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1 NY-SG-FLD076-02

2 Copyright 2006 by National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES ) "NYSTCE," "New York State Teacher Certification Examinations," and the "NYSTCE " logo are trademarks of the New York State Education Department and National Evaluation Systems, Inc. (NES ). "NES " and its logo are registered trademarks of National Evaluation Systems, Inc.

3 PREPARATION GUIDE Physical Education CST (76) Table of Contents 1... Introduction 2...General Information about the NYSTCE 4... Test-Taking Strategies 6...About the Physical Education Test 7...Physical Education Test Objectives 22...Multiple-Choice Section Sample Test Directions for Multiple-Choice Questions Sample Multiple-Choice Questions, Correct Responses, and Explanations Written Assignment Section Sample Test Directions for the Written Assignment Sample Written Assignment 50...Strong Response to the Sample Written Assignment Performance Characteristics and Scoring Scale Evaluation of the Strong Response

4 The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs, services, and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including braille, large print, or audiotape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department's Office for Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY

5 INTRODUCTION Purpose of This Preparation Guide This preparation guide is designed to help familiarize candidates with the content and format of a test for the New York State Teacher Certification Examinations (NYSTCE ) program. Education faculty and administrators at teacher preparation institutions may also find the information in this guide useful as they discuss the test with candidates. The knowledge and skills assessed by the test are acquired throughout the academic career of a candidate. A primary means of preparing for the test is the collegiate preparation of the candidate. This preparation guide illustrates some of the types of questions that appear on a test; however, the set of sample questions provided in this preparation guide does not necessarily define the content or difficulty of an entire actual test. All test components (e.g., directions, question content and formats) may differ from those presented here. The NYSTCE program is subject to change at the sole discretion of the New York State Education Department. Organization of This Preparation Guide Contained in the beginning sections of this preparation guide are general information about the NYSTCE program and how the tests were developed, a description of the organization of test content, and strategies for taking the test. Following these general information sections, specific information about the test described in this guide is presented. The test objectives appear on the pages following the test-specific overview. The objectives define the content of the test. Next, information about the multiple-choice section of the test is presented, including sample test directions. Sample multiple-choice questions are also presented, with the correct responses indicated and explanations of why the responses are correct. Following the sample multiple-choice questions, a description of the written assignment section of the test is provided, including sample directions. A sample written assignment is presented next, followed by a sample strong response to the assignment and an evaluation of that response. For Further Information If you have questions after reading this preparation guide, you may wish to consult the NYSTCE Registration Bulletin. You can view or print the registration bulletin online at 1

6 GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE NYSTCE How Were the NYSTCE Tests Developed? The New York State Teacher Certification Examinations are criterion referenced and objective based. A criterion-referenced test is designed to measure a candidate's knowledge and skills in relation to an established standard rather than in relation to the performance of other candidates. The explicit purpose of these tests is to help identify for certification those candidates who have demonstrated the appropriate level of knowledge and skills that are important for performing the responsibilities of a teacher in New York State public schools. Each test is designed to measure areas of knowledge called subareas. Within each subarea, statements of important knowledge and skills, called objectives, define the content of the test. The test objectives were developed for the New York State Teacher Certification Examinations in conjunction with committees of New York State educators. Test questions matched to the objectives were developed using, in part, textbooks; New York State learning standards and curriculum guides; teacher education curricula; and certification standards. The test questions were developed in consultation with committees of New York State teachers, teacher educators, and other content and assessment specialists. An individual's performance on a test is evaluated against an established standard. The passing score for each test is established by the New York State Commissioner of Education based on the professional judgments and recommendations of New York State teachers. Examinees who do not pass a test may retake it at any of the subsequently scheduled test administrations. 2

7 Organization of Content The content covered by each test is organized into subareas. These subareas define the major content domains of the test. Subareas typically consist of several objectives. Objectives provide specific information about the knowledge and skills that are assessed by the test. Each objective is elaborated on by focus statements. The focus statements provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the tests. Test questions are designed to measure specific test objectives. The number of objectives within a given subarea generally determines the number of questions that will address the content of that subarea on the test. In other words, the subareas that consist of more objectives will receive more emphasis on the test and contribute more to a candidate's test score than the subareas that consist of fewer objectives. The following example, taken from the field of Social Studies, illustrates the relationship of test questions to subareas, objectives, and focus statements. SOCIAL STUDIES (05) SUBAREA I HISTORY 0003 Understand the major political, social, economic, scientific, and cultural developments and turning points that shaped the course of world history from 1500 through analyzing the roles, contributions, and diverse perspectives of individuals and groups involved in independence struggles in Latin America Which of the following was an important goal of nineteenth-century Latin American liberals? A. establishing governments based on the separation of church and state B. reducing the influence of competitive individualism in social and economic life C. creating strong centralized governments D. making plantation agriculture the foundation of economic development The focus statements provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the test for questions measuring the objective. The objectives define the knowledge and skills that New York State teachers and teacher educators have determined to be important for teachers to possess. The field is divided into major content subareas. The number of objectives in each subarea may vary, depending on the breadth of content contained within it. This is the name and field number of the test. Each multiple-choice question is designed to measure one of the test objectives. 3

