1 1 Layered Architectures and Applications Required reading: Garcia 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 CSE 3213, Fall 2010 Instructor: N. Vlajic
3 Why Layering?! 3 Montreal London Paris Alice wants to send a mail to Bob and a parcel to John. Alice drops off both at the same Post Office. Post Office performs final delivery based on the street and personal names. Post Office looks at the addresses ( city names!!! ) and arranges for proper transportation. City A City B City C
4 Why Layering?! (cont.) 4 No Layering each new application has to be re-implemented for every network technology! Application Telnet FTP NFS HTTP Transmission Media Coaxial cable Fiber optic Packet radio Layering intermediate layer(s) provide a unique abstraction for various network technologies Application Telnet FTP NFS HTTP Intermediate layer Transmission Media Coaxial cable Fiber optic Packet radio
5 Why Layering?! (cont.) 5 Why Protocol Layering? 1) modularity one problem is decomposed into a number of smaller more manageable subproblems more flexibility in designing, modifying and evolving computer networks 2) functionality reuse a common functionality of a lower layer can be shared by many upper layers A monolithic network design that uses a single large body of of hardware and software to to meet all network requirements can quickly become obsolete and also is is extremely difficult and expensive to to modify. Layered approach accommodates incremental changes much more rapidly.
6 Layered Architecture 6 Protocol Layering Layer 7. Layer N. Layer 1 service to Layer N+1 Layer N service from Layer N-1 protocol with peer Layer N grouping of related communication functions into hierarchical set of layers each layer: (1) performs a subset of functions required for communication with another system (2) relies on next lower layer to perform more primitive functions (3) provides service to next higher layer (4) implements protocol for communication with peer layer in other systems vertical communication commun. between adjacent layers requires mutual understanding of what services and/or information lower layer must provide to layer above horizontal communication commun. between software or hardware elements running at the same layer on different machines Communication between peer processes is is virtual, i.e. indirect.
7 Layered Architecture (cont.) 7 Protocol Service set of rules that govern data comm. between peer entities layer-n peer processes communicate by exchanging Protocol Data Units (PDUs) can be accessed through Service Access Points (SAP s) layer n+1 PDU = layer n SDU (SDU = Service Data Unit) layer n process adds control information (header) to its SDU to produce layer n PDU encapsulation! layer n does not interpret or make use of information contained in its SDU n+1 PDU Layer n+1 n+1 entity n+1 PDU n+1 entity n-sap n-sap Layer n nsdu H n entity n entity H nsdu npdu
8 Layered Architecture (cont.) 8 Example [ layering vertical vs. horizontal flow of information ] n+1 PDU Layer n+1 n+1 entity n+1 entity n-sap n-sap Layer n n entity n SDU n PDU H n entity
9 Layered Architecture (cont.) 9
10 OSI Model 10 Layered OSI Architecture composed of 7 ordered layers there is fairly natural correspondence between TCP/IP & OSI layers TCP/IP architecture can be explained in terms of corresponding OSI layers application support layers allows communication with end-user and interoperability among unrelated software systems transport layer - links upper and lower group - ensures that what lower layers have transmitted is in a form that upper layers can use network support layers deal with physical aspects of moving data from one device to another across one link and across the whole network
11 OSI Model (cont.) 11 Peer-to to-peer Communication over 7 OSI Layers message moves down through layers on sending device, over intermediate nodes, to receiving station, and then back up through layers at intermediate nodes (routers), data is pulled only up to network layer, so that next hop could be determined
12 OSI Model (cont.) 12 each layer in sending device adds its own information to message it receives from layer above it and passes whole package to layer just below it reverse process occurs at receiving device when data reaches physical layer, it is changed into electromagnetic signal and sent along a physical link
13 OSI Model: Physical Layer Physical Layer coordinates transmission of bit-stream over physical medium, including representation of bits: to be transmitted, bits must be encoded into signals electrical or optical; P.L. defines type of encoding how 0s & 1s are changed to signals (e.g. 1 = +1V, 0 = -1V) bit length / data rate: P.L. defines how long a bit lasts and, accordingly, number of bits sent each second (different values for copper wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optics, )
14 OSI Model: Data-Link Layer Data-Link Layer The data link layer transforms the physical layer, a raw stream of bits, to a reliable link between two devices on the same network. It It makes the physical layer appear error-free to the upper layer. sender receiver
15 OSI Model: Data-Link Layer 15 framing: The D.L.L divides the stream of bits received from the network layer into manageable data units called frames. physical addressing: The D.L.L adds a header to the frame to specify the NIC address of appropriate receiver on the other side (of wire). error control: The D.L.L adds reliability to the physical layer by adding a trailer with information necessary to detect/recover damaged or lost frames. access control: When 2 or more devices are connected to same link, the D.L.L determines which device has control over the link at any given time. flow control flow control: If rate at which data are absorbed by receiver is less than sender s transmission rate, the D.L.L imposes a flow control over sender.
