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1 Revised April 1992 (reformatted May 2000) A Workbook for Certified Pesticide Applicators To accompany the VHS tape "Pesticides in the Environment" Based on materials developed by: Colorado State University Developed for South Carolina by: Barry L. Norris, Rachel C. Rowe & Robert G. Bellinger Pesticide Information Program Department of Entomology, Soils, and Plant Sciences College of Agriculture, Forestry and Life Sciences Clemson University This material is based on work supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Extension Service & the U.S. EPA Pesticide Information Program R.G. Bellinger, Ph.D., Extension Pesticide Coordinator, Extension Entomology, 114 Long Hall, Clemson, South Carolina Telephone (864) The Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, sex, national origin, or disability and is an equal opportunity employer. Clemson University Cooperating with U.S. Department of Agriculture and South Carolina Counties. Issued in Furtherance of Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics, Acts of May 8 and June 30, Public Service Activities

2 Pesticides in the Environment Directions: Circle the letter of the best answer 1. Each year in the United States, we use nearly a pounds of pesticides. A. hundred B. thousand C. million D. billion 2. One line of defense to prevent misuse of pesticides is to every time you use a pesticide. A. read the label B. use a lesser quantity than is prescribed C. contact a chemical dealer D. have your county Extension agent present 3. In 1972, the was passed, based on the idea that once you apply a pesticide, it may spread to other parts of the environment. A. Pesticide Resistance Act B. South Carolina Chemigation Act C. Federal Environmental Pesticide Act D. None of the above 4. Long-term changes in reproduction, behavior and growth may be the result of pesticide in the tissues of many life forms. A. decline B. buildup C. tolerance D. resistance 5. Pesticides that offer long-term control and may be carried over in the environment from one growing season to the next are referred to as pesticides. A. buildup B. persistent C. cumulative D. non-cumulative 1

3 6. To help prevent crop damage from the carry-over effect of herbicides, crops should be. A. plowed under B. rotated C. harvested D. sub-soiled 7. A decline in crop appearance and yield is an indication of the carry-over effect of a/an. A. herbicide B. insecticide C. rodenticide D. All of the above 8. Herbicides collecting in the lower portion of a field due to rain is an example of. A. drift B. runoff C. carry-over D. persistence 9. Pesticides that move through the air as a vapor or mist and affect non-target species are referred to as. A. drift B. runoff C. carryover D. smog 10. Animal species that are most affected by pesticide buildup in their tissues are predators that. A. live on land B. live in water C. are at the top of the food chain D. are at the bottom of the food chain 11. Which of the following pairs of animal species have been most affected by pesticide contamination? A. Foxes and bears B. Fish and birds C. Rabbits and deer D. Mice and snakes 2

4 12. Animals that inhabit areas close to treated land, generally have pesticide residues that are those animals that live further away. A. lower than B. higher than C. about the same as D. unrelated to 13. When compared to the large game animals, predators have residue levels that are. A. somewhat lower B. somewhat higher C. the same D. non-existent 14. In the fat tissues of people in the United States, DDT residue levels average about parts per million. A. five B. fifty C. one hundred D. two hundred 15. Which of the following pesticides is most commonly found in the fat tissues of human beings? A. DDT B. Aldrin C. Dieldrin D. Heptachlor 16. Some types of chemicals are widespread, having been transported on a global scale. Traces of these chemicals can be found in. A. air B. dust C. rainwater D. All of the above 17. The highest levels of pesticides are found in areas of heavy pesticide use or in areas connected to them by. A. highways B. sewer lines C. water systems D. living creatures 3

5 18. Exposure to high doses of certain pesticides can result in direct kills of animals within a matter of days or even hours. However, other symptoms of exposure, such as may take much longer before they become apparent. A. reproductive failure or the death of young a short time after birth B. hormonal imbalances resulting in growth retardation or behavioral changes C. cellular changes such as tumor growth, birth defects or cancer D. All of the above 19. If pesticides could be applied directly to the specific target, necessary amounts could be. A. increased B. decreased C. eliminated D. held constant 20. Even when applied according to label specifications, in some cases, as little as fifteen percent of a pesticide is deposited on-target; the rest is waste. This inefficiency is the result of application methods. A. improper B. crude or poorly developed C. prescribed D. conservative 21. The greatest concern with the off-target movement of pesticides is their movement through the. A. air B. dust C. food chain D. water 22. The process by which lower plants and animals accumulate pesticides from soil and water in their tissues and then pass them along to higher animals through the food chain is known as. A. inheritance B. bio-degradation C. bio-concentration D. filtration 4