8 TEST-TAKING STRATEGIES Be On Time. Arrive at the test center on time so that you are rested and ready to begin the test when instructed to do so. Follow Directions. At the beginning of the test session and throughout the test, follow all directions carefully. This includes the oral directions that will be read by the test administrators and any written directions in the test booklet. The test booklet will contain general directions for the test as a whole and specific directions for individual test questions or groups of test questions. If you do not understand something about the directions, do not hesitate to raise your hand and ask your test administrator. Pace Yourself. The test schedule is designed to allow sufficient time for completion of the test. Each test session is four hours in length. The tests are designed to allow you to allocate your time within the session as you need. You can spend as much time on any section of the test as you need, and you can complete the sections of the test in any order you desire; however, you will be required to return your materials at the end of the four-hour session. Since the allocation of your time during the test session is largely yours to determine, planning your own pace for taking the test is very important. Do not spend a lot of time with a test question that you cannot answer promptly; skip that question and move on. If you skip a question, be sure to skip the corresponding row of answer choices on your answer document. Mark the question in your test booklet so that you can return to it later, but be careful to appropriately record on the answer document the answers to the remaining questions. You may find that you need less time than the four hours allotted in a test session, but you should be prepared to stay for the entire time period. Do not make any other commitments for this time period that may cause you to rush through the test. Read Carefully. Read the directions and the questions carefully. Read all response options. Remember that multiple-choice test questions call for the "best answer"; do not choose the first answer that seems reasonable. Read and evaluate all choices to find the best answer. Read the questions closely so that you understand what they ask. For example, it would be a waste of time to perform a long computation when the question calls for an approximation. Read the test questions, but don't read into them. The questions are designed to be straightforward, not tricky. 4

9 Mark Answers Carefully. Your answers for all multiple-choice questions will be scored electronically; therefore, the answer you select must be clearly marked and the only answer marked. If you change your mind about an answer, erase the old answer completely. Do not make any stray marks on the answer document; these may be misinterpreted by the scoring machine. IF YOU SKIP A MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTION, BE SURE TO SKIP THE CORRE- SPONDING ROW OF ANSWER CHOICES ON YOUR ANSWER DOCUMENT. You may use any available space in the test booklet for notes, but your answers and your written response must be clearly marked on your answer document. ONLY ANSWERS AND WRITTEN RESPONSES THAT APPEAR ON YOUR ANSWER DOCUMENT WILL BE SCORED. Answers and written responses in your test booklet will not be scored. Guessing As you read through the response options, try to find the best answer. If you cannot quickly find the best answer, try to eliminate as many of the other options as possible. Then guess among the remaining answer choices. Your score on the test is based on the number of test questions that you have answered correctly. There is no penalty for incorrect answers; therefore, it is better to guess than not to respond at all. Passages or Other Presented Materials Some test questions are based on passages or other presented materials (e.g., graphs, charts). You may wish to employ some of the following strategies while you are completing these test questions. One strategy is to read the passage or other presented material thoroughly and carefully and then answer each question, referring to the passage or presented material only as needed. Another strategy is to read the questions first, gaining an idea of what is sought in them, and then read the passage or presented material with the questions in mind. Yet another strategy is to review the passage or presented material to gain an overview of its content, and then answer each question by referring back to the passage or presented material for the specific answer. Any of these strategies may be appropriate for you. You should not answer the questions on the basis of your own opinions but rather on the basis of the information in the passage or presented material. Check Accuracy. Use any remaining time at the end of the test session to check the accuracy of your work. Go back to the test questions that gave you difficulty and verify your work on them. Check the answer document, too. Be sure that you have marked your answers accurately and have completely erased changed answers. 5

