ELEC3030 (EL336) Computer Networks. How Networks Differ. Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult:

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1 How Networks Differ Differences that can occur at network layer, which makes internetworking difficult: It is impossible to resolve all differences, and the solution is to take a simple approach (as in the Internet) 131

2 Internetworking Problem: Networks with different protocol stacks how to let them talk to each other? Nonsolution: Why not enforce all networks to run same protocol stack? ask for troubles! and this is effectively saying no progress is allowed Solution: Construct some gateways that connect different kinds of networks Repeaters or hubs at physical layer: operate on bits, do not understand protocols, just regenerate signals Bridges or switches at data link layer: operate on frames, examine AC addresses, do minor protocol translation, e.g. Ethernet to ultiprotocol at network layer: operate on packets, translate between different packet formats, possibly split up packets Connection to Internet Router SNA network Ethernet Switch ainframe FDDI ring AT network Notebook computer Transport gateways at transport layer: coupling byte streams in different networks, interface between different transport connections Application gateways at application layer: translate message semantics between OSI and TCP/IP networks 132

3 Internetworking at Network Layer With a, packet is extracted from frame and address in packet is used to decide where to send it so has to understand network protocols Legend Header Trailer Switch Router S D S D LAN 1 LAN 2 (a) LAN 1 (b) LAN 2 Switch or bridge do not understand network protocols. In a switch (or bridge) entire frame is transported on basis of its AC address Two basic internetworking approaches: connection-oriented concatenation of virtual-circuit subnets, and connectionless datagram internet style 133

4 Concatenated Virtual Circuits A sequence of virtual circuits is set up from source through gateways (multiprotocol s) to destination SNA 1 X. 25 ultiprotocol AT Router OSI End-to-end concatenated virtual circuits 2 Host Each gateway maintain tables telling which virtual circuits pass through it, where they are to be routed and what new virtual circuit number is If one of constituent subnets does not support virtual circuits, simple concatenation becomes hard 134

5 Using Datagram This connectionless internetworking approach is similar to datagram service in subnets 1 s travel individually and can take different routes Router ultiprotocol 2 Host ain problem: Addressing different networks use completely different address systems. How do you address a host in a IP subnet when you are in a SNA subnet? Solution: Don t solve it, instead consider possibly some universal network protocol, e.g. IP, which can be carried through many networks 135

6 Tunneling Solving general internetworking problem is extremely hard, but thing becomes easier if source and destination are on same type of subnet tunnelling can be used Ethernet in Paris ultiprotocol Acts like a serial line WAN Tunnel 1 2 Ethernet in London Header IP Ethernet frame IP IP packet inside payload field of the WAN packet IP Ethernet frame ultiprotocol simply places source host s packet inside payload of WAN packet and sends through Essentially, what between two hosts subnets, WAN, can be seen as a tunnel extending from one multiprotocol to the other 136

7 Internetworking Routing Routing through an internetwork is similar to routing within a subnet but with added complications Two-level routing algorithm needed Interior gateway protocol used (a) within each network Exterior gateway protocol used between networks 1 Network A E 2 B 3 C 4 (ultiprotocol) D F 5 A E C (b) B F D Thus, one has intranetwork routing and internetwork routing Consider an internet packet starts out from its LAN addressed to the local multiprotocol routine (in the AC layer header) After the packet has reached the local, the network layer decides which mutliprotocol to forward the packet to using its own routing table If that can be reached using the packet s native network protocol, the packet is directly forward there Otherwise, it is tunnelled there (see previous slide), encapsulated in the protocol required by the intervening network 137

8 Fragmentation Different networks have different maximum packet sizes, and solution is to allow gateway to split a packet into smaller ones fragmentation Network 1 Network 2 G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 G 1 fragments a large packet G 2 reassembles the fragments G 3 fragments again G 4 reassembles again (a) G 1 G 2 G 3 G 4 G 1 fragments a large packet The fragments are not reassembled until the final destination (a host) is reached (b) Transparent fragmentation: small-packet network splits packet and recombines fragments back. Others do not need to know Nontransparent fragmentation: destination host recombines fragments back 138

9 Fragmentation Reassembly A fragment may be fragmented again by successive intermediate networks when a fragment arrives at destination, we have to know exactly where it fits into original packet Solution: requires two sequence fields in header, original packet number and fragment number Number of the first elementary fragment in this packet number End of packet bit 1 byte A B C D E F G H I J Header (a) A B C D E F G H I J Header (b) Header A B C D E F G H I J Header Header Header (c) 139

10 Firewalls Sometimes it is better not all your computers can be easily reached by others, or vice versa firewall filtering Application gateway filtering Backbone Connections to outside networks Corporate network Security perimeter Inside LAN Outside LAN Firewall filter: standard with extra functionality to inspect packets Those packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally, and those failed are dropped Application gateway: operates at application level 140

11 Summary Internetworking in general Internetworking at network layer Concatenated virtual circuits Connectionless internetworking Tunnelling Internetwork routing Transparent and nontransparent fragmentation, reassembly Firewalls 141

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