Pineapples. Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom. Version - October 2011

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1 Pineapples Ian Hewett Horticultural Marketing Inspectorate United Kingdom Version - October

2 Definition Of Produce This Standard applies to pineapples of varieties (cultivars) grown from Ananascomosus(L). Merr.to be supplied fresh to the consumer, pineapples for ornamental use or industrial processing being excluded. Pineapples come in a range of sizes and shapes, such as the following types: Round Oval Conical 2

3 Definition of Produce Smooth Cayenne Queen Victoria MD2 Sugar Loaf Common commercially grown varieties. 3

4 Minimum requirements In all classes, subject to the special provisions for each class and the tolerances allowed, the pineapples must be: intact, with or without crown: if present, the crown may be reduced or trimmed sound; produce affected by rotting or deterioration such as to make it unfit for consumption is excluded clean, practically free of any visible foreign matter practically free from pests free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh 4

5 A. Minimum requirements fresh in appearance, including the crown free of abnormal external moisture free of any foreign smell and/or taste. When a peduncle/stalk/stem is present, it shall be not longer than 2.0cm in length measured from the bottom of the stem, and the cut must be transversal, straight and clean. 5

6 A. Minimum requirements The development and condition of the pineapples must be such as to enable them: - to withstand transportation and handling, - to arrive in satisfactory condition at the place of destination. 6

7 Minimum Requirements Intact, with or without crown;acceptable in all classes. 7

8 Minimum Requirements Crown trimmed by clean break to remove excess part. Acceptable in all Classes. 8

9 Minimum Requirements Crown trimmed at right angle, either to remove part or all of crown. Acceptable in all classes. 9

10 Minimum Requirements Crown reduced at early stage of development Acceptable in all classes. 10

11 Split Eyes Split bracts/eyes not considered as defects 11

12 Minimum Requirements Intact Damage, injury not allowed. 12

13 Minimum Requirements Intact injury not allowed. 13

14 Minimum Requirements Intact Split fruit, not allowed. 14

15 Minimum Requirements Not sound. Rot -not allowed 15

16 Minimum Requirements Not sound. Severe bruising - not allowed 16

17 Minimum Requirements Phytopthora Rot external and internal View Not allowed. 17

18 Minimum Requirements Not sound Internal discolouration not allowed 18

19 Minimum Requirements Not sound -Superficial mould growth Not allowed. 19

20 Minimum Requirements Not sound - Physiological defects, multiple crowns, no crown - Not allowed 20

21 Minimum Requirements Gummosis Not allowed 21

22 Minimum Requirements Not sound Chilling injury 22

23 Minimum Requirements Multiple crowns -Not allowed 23

24 Minimum Requirements Clean: Excessive soiling Not allowed. 24

25 Minimum Requirements Clean: Pest residue at base -Not allowed. 25

26 Minimum Requirements Practically free from pests. Pests present -Not allowed. 26

27 Minimum Requirements Free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh Damage caused by birds affecting the flesh Not allowed. 27

28 Minimum Requirements Free from damage caused by pests affecting the flesh Pest damage not allowed Internal view 28

29 Minimum Requirements Fresh in appearance Shrivelled fruit -Not allowed. Dehydrated fruit -Not allowed. 29

30 Minimum requirements Fresh in appearance Dehydrated fruit -not allowed. Normal fruit Dehydrated fruit 30

31 Minimum Requirements Fresh in appearance including the crown, which should be free of wilted, dry, loose or damaged leaves; Crown not fresh Not allowed. 31

32 Minimum Requirements Stalk longer than 2cm. -. Not allowed Stalk of 2cm. In length. - Acceptable in all Classes. 32

33 B. Maturity requirements Pineapples must have reached an appropriate degree of maturity and ripeness in accordance with the variety, and area in which they are grown. The total soluble solids content of the fruit should be at least 12 0 Brix, measured on the juice taken from the lower third of the fruit. Fruit showing over-ripeness affecting edibility is excluded. The skin colour can be green, provided the minimum maturity requirements are met. 33

34 Example commercial classification of maturity by external fruit coloration C0 Totally green C1 Beginning to turn yellow/orange on one quarter of surface C2 Yellow/orange on one half of fruit surface C3 Yellow/orange on two thirds of fruit surface C4 Totally orange/yellow fruit 34

35 Example commercial classification of maturity by external fruit coloration C0 Totally green C1 Beginning to turn yellow/orange on one quarter of surface C2 Yellow/orange on one half of fruit surface C3 Yellow/orange on two thirds of fruit surface C4 Totally orange/yello w fruit 35