10 ABOUT THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEST The purpose of the Physical Education Content Specialty Test (CST) is to assess knowledge and skills in the following five subareas: Subarea I. Subarea II. Subarea III. Subarea IV. Subarea V. Physical Fitness and Health Lifelong Movement Activities and Sports Personal Growth and Development The Physical Education Program Physical Fitness and Health: Constructed-Response Assignment The test objectives presented on the following pages define the content that may be assessed by the Physical Education CST. Each test objective is followed by focus statements that provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the test for questions measuring that objective. The test contains approximately 90 multiple-choice test questions and one constructedresponse (written) assignment. The figure below illustrates the approximate percentage of the test corresponding to each subarea. Constructed-Response Assignment Subarea V. Approx. 10% Subarea I. Approx. 29% Subarea IV. Approx. 24% Subarea II. Approx. 25% Subarea III. Approx. 12% The section that follows the test objectives presents sample test questions for you to review as part of your preparation for the test. To demonstrate how each objective may be assessed, a sample question is presented for each objective. The correct response and an explanation of why the response is correct follow each question. A sample written assignment is also presented, along with an example of a strong response to the assignment and an evaluation of that response. The sample questions are designed to illustrate the nature of the test questions; they should not be used as a diagnostic tool to determine your individual strengths and weaknesses. 6

11 PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEST OBJECTIVES Physical Fitness and Health Lifelong Movement Activities and Sports Personal Growth and Development The Physical Education Program Physical Fitness and Health: Constructed-Response Assignment The New York State physical education teacher has the knowledge and skills necessary to teach effectively in New York State public schools. The physical education teacher has a broad understanding of the principles of physical fitness, health, and human movement. The physical education teacher understands the development and maintenance of healthrelated fitness, is familiar with exercise physiology principles, and is able to apply this knowledge in developing activities and fitness planning. The physical education teacher understands the development and learning of motor skills, is familiar with biomechanical principles, and is able to apply knowledge of techniques, strategies, and skills for sports, dance and aesthetic activities, personal performance activities, and outdoor pursuits. The physical education teacher understands how human beings grow and develop, includes modifications and adaptations for students with special educational needs, recognizes the importance and benefits of lifelong physical activity, and appreciates the relationship between physical activity and the development of critical-thinking skills and positive personal and social behaviors and attitudes. Finally, the physical education teacher understands the structure, organization, and goals of physical education; is knowledgeable about legal and ethical issues related to physical education; can provide information to students about access to physical activity in their communities and careers related to physical activity; and can conduct a physical education program in a safe and professional manner. 7

12 SUBAREA I PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HEALTH 0001 Understand the structures and functions of the major body systems and how these systems respond to physical activity. For example: describing the general structure of the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous systems identifying components, functions, and actions of the major body systems, and physiological processes involving these systems analyzing how body systems produce movement and adapt to physical activity and fitness analyzing the relationship between physical activity and the prevention of illness, disease, and premature death, and the risks associated with inactivity identifying physiological changes that result from regular physical activity recognizing the health and lifestyle benefits that result from regular participation in physical activity (e.g., lowered resting heart rate, improved mood, increased motor skills, improved fitness levels) 0002 Understand principles of physical fitness and the importance of lifelong physical activity. For example: distinguishing among basic components of health-related physical fitness (e.g., cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition) relating appropriate types of activities to specific purposes and components of fitness comparing and contrasting basic principles of physical conditioning and training (e.g., frequency, intensity, type, duration, progressive overload, specificity) and types of training approaches and conditioning programs applying appropriate guidelines and procedures for exercises and vigorous physical activity (e.g., injury-prevention techniques, warm-ups) identifying strategies and activities for integrating fitness principles and concepts into everyday physical activity experiences recognizing the importance of developing physically educated individuals and the benefits of a physically active lifestyle (e.g., self-renewal, body composition management, improved work productivity, reduced health care costs, increased energy for community activities) 8

13 0003 Understand principles and activities for promoting health-related cardiorespiratory fitness. For example: recognizing principles, skills, and physiological processes involved in developing aerobic endurance, including use of submaximal intensity activities demonstrating an understanding of techniques and resources, including technology, for monitoring intensity, duration, and endurance levels during aerobic activities (e.g., perceived exertion, spreadsheets, heart rate monitors) applying techniques for promoting student self-assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness (e.g., frequent monitoring of pulse rate to reach and maintain target heart rate for an appropriate amount of time) selecting appropriate cardiorespiratory fitness and recreational activities for various developmental levels and purposes (e.g., walking, bicycling, inline skating) identifying strategies and activities for integrating cardiorespiratory fitness and recreational activities into daily life 0004 Understand principles and activities for promoting health-related muscular strength and endurance. For example: identifying principles, skills, exercises, and proper form for promoting strength and endurance of the muscles for the abdomen, lower back, upper body, and legs (e.g., safety procedures, use of submaximal loads) recognizing types of progressive-resistance exercise (e.g., partner-resistance exercises, weight training, circuit training) and appropriate practices and considerations for progressive-resistance exercise (e.g., proper demonstration cues, ability to follow directions, understanding of risks and benefits, use of spotters) describing techniques and procedures for evaluating muscular strength and endurance and determining appropriate levels of intensity, duration, and frequency of training to improve muscular strength and endurance evaluating the safety and effectiveness of various strengthening exercises and types of strength training selecting appropriate muscular strength and endurance activities for various developmental levels and purposes (e.g., body-support activities, rope jumping, free weights) recognizing the benefits of regular participation in muscular strength and endurance activities (e.g., aids in body composition management, strengthens musculoskeletal system, increases bone mineral density, improves blood-lipid ratios) and strategies for integrating muscular strength and endurance activities into daily life 9