16 OSI Model: Network Layer Network Layer While the data link layer oversees the delivery of packets between two devices on the same network, the network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet across multiple networks / links. Routing over multiple networks: 1) in min time, AND 2) with min overhead. sender receiver
17 OSI Model: Network Layer 17 logical addressing: The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer handles the addressing / delivery problem locally over a single wire. If a packet passes the network boundary another addressing system is needed to help distinguish between the source and destination network. routing: The N.L. provides the mechanism for routing/switching packets to their final destination, along the optimal path across a large internetwork. fragmentation & reassembly: The N.L. sends messages down to the D.L.L. for transmission. Some D.L.L. technologies have limits on the length of messages that can be sent. If the packet that the N.L. wants to send is too large, the N.L. must split the packet, send each piece to the D.L.L, and then have pieces reassembled once they arrive at the N.L. on destination machine. Ethernet LAN ATM Network ATM Switch ATM H Switch ATM Switch H H Net Net 3 G Net Net 1 G G Net 2 G Net 4 G G ATM Switch Net Net 5 H
18 OSI Model: Transport Layer Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for process-to-process delivery of an entire message. While network layer gets each packet to the correct computer, transport layer gets the entire message to the correct process on that computer.
19 OSI Model: Transport Layer 19 port addressing: Computers often run several processes at the same time. Hence, process-to-process delivery means delivery not only from one computer to the other but also from a specific process on one computer to a specific process on the other. The T.L. header therefore must include a type of address called a port address. segmentation and reassembly: A message is divided into segments, each segment containing a sequence number. These numbers enable the T.L. to reassemble the message correctly upon arrival at the destination, and to identify and replace packets that were lost in the transmission. flow & error control: Flow & error control at this layer are performed endto-end rather than across a single link. Appl. 1 (Port 1) Appl. 2 (Port 2) Appl. 3 (Port 3) Appl. 1 (Port 1) Appl. 2 (Port 2) Appl. 3 (Port 3)
20 OSI Model: Application Layer 20 Application Layer (i.e. OSI Session + Presentation + Application Layer) The application layer provides the actual service to the user. synchronization: If a system is sending a large file, insert checkpoints every 100 pages to ensure that each 100-page unit is received and acknowledged We want to send independently. a big file to Thus, a system if a crash that occasionally happens during crashes. the transmission of page 523, only pages that need to be resend are 501 to 523. encryption: To carry sensitive info., a system must be able to ensure We want to send private data over third-party network. privacy. Encryption transforms the original information to another form, while decryption reverses the received message back to its original form. compression: We want to send Data multimedia/video compression reduces data, but the number network of capacity bits contained limited. in a file it is particularly important in the transmission of multimedia.
21 OSI Model: Summary 21 Summary of Layers Why 7 Layers? physical and application layer = bottom and top data link layer bundles all link-dependent details network layer responsible for hop-to-hop routing transport layer responsible for end-to-end flow control session & presentation layer provide some useful features; these can be easily provided in application layer
22 OSI Model: Summary 22 Why did OSI Model Fail in Practice? (1) Bad Timing although essential elements of OSI model were in place quickly, final standard (model + protocols) was not published until 1984 by the time it took to develop OSI protocol standards, TCP/IP network architecture emerged as an alternative for open system interconnection free distribution of TCP/IP as part of Berkeley UNIX system ensured widespread use and development of numerous applications at various academic institutions (2) Complexity and Inefficiency 7-layer OSI model was specified before there was much experience in designing large-scale OSI networks some design choices were made in absence of concrete evidence of their effectiveness some functions, e.g. error control, appear in several layers (data link, transport, application) overall efficiency reduced
23 Internet Model 23 Internet Model and Hourglass Protocol Stack HTTP FTP NFS TFTP Reliable and in-order process-toprocess delivery. TCP UDP Unreliable processto-process delivery. IP IP protocol acts as glue : everything over IP IP over everything! Net 1 Net 2 Net 3 The operation of one single protocol at the network layer (IP protocol) over various networks provides independence from the underlying network technologies. IP over anything, anything over IP!
24 Internet Model (cont.) 24 Addresses in TCP/IP Model 0 65, locally unique logical address used to differentiate between applications sharing the same IP address globally unique logical address used to located corresponding node in the entire Internet hierarchical addresses that can be easily aggregated in routing tables fast routing! 00:07:E9:06:FD:2B globally unique NIC address used to located corresponding node on a LAN each NIC on a subnetwork may have different manufactures we cannot aggregate physical addresses in routing tables large networks cannot use these addresses to identify hosts!
