Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing

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1 Alternative fuels in cement manufacturing Martin Oerter Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie GmbH Tannenstrasse Düsseldorf Münster, 27 October 2015

2 Research and services for the industrial minerals industry The non-profit VDZ ggmbh is active in the field of industrial research an technical development The FIZ GmbH acts as an independent third party monitoring body for testing of construction materials, emission monitoring, certification of management systems and verification of greenhouse gases

3 The German cement industry (2013) VDZ member companies 22 Cement works in Germany total* 54 with clinker production 34 without clinker production 20 Total sales (million t) 31,5 Clinker production 23,1 (domestic, million t) *) No. of works with operating permit

4 Key figures of the German Cement Industry (2013) Clinker Production: Cement Production: Thermal Energy Demand: Hard Coal: Lignite: Petcoke: Others: about 23 Mio t about 31 Mio t 90.5 Mio GJ/a 7.8 Mio GJ/a 19.7 Mio GJ/a 3.2 Mio GJ/a 3.1 Mio GJ/a 33.9 Mio GJ/a Alternative fuels: 56.6 Mio GJ/a Substitution of more than 2 Mio t of hard coal

5 Alternative Fuels Advantages Environmental advantages Saving of natural resources Reduction of CO 2 emissions Thermal recycling Economical advantages Reduction of fuel costs Stronger market position

6 Alternative Fuels Challenges Establishment of an additional fuel management Silos and storage facilities, dosing and transport equipment Quality control Influence on process Higher specific waste gas volume and pressure drop increase of electrical power demand or reduced production Increase of specific heat demand Increase of chlorine and sulphur input into the system a bypass system is required for higher substitution rates

7 Types of alternative fuels Meat- and bone-meal Municipal Waste Tires Rice husks Sewagesludge RDF Rubber chips Wood chips 7

8 Cement manufacturing Cement manufacturing is an almost waste free process. The ashes and inorganic constituents are directly converted into the product

9 Clinker burning: high temperatures and long residence times

10 Share of fuels for clinker production in EU % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Other fossil based wastes Waste oil Impregnated saw dust Solvents Tyres Plastics Mixed industrial waste Alternative fuels biomass Shale Natural gas Diesel oil (Ultra) heavy fuel Coal + anthracite + lignite + waste coal Petroleum coke Source: CEMBUREAU / Cement Sustainabilty Initiative

11 Share of fuels for clinker production in EU % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Other fossil based wastes Waste oil More than 95 % of solid fuels Impregnated saw dust About 36 % of petcoke Solvents About 24 % of other coal Tyres About 5 % of liquid fuels Plastics Mixed industrial waste About 0.4% of natural gas Alternative fuels biomass About 34% of waste fuels Shale Natural gas Diesel oil (Ultra) heavy fuel Coal + anthracite + lignite + waste coal Petroleum coke Source: CEMBUREAU / Cement Sustainabilty Initiative

12 The BAT Reference document for the cement industry (May 2010) The European legislation requires the use of BAT (Best Available Techniques): for the industry to design and operate their plants for the authorities to set appropriate permit conditions (e.g. determination of ELVs) Determination of BAT is the result of an exchange of information between EU Member States and industries concerned ( Seville Process ) Use of solid fuels is BAT (coal as well as suitable waste fuels) This has been confirmed in Seville in May 2012

13 IED = Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) The IED had to be implemented by the EU-member States by January 2013 The role of BAT (Best Available Techniques) is strengthened Annex VI of the IED contains strict emission limits for cement kilns co-incinerating waste Monitoring of emissions creates transparency and credibility

14 Comparison - Old and new ELVs and BATAELs (daily average value) ELV [mg/nm³] BATAEL range [mg/nm³] IPPC / WID New IED Old BREF 2001 New BREF 2010 Total dust (kiln firing) < (kiln firing) HCl HF NOx 800 / 500 existing / new kilns 500 possible exemptions for long and lepol kilns (max. 800) < (500) (preheater kilns) (long and lepol kilns) Cd + Tl < 0.05 Hg < 0.05 Sb + As + Pb + Cr + Co + Cu + Mn + Ni + V < 0.5 Dioxins + Furans (ng/nm³) SO 2 50 raw material exemptions possible Total organic carbon CO 10 raw material exemptions possible ELV can be set by the competent authority 50 raw material exemptions possible 10 raw material exemptions possible ELV can be set by the competent authority <

15 IED - Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) IED, Annex VI, Part 6 (2): Emission monitoring requirements continuous measurements NO x, CO, total dust, TOC oxygen, pressure, temperature, [water vapour content] [SO 2, HCl, HF] only if required by the competent authority continuous measurement of process operation parameters: oxygen, pressure, temperature, water vapour content periodic measurements heavy metals, dioxins and furans [SO 2, HCl, HF] (at least two times per year; for the first 12 months of operation at least one measurement every three months )

16 Emissions have to be monitored according to the respective regulations / directives

17 Use of alternative fuels for clinker production in EU 28 40% 35% Overall substitution rate of 34 % in % 25% 20% 15% 10% Other fossil based wastes Waste oil Impregnated saw dust Solvents Tyres Plastics Mixed industrial waste Alternative fuels biomass 5% 0% Source: CEMBUREAU-GNR, November Data cover about 96% of the plants producing clinker in the EU28

18 Alternative fuel use in the German cement industry

19 Alternative fuels have to meet specific requirements Alternative fuels have to meet specific requirements such as: Calorific value Chlorine and sulphur content Ash content Trace elements Suitable alternative fuels have to meet the necessities of: the process (environment) the product (strength, durability, environment) The same requirements have to be met by alternative raw materials!!!

20 Examples for intake materials to be treated Unpretreated municipal waste is not suitable for the cement manufacturing process!

21 High substitution rates require sophisticated pre-treatment processes Example of a pre-treatment plant which is operated in Germany nearby a cement kiln Source: ELM Recycling

22 Quality surveillance is an inevitable pre-requisite for high substitution rates Alternative fuels have to be characterised regularly In Germany a quality surveillance system has been established (RAL GZ 724)

23 Reasons for high substitution rates & specific constraints Lots of domestic industrial activities leads to a (still) sufficient supply of suitable waste materials Reliable collecting and pre-treatment systems Waste management as such is an issue of public concern Ban on landfilling for un-pretreated waste materials The cement manufacturers have to invest a lot in order to meet the strict legislative requirements (NO x, dust, Hg.) Using alternative fuels is not a copy/paste approach: solutions must suit to the respective (social) situation in a country Using alternative fuels must be economically feasible

24 Average biomass content of alternative fuels fossil biomass Wood Sweage sludge Meat & bone meal Pre-treated municipal waste Pre-treated industrial waste Waste oil Tyres

25 Landfills result in methane emissions Potential of methane emissions (kg CO 2 eq/t) given for European landfills: food wastes 1500 agricultural wastes 1700 textiles 800 paper 1600 plastics 0 Uncontrolled landfills emit about 700 kg CO 2 eq per tonne of waste.

26 Where to find further information? In the meantime lots of documents are available which do not only cover the technical aspects of coprocessing A clear and well prepared communication strategy is an inevitable prerequisite for a successful permitting procedure!

27 Sustainable production of cement Alternative fuels can be used economically and ecologically viable Application of Best Available Technologies is an inevitable pre-requisite for a sustainable cement production Quality control of the alternative fuels as well as an appropriate monitoring of industrial emissions is inevitable Major boundary conditions for the future: Availability of suitable (alternative) materials Optional political constraints (e.g. environmental legislation) Each country must find its own appropriate way No copy- paste approaches Considering the existing experiences but focussing on an own solution

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