14 0005 Understand principles and activities for promoting health-related flexibility. For example: describing the functions of components of flexibility (e.g., muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons) and procedures for evaluating flexibility identifying principles, safety practices, and proper form for exercises that promote flexibility of the major joints and areas of the body (e.g., neck, shoulder, upper body, abdomen, lower back, hip, legs, knee, ankle) analyzing principles and techniques for developing proper posture and efficient body mechanics (e.g., for lifting and carrying) distinguishing among types of stretching and flexibility training approaches (e.g., proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation [PNF], static, dynamic, partner-resistance) and selecting appropriate flexibility activities for various developmental levels and purposes evaluating the safety and effectiveness of various exercises and various types of flexibility training recognizing the benefits of regular participation in flexibility activities (e.g., improved posture, increased resistance to injury) and strategies for integrating flexibility activities into daily life 0006 Understand principles and activities for developing and maintaining levels of body composition that promote good health. For example: identifying basic principles of nutrition and body composition management and ways in which diet and eating habits may affect physical development and health (e.g., essential nutrients, caloric intake and expenditure, role of exercise in body composition management) recognizing potential risk factors and signs and symptoms of eating disorders analyzing the relationships between and among diet, physical activity, eating habits, and body composition (e.g., the link between healthy eating patterns and positive body image, effects of poor eating habits on physical development and health) recognizing and distinguishing between principles, techniques, and resources for evaluating body composition (e.g., skinfolds, electronic impedence, body mass index [BMI]) analyzing procedures, activities, resources, and benefits involved in developing and maintaining healthy levels of body composition (e.g., reducing consumption of saturated fats, evaluating claims of body composition management programs) recognizing strategies for integrating healthy eating patterns and effective body composition management practices into daily life 10

15 0007 Understand principles and procedures for developing and implementing individualized fitness and wellness plans. For example: recognizing expected developmental progression, ranges of individual variation, and levels of readiness for fitness activities using appropriate strategies, instruments, and technology to assess, monitor, and provide feedback about personal fitness levels (e.g., student daily activity logs, interactive health CD-ROMs) recognizing lifestyle factors that affect health (e.g., smoking, alcohol use, body composition, stress, physical activity) and strategies for evaluating personal health risk factors and individual health, fitness, and nutritional needs identifying principles and techniques for designing and implementing individualized fitness and wellness plans (e.g., understanding the need for lifestyle changes, setting realistic short-term and long-term goals) identifying techniques for self-assessment, goal setting, and monitoring skills in relation to physical activity and health-related lifestyle decisions (e.g., making appropriate activity choices, maintaining progress logs, accepting responsibility for personal health and well-being) applying strategies for promoting understanding of physical fitness and wellness concepts (e.g., nutritional principles, stress management principles) through the development of individualized fitness and wellness plans SUBAREA II LIFELONG MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES AND SPORTS 0008 Apply principles of biomechanics to movement activities. For example: identifying movement elements related to time, space, force, and flow identifying movement concepts related to body awareness, space awareness, effort, and relationships relating biomechanical principles (e.g., those related to motion, levers, stability, force production and absorption, buoyancy, rotary movement) to various movement activities applying movement concepts and biomechanical principles to enhance performance of motor skills recognizing techniques for promoting students' analysis of their own movement skills and strategies in the context of physical activities recognizing how competence in movement forms and skills contributes to daily living tasks and participation in a variety of recreational and competitive physical activities 11

