issue # 1 Process optimisation

9 Degradation of organic matter depending on process type/efficacy efficacy odm-bio-degradation (% ) composting time (weeks) stationary panel pile 4 weeks pressure ventilation, then stationary panel pile 18 weeks intensive composting < 80 mm, 9 weeks box composting, then stationary panel pile 8 weeks pressure ventilation then stationary panel pile

10 Issue # 2 Definition of test methods and thresholds related to acceptance at landfills

11 Directive 1999/31/EC Reduction with time of biodegradable waste being landfilled a 25% (as compared to 1995) within 5 years a 50% within 8 years a 65% within 15years Mandatory treatment of waste before landfilling requires a definition of test methods for acceptance at landfills

12 Directive 1999/31/EC Reduction with time of biodegradable waste being landfilled a 25% (as compared to 1995) within 5 years a 50% within 8 years a 65% within 15years Mandatory treatment of waste before landfilling requires a definition of test methods for acceptance at landfills

13 Directive 1999/31/EC Reduction with time of biodegradable waste being landfilled a 25% (as compared to 1995) within 5 years a 50% within 8 years a 65% within 15years Mandatory treatment of waste before landfilling requires a definition of test methods for acceptance at landfills

14 Threshold values for stabilisation Germany Austria Italy EC Biowaste directive, 2nd draft Respiration (within 4 days) activity < 5 mg/g DM < 7 mg/g DM < 10 mg/g DM Respiration (DRI, peak value) activity < 1000 mg/kg SV.hr < 1000 mg/kg SV.hr Gas formation rate within 21 days (GFR21) Total organic carbon in eluate (TOC eluate ) < 20 l/kg DM < 20 l/kg DM - < 250 mg/l - -

15 Correlation between various test methods (Adani) DRI SRI SOUR SAPRO MAT DOC DOC hydro- phobic DOC hydro- philic DRI 1 SRI SOUR SAPROMAT DOC DOC hydrophilic DOC hydrophobic n.s. 1

16 Supplementary remarks Respirometry included in the scope of project HORIZONTAL Not much focused on specific issues related to MBT vs. composting e.g. GRAIN SIZE requires relatively big samples with MBT outputs (not an issue for composts)

17 Reduction of gas potential production 80% reduction 90% reduction

18 Issue # 3 Landfill behaviour of MBT outputs

19 Landfill emission potential of untreated and MBT-waste Emission Potential Unit Untreated MSW Mechanicallybiologically treated MSW Gas formation [Nl/kg dm] TOC [g/kg dm] ,3-3,3 Total Nitrogen [g/kg dm] 4-6 0,6-2,4 Cl - [g/kg dm]

20 Gas formation in a landfill simulation reactor (Höring) Cumulative Gas Production [Nl/kg dry matter] untreated MSW 80 pretreated MSW 1 60 pretreated MSW Time [d] Time [d] reduction of gas formation Time [d]

21 Landfill-related aspects Are biogas capture systems needed any more? Advantages in terms of leachate Updating LCIs New approach: shortened MBT + sealed anaerobic landfill Enhances methanogenesis Unlike the aerobic landfill reactor (N America) ensures proper capture of biogas Is it in line with current requirements for the waste to be pre-treated?

22 Issue # 4 Emissions and nuisance

23 Odour emissions: a complex issue

24 Olfactometry ASTM E679 (USA) VDI 3881 (Germany) NF X (France) NVN2820 (Netherland) UE -pren Air quality Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactometry CEN regulation defines: selection and management of panel persons sampling procedures quality assurance requirements for the performance of the olfactometer sample analysis and management of testing sessions way of recording and reporting data controls on validation of sensorial feedback of panel persons

25 Olfactometry and Nuisance (emission-related aspects) Despite standardisation, still results tend to differ quite a lot in different Countries Existing (non existing) guidelines for sampling in each country Problems occurring mostly with area sources Comparison of different measuring methods (advantages/disadvantages/sources of error)

26 Summary notes Process optimisation (different( at splitting MBT sites and dry stabilate MBT sites) Refining test methods for stability Definition of approaches to assess performances Thresholds for acceptance? (GER, AUT) Proportionality of effects? (UK) Investigation of long-term behaviours of MBT outputs in landfills (leachate, biogas) Odour management and detection (refining olfactometry, enhancement of tools to detect odour fingerprints) (also) Life-cycle inventories need updating (e.g. methane, C sequestration)

27 Thank you Enzo Favoino

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