36 Commercial classification internal views C0 Totally green Brix 15% C1 Beginning to turn yellow/orange on one quarter of surface Brix 15% C2 Yellow/orang e on one half of fruit surface Brix 16% C3 Yellow/orang e on two thirds of fruit surface Brix 13.4% C4 Totally orange/yellow fruit Brix 15.8% 36

37 Maturity requirements Unripe fruit External and internal view Brix4.8 % Not allowed. 37

38 Maturity Requirements Range of colour and ripeness Queen Victoria 38

39 Maturity Requirements Maturity requirements -MD2 Green Fruit Brix 39

40 Maturity Maturity requirements -MD2 Greenish colouration Brix 40

41 Maturity Maturity requirements: MD2 full colour Brix 41

42 Maturity Requirements Naturally ripened fruit No degreening. Acceptable in all classes. 42

43 Maturity requirements Overripe fruit External and internal view Brix15.8 % Not allowed. 43

44 Maturity Requirements Overripe ethylene damage- Not allowed 44

45 Classification Extra Class Pineapples in this class must be of superior quality. They must be characteristic of the variety. They must be free from defects, with the exception of very slight superficial defects, provided these do not affect the general appearance of the fruit, the quality, the keeping quality and presentation in the package. The crown, if present, must be single and straight with no side shoots, fresh, undamaged and not discoloured. 45

46 Crown The crown if present must be single and straight, with no side shoots and be undamaged. It must be between 50 and 150% of the length of the fruit. Crown more than 150% of the length of the fruit -Not allowed in Extra Class or Class I Crown less than 50% of the length of the fruit - Not allowed in Extra Class or Class I 46

47 Extra Class Superior quality and characteristic of the variety MD2. 47

48 Class I The crown if present must be single and with no side shoots, it may be slightly damaged, slightly discoloured and slightly curved with a maximum inclination not exceeding The following slight defects however may be allowed: A slight defect in shape Slight defects in colouring, including sun-scorch Slight skin defects not exceeding 5 per cent or 1/20 of the total surface (i.e. scratches, scars, scrapes, bruises, blemishes and rubbing). Defects must not, in any case, affect the flesh. 48

49 Class I Crown showing slight damage and discolouration due to handling and packaging limit of Class I 49

50 Classification Class I Crown: May be slightly curved with a maximum inclination not exceeding 30 0 from the longitudinal axis of the fruit 50

51 Class I Slight defect in shape Missing Eye 51

52 Skin Defects Queen Victoria Winter Speckles. Limit of Class I. Limit of Class II. 52

53 Skin defects Skin defects 53

54 Class I Slight defects in colouring, including sun-scorch limit of Class I External view Internal view 54

55 Class II The following defects may be allowed: Defects in shape Defects in colouring, including sun-scorch Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area (i.e. scratches, scars, scrapes, bruises, blemishes and rubbing). The flesh must be free from major defects 55

56 Class II Crown Inclination of crown exceeding 30 0 from the longitudinal axis of the fruit acceptable in Class II Crown length exceeding 150% of fruit Acceptable in Class II 56

57 Class II Crown: Double crown Acceptable in Class II Internal view 57

58 Class II Cut crown cut not at right angle Acceptable in Class II. 58

59 Class II Damaged crown Class II 59

60 Class II Defect in shape Malformed fruit. 60

61 Class II Defect in shape Bottle neck 61

62 Skin defects Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area (i.e. scratches, scars, scrapes, bruises, blemishes and rubbing). 62

63 Skin defects Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area (i.e. scratches, scars, scrapes, bruises, blemishes and rubbing). 63

64 Class II Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area scar. 64

65 Class II Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area scar. The flesh must be free of major defects. 65

66 Class II Slight skin defects not exceeding 10 per cent or 1/10 of the total surface area - bruising. 66

67 Skin Defects Queen Victoria Winter Speckles. Limit of Class II. 67

68 Defects in colouring Colour defect -Internal appearance. External view Colour defect Class II 68

69 Classification Class II Defect of colouring, including sun scorch -Sun scorch Limit allowed Class II 69

70 Provisions concerning sizing Size is determined by weight. To ensure uniformity in size, the range between fruit in the same package shall not exceed: 100 grams for fruit less than or equal to 1000 grams, 300 grams for fruit exceeding 1000 grams. 70

71 Quality tolerances Extra Class A total tolerance of 5 per cent, by number or weight, of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class I is allowed. Within this tolerance not more than 0.5 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying the requirements of Class II quality. 71

72 Quality tolerances Class I 10 per cent, by number or weight, of pineapples not satisfying the requirements of the class but meeting those of Class II is allowed. Within this tolerance not more than 1 per cent in total may consist of produce satisfying neither the requirements of Class II quality or the minimum requirements, or of produce affected by decay. Class II 10 per cent, by number or weight, of pineapples satisfying neither the requirements of the class nor the minimum requirements is allowed. Within this tolerance not more than 2 per cent in total may consist of produce affected by decay. 72