16 0009 Understand principles and characteristics of motor development. For example: identifying critical elements and appropriate sequencing of basic motor skills (e.g., progressions from less complex to more sophisticated and difficult motor tasks) identifying principles and components of perceptual-motor development, such as body awareness and visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic discrimination and their relationship to motor performance analyzing the relationship of motor development to physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development (e.g., growth and developmental changes that affect motor performance) analyzing the influence of societal, psychological, environmental, cultural, economic, familial, and health factors on motor development and fitness recognizing elements and characteristics of immature and mature motor patterns as they relate to a variety of activities, games, and sports recognizing appropriate techniques for detecting errors in motor performance and providing positive corrective feedback 0010 Understand principles, activities, and techniques for developing fundamental motor skills. For example: recognizing principles and stages of motor learning recognizing characteristics and elements of locomotor skills (e.g., crawling, running, hopping, leaping), nonlocomotor skills (e.g., swaying, swinging, pushing, pulling), rhythmic skills (e.g., responding to beat, tempo, or pitch of music), and manipulative skills (e.g., grasping, releasing, throwing, kicking, striking) demonstrating knowledge of techniques, equipment, and activities designed to develop motor skills (e.g., animal walks; partner activities; pushing and pulling challenges; chase and flee games; obstacle courses; beanbag challenges; hula hoops; scooter boards; hurdles; balance activities with wands, boxes, and beams) demonstrating knowledge of concepts such as practice, feedback, selfassessment, observational learning, skill analysis, and extension as they relate to motor skill acquisition (e.g., use of skill analysis to refine previously acquired skills and learn new skills, extending motor performance by altering a task slightly) recognizing appropriate practice opportunities and gamelike conditions based on expected progressions and individual variations and levels of readiness (e.g., students should have opportunity to learn and practice basic motor skills in a noncompetitive atmosphere) 12

17 0011 Understand principles and activities for developing, combining, and integrating locomotor, nonlocomotor, rhythmic, and manipulative skills in complex movement activities. For example: applying principles and techniques for combining and integrating fundamental locomotor, nonlocomotor, rhythmic, and manipulative skills in various movement sequences and patterns (e.g., jumping and twisting, balancing at different levels, bouncing a ball in time to music, pivoting and throwing, hand or foot dribbling while preventing an opponent from taking the ball) identifying techniques, stages of development, and motor patterns for throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking, and striking skills, and combinations of manipulative skills (e.g., catch and throw) analyzing movement activities and games in which motor skills are applied in complex forms (e.g., reflective of sports, dance, gymnastics, and game activities) identifying principles and techniques for encouraging the development and integration of motor skills in complex activities, and the understanding of game form, tactical awareness, and proper skill execution (e.g., using small-sided games, modifying playing space or rules to achieve skill and strategy objectives) demonstrating knowledge of how to help students combine and integrate motor skills in games and sports and adjust techniques and tactics based on feedback (e.g., using videotapes of performance, kinesthetic feedback, verbal and nonverbal cues) recognizing the skill-related components of fitness 13

18 0012 Understand principles, techniques, strategies, skills, and safety practices for team passing sports, net/wall sports, striking/fielding sports, and target sports. For example: identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, offensive and defensive strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for team passing sports (e.g., basketball, touch or flag football, lacrosse, soccer, team handball, ultimate frisbee) identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, offensive and defensive strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for net/wall sports (e.g., badminton, handball, pickleball, table tennis, tennis, volleyball) identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, offensive and defensive strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for striking/fielding sports (e.g., softball, baseball, cricket, field hockey) identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for target sports (e.g., golf, archery, bowling, frisbee golf, shuffleboard, bocce) applying knowledge of basic rules, etiquette, safety practices, and appropriate expectations for participant and spectator behaviors in sports and group activities (e.g., importance of adherence to rules and conventions) analyzing ways in which group process, group dynamics, and various levels of cooperation and competition can promote mutual respect and support; safe and cooperative participation; and analytical, problem-solving, teamwork, and leadership skills recognizing the benefits of lifelong participation in sports and strategies for promoting enjoyment of and participation in sports throughout life 14

19 0013 Understand principles, techniques, strategies, skills, and safety practices for dance and aesthetic activities, personal performance activities, adventure activities, and outdoor pursuits. For example: identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, steps, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for dance and aesthetic activities (e.g., rhythmic activities; creative movement; ballroom, modern, country, folk, line, hip-hop, and jazz dance; gymnastics; circus arts) identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for personal performance activities (e.g., aerobic dance, cross-country running, martial arts, swimming, track and field, wrestling, fencing) identifying techniques, skills, skills progressions, strategies, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for outdoor pursuits (e.g., walking, bicycling, crosscountry skiing, canoeing, orienteering, hiking, fishing, inline skating) recognizing techniques, sequences, skills, safety practices, and types and uses of equipment for adventure activities (e.g., rock climbing, alpine skiing, low ropes courses, high ropes courses, camping) applying knowledge of ways in which aesthetic, personal performance, outdoor, recreational, adventure, cooperative, and challenge activities can promote critical-thinking, decision-making, problem-solving, conflict management, leadership, and collaborative skills recognizing the benefits of lifelong participation in dance and aesthetic activities, personal performance activities, and outdoor and adventure activities, and strategies for promoting enjoyment of and participation in these activities throughout life 15