25 TCP/IP Protocol: How the Layers Work Together 25 Example [ web-page retrieval assumption: TCP connection established!] request Router client: IP_C server: IP_S compose HTTP request Web Client (Browser) compose a TCP segment carrying HTTP request and TCP header with source- & destination- port-number GET HTTP/1.0 TCP Layer Domain Name System H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 compose an IP packet carrying TCP segment and IP header with source & destination IP address IP IP Layer H IP (IP_C, IP_S) H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 compose an Ethernet packet carrying IP segment and Ethernet header with source & next-hop-router NIC address NIC NIC Driver H E on to the wire! H IP (IP_C, IP_S) H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 T E
26 TCP/IP Protocol: How the Layers Work Together (cont.) 26 Router client: IP_C server: IP_S Web Server GET HTTP/1.0 perform sequencing, error recovery, etc. and pass HTTP segments reliably and in-order on to specified port number TCP Layer H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 extract destination IP address and check if it is meant for this computer if so, extract TCP segment and pass it on to the TCP layer, otherwise forward the packet through appropriate outgoing link IP IP Layer H IP (IP_C, IP_S) H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 from the wire! H E data-link layer processing (header removal, error checking, etc.) H IP (IP_C, IP_S) H TCP (SPN, DPN) GET HTTP/1.0 T E NIC NIC Driver
27 TCP/IP Protocol: How the Layers Work Together (cont.) Bonus Question [ layering encapsulation ] Assume two computers, situated on two distant LANs - with different data-link technologies, communicate with each other over the Internet. Does each of these computers have to be aware of the data-link technology / protocol run in the LAN of the other computer? 27 data application transport network link physical application transport network link physical LAN 1 application transport network link physical network link physical data application transport network link physical LAN 2 (Source: Kurose & Ross)
28 TCP/IP Protocol: How the Layers Work Together (cont.) 28 data application transport network link physical application transport network link physical DL 1 IP data IP application transport network link physical data network link physical data application transport network link physical DL 2 IP data (Source: Kurose & Ross)
29 How to determine own IP & MAC address(es)? How to determine the number and identity of intermediate routers? How to determine IP address of another remote machine? 29
30 IP Utilities 30 IPCONFIG Microsoft Windows OS tool; UNIX/Linux equivalents: ifconfig, ip addr in simplest form returns IP address, subnet mask, default gateway ipconfig /all returns above and DNS hostname, physical address, DNS and DHCP Server addresses, etc.
31 IP Utilities (cont.) 31 PING standard troubleshooting tool (available on most OS) used to determine 1) whether a remote computer is currently alive 2) round trip delay max, min, average Windows ping sends 4 32-bit packets to destination and reports a) how many packets reached another computer b) roundtrip delay for each ping makes use of ICMP messages if host names used instead of IP addresses, ping relies on DNS service to obtain respective IP address additional delay!
32 IP Utilities (cont.) 32 Traceroute Origin UNIX utility, but nearly all platforms have something similar Windows utility is called tracert you can run tracert from MS-Dos Window, by entering tracert followed by domain name, e.g. tracert tracert & traceroute have different implementation! Traceroute Use traceroute is generally used: (1) as network debugging tool by pinpointing network connectivity problems (2) for identifying IP addresses Example [ traceroute ] If you are visiting a Web site and pages are appearing slowly, you can use traceroute to figure out where the longest delay(s) are occurring.
33 IP Utilities (cont.) 33 Example [ traceroute ]
34 IP Utilities (cont.) 34 VisualRoute for Internet Performance:
36 CCNA Questions 36 Q.1 Which layer provides logical addressing that routers will use for path determination? A.1 Network Layer Q.2 Which layer is responsible for converting data packets into electrical signal? A.2 Physical Layer Q.3 Which layer combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames, uses MAC addressing, and provides error detection? A.3 Data-link Layer Q.4 Which layer is used for reliable communication between end nodes over a WAN and controlling the flow of information? A.4 Transport Layer
37 CCNA Questions (cont.) 37 Q.5 Which fields are contained within an IEEE Ethernet frame header? (a) Source and destination MAC address. (b) Source and destination network (IP) address. (c) Source and destination MAC address and source and destination network (IP) address. Q.6 When data is encapsulated, which is the correct order? (a) Data, frame, packet, segment, bit. (b) Segment, data, packet, frame, bit. (c) Data, segment, packet, frame, bit. (d) Data, segment, frame, packet, bit.
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