73 Size tolerances For all classes: a total tolerance of 15 percent by number or weight, of pineapples not satisfying the requirements as regards sizing but meeting the size immediately above and/or below that indicated on the package is allowed. 73

74 Presentation Uniformity The contents of each package must be uniform and contain only pineapples, with or without crowns, of the same origin, variety or commercial type, quality and size. In addition, for Extra Class and Class I, uniformity in colouring, maturity, and length of crown is required. The visible part of the contents of the package must be representative of the entire contents. 74

75 Uniformity in colouring and maturity MD2 Fruit not uniform in colour not allowed in Extra Class or Class I 75

76 Presentation Extra Class Smooth Cayenne 76

77 Presentation Class I Queen Victoria 77

78 Presentation Presentation Class II. Queen Victoria Variation in colouring -allowed provided minimum Brixlevel of the lot is acceptable. 78

79 Presentation Crownless fruit 79

80 Marking Identification Packer and/or dispatcher/shipper: Name and physical address (e.g. street/city/region/postal code and, if different from the country of origin, the country) or a code mark officially recognized by the national authority 80

81 Marking Nature of produce Pineapples If the contents are not visible from the outside: Name of the variety for Extra Class and Class I. Without crown or equivalent denomination, where appropriate. 81

82 Marking Marking fruit with crowns removed 82

83 Marking Origin of produce Country of origin and, optionally, district where grown or national, regional or local place name. Commercial specifications Class Number of fruits. Size expressed as minimum and maximum weight Size code (optional), Colour code (optional), The indication Should not be stored below 8 0 C (optional). Official control mark (optional) 83

84 Marking Marking -Box end label. This does not show min/max weight. Full variety name should be shown. Add other box end labels. 84

85 Marking Marking -Box end label. This does not show min/max weight. Add other box end labels. 85

86 Annex 2. Brief summary of pineapple production. History: The most likely origin of the pineapple (Ananas spp) is thought to be the Parana-Paraguay River basin in Southern Brazil and Paraguay, where the origin seed species survives in the wild today. An alternative centre of origin may be along the river banks of southern Guyana. It is believed that the Tupi-Guarani Indians were the first people to select and cultivate pineapples. Native people spread the pineapples throughout South America and it eventually reached the Caribbean. Columbus discovered pineapples in 1493 and from then on early European explorers widely distributed pineapples throughout the world. Preparation: The soil is usually prepared into a fine tilthe and polythene laid down in rows ready for the suckers to be planted through the polythene. Polythene helps reduce weed competition and reduces water loss. Pineapples grow best on fertile well drained soils with Ph. of 5.5 to 6.2. The best temperature range for successful production is a daytime temperature of C with a night time temperature of C. Photo i: Preparation of the soil ready for planting Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 1

87 Pineapples produce suckers that are suitable planting material from a number of parts of the mature plant. These suckers arise at soil level around the base of the plant, at leaf axils and below the mature fruit. All these suckers can be used but the basal suckers are most productive and will produce fruit within 12 to 14 months of planting. The other suckers generally take longer to produce fruit. Photo ii: Selection of basal suckers ready for planting. Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 2

88 Planting: Suckers are usually planted through the polythene sheet in rows of two or four. Depending on growing conditions up to 4 rows will increase yield. Photo iii: Planting of suckers through polythene in a two row system. Photo iv: Planting of suckers through polythene in a four row system. Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 3

89 During the growing period care should be taken to control pests and disease. In particular insects such as mealy bug and the Thecla butterfly. Also fungal and bacterial diseases such as Anthracnose, Phytophthora, Gummosis, Pythium, etc. A wide range of other pests and fungal diseases can affect pineapple production depending on the area of production. Appropriate methods of control of these pests and diseases will need to be considered in order to achieve satisfactory yield. Flower induction: After approximately 6 months of vegetative growth flower production is usually induced by spraying the plants with an ethylene solution. This encourages the plants to flower and start fruit development leading to all plants producing marketable fruit within a short time period so aiding the costs of harvesting and packaging. Photo v: Pineapple flower. Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 4

90 Photo vi: Pineapple field at flowering stage. De-greening In order to further encourage the production of mature fruit within as short a time as possible, within a field, a further spray of ethylene solution is given when most fruit are close to mature size. Photo vii: Green fruit ready to be de-greened. Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 5

91 Harvesting: Once fruit has reached the required colour and sugar levels it is harvested. Most fruit is harvested by hand. Once harvested the fruit should be graded and packed as soon as possible. Fruit for export should be stored at C once packed and graded and whilst in transportation to the destination market. Photo viii: Pineapple harvesting. Draft UNECE Pineapple Brochure Annex 2 6

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