20 SUBAREA III PERSONAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 0014 Understand how individuals grow and develop physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally. For example: recognizing phases and characteristics of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development during early and late childhood, preadolescence, adolescence, and early and late adulthood recognizing factors that influence physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth and development (e.g., heredity, nutrition, culture, environment, physical activity and inactivity) analyzing developmental issues during the different stages of human growth (e.g., role of play as a basic process in learning for young children, importance of participation in physical activity in the socialization process, preoccupation with physical appearance during adolescence) demonstrating knowledge of the cognitive dimensions of physical activity and ways to foster critical-thinking and evaluative skills in the context of physical education and health-related activities (e.g., use of self-assessment and selfmonitoring skills, promoting recognition of interdisciplinary connections) analyzing the influence of expectations related to gender, body image, physical appearance, skill level, the media, and culture on the development of selfconcept analyzing the influence of peers and others (e.g., parents, teachers) on students' social attitudes and behaviors 0015 Understand the relationship between physical activities and the development of positive personal and social behaviors and traits. For example: analyzing the relationship between physical activity and the development of personal identity and emotional and mental well-being (e.g., how various factors affect the development of positive body image and self-concept, the role of regular physical activity in stress management) identifying ways in which physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment (e.g., appreciation of skilled performance); challenge; risk taking; and personal expression, satisfaction, and achievement analyzing how physical education activities can promote positive personal behaviors; civility; citizenship; character; and traits such as self-esteem, selfcontrol, responsibility, confidence, honesty, dignity, ability to cope with success and failure, and appropriate attitudes about winning and losing analyzing ways in which physical education activities can promote positive social behaviors and traits such as improved relations with adults and peers; collaboration; cooperation; loyalty; compassion; consideration of others; fairness; being a follower and a leader; valuing and respecting diversity and individual differences; and valuing physical activity, teamwork, and sportsmanship 16

21 0016 Understand the development of resource management and consumer skills in relation to physical activity and fitness. For example: applying strategies for locating physical activity information, products, and services and for promoting consumer awareness skills in relation to physical activity, recreation, and fitness and wellness comparing and evaluating information related to health, fitness, and recreational activities, products, facilities, and services (e.g., fitness and sports equipment, weight control products and programs, fitness facilities) analyzing media advertising and marketing practices related to fitness, recreational, and sports products and programs, and their influence on consumers demonstrating knowledge of community resources for physical activity (e.g., private/public organizations or clubs, recreation-department sports programs, parks, pools, health clubs, skating rinks) and the benefits of participating in physical activity with others (e.g., social-cultural benefits) applying knowledge of strategies for improving or maintaining personal and community resources in relation to physical activity and fitness (e.g., making time for family/community activities, assessing the costs and benefits of in-home fitness equipment, recognizing the role of physical activity as a resource for everyone regardless of age or ability) demonstrating an understanding of how to use a variety of activities, technologies, and resources to enhance research, decision-making, problem-solving, cost-benefit analysis, and other consumer skills in the physical education program 17

22 SUBAREA IV THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM 0017 Understand the structure, organization, goals, and purposes of physical education programs. For example: demonstrating knowledge of the structure, organization, goals, and purposes of physical education programs (e.g., curricular models, domains of learning, developmentally appropriate practices) analyzing the relationships and interactions among physical education and other subject areas and methods for integrating physical education into the overall school curriculum and district plan (e.g., interdisciplinary teaching through physical activity) identifying past and present philosophies, significant major historical events, and contributions of key leaders associated with the field of physical education and the context of human movement analyzing current issues and trends in physical education (e.g., the New York State Learning Standards, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education Content Standards, the impact of "A Report of the Surgeon General," loss of physical education facilities, inclusion/mainstreaming) and their impact on the goals, scope, and components of contemporary physical education programs applying communication techniques and collaborative strategies to establish partnerships with families, community members, and school professionals that support the achievement of goals of the physical education program and the school identifying criteria and procedures for assessing physical activity and evaluating physical education programs, and ways to adapt or modify activities and programs based on evaluation 18

23 0018 Understand issues and procedures involved in managing the physical education environment, including modifications and adaptations for students with special educational needs. For example: identifying general principles for managing heterogeneous groups of children in physical activity settings (e.g., direct and indirect supervision; monitoring and communication strategies; effective introductory, transition, and dismissal procedures; safety issues) recognizing appropriate principles and methods for handling logistics related to the availability and use of facilities, materials, staff, and technological resources in the physical education environment applying principles and practices related to the appropriate selection, care, maintenance, storage, and use of physical education equipment demonstrating knowledge of physical education techniques, technology, media, and activities for various objectives, situations, and developmental levels (e.g., adaptive technology, audiovisual aids, task cards, learning centers, presentation software, interactive software) applying techniques for adapting and modifying rules, games, equipment, instructional approaches, activities, settings, and grouping strategies to accommodate students with special educational needs (e.g., modifying duration of activities, using peer tutors, adding cues or signals) 0019 Understand physical education assessment methods and instruments. For example: comparing and contrasting types, characteristics, advantages, and limitations of various assessment methods and instruments (e.g., observational checklists, authentic assessments, portfolio systems, physical fitness tests, journals, peer assessments, standardized tests, event tasks, skills tests, rating scales) relating developmentally appropriate assessment strategies to various physical education learning goals and situations selecting appropriate informal and formal assessment materials and techniques to assess student progress (e.g., fully defined rubrics, point systems, student fitness cards, kinesthetic knowledge) using technology (e.g., videotape, digital cameras, movement analysis software, fitness test software) for analysis of student progress, fitness, and performance demonstrating knowledge of appropriate use, interpretation, and communication of assessment results 19

24 0020 Understand legal, ethical, and professional issues related to physical education. For example: demonstrating knowledge of professional and ethical standards and codes and of legal requirements and responsibilities associated with teaching physical education analyzing legal and ethical issues related to physical education (e.g., duty, confidentiality, supervision, safety, inclusion, professional liability, risk, negligence) demonstrating knowledge of state and federal laws and guidelines regarding physical education, gender equity, special education, privacy, and other aspects of students' rights (e.g., Americans with Disabilities Act, the Physical Education for Progress Act, Title IX, confidentiality procedures) relating ethical, legal, and professional guidelines to various physical education settings and situations applying knowledge of effective strategies for advocating the development of an exemplary physical education program and for accessing resources and opportunities for physical activity during and beyond the school day and year demonstrating knowledge of how to locate and evaluate commercial and professional sources of information on physical activity, fitness and wellness, and physical education (e.g., evaluating online information, distinguishing between marketing and objective research) 0021 Understand principles and practices related to safety, injury prevention, and first aid. For example: identifying concepts, considerations, and practices related to establishing and maintaining a safe physical education environment (e.g., rules, prior instruction, types of supervision, student-teacher ratios, student age and experience, level of risk in activity, knowledge of students' strengths and weaknesses) identifying purposes and procedures for CPR and principles and procedures for providing first aid (e.g., blood-borne pathogens; assessing emergency situations; applying first aid for shock, cuts, abrasions, and broken bones; universal safety precautions) analyzing principles and techniques of injury prevention and risks of injury if physical activity is performed incorrectly or in extreme evaluating physical and environmental dangers (e.g., cold, heat, wind) and relating appropriate preventive measures or treatments to health conditions (e.g., hypothermia, heat exhaustion) analyzing potential safety hazards and risks associated with games, sports, and outdoor activities (e.g., improper clothing or equipment in hiking, cycling, cross-country skiing) and appropriate precautions to take to avoid hazards and minimize risk in the physical education environment demonstrating knowledge of appropriate procedures for following up after an injury occurs (e.g., following up with parents; completing an accident report; contacting appropriate building personnel such as school nurse, principal, or department chair) 20

25 0022 Understand careers related to physical activity, fitness and wellness, recreation, sports, and the study of human movement. For example: recognizing the contributions of participation in physical activity to students' development of competence and workplace skills (e.g., perseverance, following directions, leadership, inclusion, teamwork) describing career opportunities associated with physical activity, fitness and wellness, and sports and recreation, and associated qualifications, educational requirements, and job responsibilities recognizing principles, procedures, and resources, including technological resources, for developing career awareness and job search skills (e.g., personal interests and talents in relation to careers, online job searches, required courses or certificates for different professions) demonstrating knowledge of the variety of training courses, college courses, and occupations associated with the study of human movement (e.g., kinesiology; sport, exercise, and leisure sciences; wellness education; sports management; movement education; interdisciplinary health studies; human performance and health promotion; recreation; dance; coaching; sports medicine; exercise rehabilitation and therapy; ergonomics; sport and exercise psychology) recognizing the goals and functions of national, state, and local organizations relevant to professions concerned with the study of human movement (e.g., New York State Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance; American College of Sports Medicine; American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education; National Association for Sport and Physical Education/ American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance [NASPE/AAHPERD]) SUBAREA V PHYSICAL FITNESS AND HEALTH: CONSTRUCTED-RESPONSE ASSIGNMENT The content to be addressed by the constructed-response assignment is described in Subarea I, Objectives

26 MULTIPLE-CHOICE SECTION This preparation guide provides sample multiple-choice questions and a sample written assignment for the test. The multiple-choice questions illustrate the objectives of the test one sample question for each objective. Three pieces of information are presented for each test question: 1. the number of the test objective that the sample question illustrates, 2. a sample test question, 3. an indication of the correct response and an explanation of why it is the best available response. Keep in mind when reviewing the questions and response options that there is one best answer to each question. Remember, too, that each explanation offers one of perhaps many perspectives on why a given response is correct or incorrect in the context of the question; there may be other explanations as well. On the following page are sample test directions similar to those that candidates see when they take the test. 22

27 SAMPLE TEST DIRECTIONS FOR MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS DIRECTIONS This test booklet contains a multiple-choice section and a section with a single written assignment. You may complete the sections of the test in the order you choose. Each question in the first section of this booklet is a multiple-choice question with four answer choices. Read each question CAREFULLY and choose the ONE best answer. Record your answer on the answer document in the space that corresponds to the question number. Completely fill in the space that has the same letter as the answer you have chosen. Use only a No. 2 lead pencil. Sample Question: 1. What is the capital of New York? A. Buffalo B. New York City C. Albany D. Rochester The correct answer to this question is C. You would indicate that on the answer document as follows: 1. You should answer all questions. Even if you are unsure of an answer, it is better to guess than not to answer a question at all. You may use the margins of the test booklet for scratch paper, but you will be scored only on the responses on your answer document. The directions for the written assignment appear later in this test booklet. FOR TEST SECURITY REASONS, YOU MAY NOT TAKE NOTES OR REMOVE ANY OF THE TEST MATERIALS FROM THE ROOM. The words "End of Test" indicate that you have completed the test. You may go back and review your answers, but be sure that you have answered all questions before raising your hand for dismissal. Your test materials must be returned to a test administrator when you finish the test. If you have any questions, please ask them now before beginning the test. DO NOT GO ON UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. 23

28 SAMPLE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS, CORRECT RESPONSES, AND EXPLANATIONS Objective 0001 Understand the structures and functions of the major body systems and how these systems respond to physical activity. 1. During long periods of exercise without rehydration, fluid redistribution in the body and loss of fluids due to sweating can lead to: A. decreased heart rate. B. lowered body temperature. C. reduced blood plasma volume. D. decreased gas exchange between alveoli and capillaries. Correct Response: C. During physical activity, metabolic rate increases, causing body temperature to rise. In response, sweating, or evaporative cooling, occurs to prevent overheating. Water loss is accelerated during exercise, and this depletion causes the body to attempt to redistribute and conserve fluids (e.g., by decreasing blood flow to kidneys) to prevent dehydration. If fluids are not replenished through drinking, fluid loss will decrease blood plasma volume, lowering blood pressure and reducing blood flow to the muscles and skin. 24

29 Objective 0002 Understand principles of physical fitness and the importance of lifelong physical activity. 2. Which of the following statements is an accurate interpretation of the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principle as applied to flexibility training? A. Frequency refers to how long a stretch is held multiplied by the number of times the stretch is performed. B. Intensity refers to the principle that to increase flexibility, one must stretch until one feels intense pressure in muscles or joints. C. Time refers to the principle that to elongate muscle and connective tissue, one must stretch with quick, pulsing movements. D. Type refers to the mode of exercise suitable to the purpose of training; for example, to increase arm and shoulder flexibility, one must stretch arm and shoulder muscles and joints. Correct Response: D. According to the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principle, type refers to the specific physical activity selected to improve a specific component of healthrelated fitness. The type or mode of exercise must be specific to the participant's purpose for exercising. For example, an individual who wishes to increase cardiorespiratory endurance should walk or swim, while an individual who wishes to increase leg strength should exercise the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and so forth. In flexibility training, an individual who wishes to increase arm and shoulder flexibility should work arm and shoulder muscles and joints with static stretching through the full range of motion. 25

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