6 23. Total amount of pesticides declines, but the concentration as these pesticides move up the food chain. A. increases B. decreases C. stays constant D. becomes neutralized 24. Strict regulations generally apply to chemicals that remain in the environment for more than a year and to those that are. A. widely used B. highly toxic C. more expensive D. applied aerially 5

7 Answer Key: Pesticides in the Environment 1. Answer D is correct. This is five pounds for every man, woman and child in the country, every year, year after year. 2. Answer A is correct. Read the entire label, especially the section on the pesticide's effects on the environment. 3. Answer C is correct. 4. Answer B is correct. Exposure to pesticides can cause direct kills of animal populations, or the buildup in the tissues of animals may eventually cause population declines due to the long-term changes in reproduction, behavior and growth. 5. Answer B is correct. The benefits of long term control of a pest population must be balanced by any detrimental carry-over effects of a persistent pesticide from one season to the next. Persistent herbicides may cause a decline in a crop's appearance and yield over time, and the presence of a persistent insecticide may cause a crop to be seized or an embargo placed on livestock that use that crop for feed. Carry-over effects of persistent pesticides may even be serious enough to force land out of production. 6. Answer B is correct. If crops are rotated, then different types of chemicals will be used during each growing season, preventing the buildup of any one persistent pesticide in the soil. 7. Answer A is correct. The carry-over effects of insecticides are less evident. However, if a persistent insecticide is detected, a crop may be seized or an embargo placed on any livestock that have fed on such a crop. 8. Answer B is correct. Surface runoff contaminates water systems, providing a means for certain pesticides to enter the food chain and become concentrated in animal tissues. 9. Answer A is correct. Drift is another method by which pesticides can affect off-target species, having the potential to cause direct kills or population declines in areas of heavy pesticide use. 10. Answer C is correct. And especially those upper level predators with ties to aquatic systems. 11. Answer B is correct. Fish accumulate pesticides directly from the water as well as from the food they eat in the water. Predatory birds who feed on fish are the most affected because of the high concentrations of pesticides in the fish. 6

8 12. Answer B is correct. Although the levels of pesticides found in the tissues of animals are minute and can only be detected using highly sensitive equipment, these minute levels are noticeably higher near areas of heavy pesticide use or near water. 13. Answer B is correct. Predators eat other animals. Consequently, the pesticides found in the tissues of these other animals become more concentrated in the tissues of the predators that eat them. 14. Answer A Is correct. Humans can regulate the amount of pesticides they receive through their food supply, thus keeping the concentrations found in human tissues very low. For example, DDT concentrations in humans declined sharply when the meat and milk producing industry stopped using it in Answer A is correct. DDT is the most common pesticide found in the tissue of humans, followed by Dieldrin and then Heptachlor. However, the latter two are more harmful, because they are toxic at much lower parts per million than DDT. 16. Answer D is correct. Traces of these chemicals can also be found in river water. 17. Answer C is correct. Although water systems is the most correct answer, living creatures, too, can provide a means of transporting chemicals from areas of heavy use through the food chain to areas of lower use. It has been proven that vegetarians have lower concentrations of pesticides than meat consumers, and Eskimos, who are far removed from the heavily treated farmlands of the lower forty-eight states, have lower concentrations of pesticides in their tissues than the rest of the U.S. population. 18. Answer D Is correct. Accidental exposure to pesticides may cause direct kill of some non-target species. Exposure can, however, cause slower population declines due to reproductive failures, such as unfertilized eggs, reduced litter size and premature death of young; interference with enzyme or hormone systems of non-target species, causing slow growth rates or abnormal behavioral changes; or cellular changes, such as birth defects, tumor growth or cancer. 19. Answer B is correct. 20. Answer B is correct. 21. Answer C is correct. Although, pesticides can be transported throughout the environment in all these ways, they become more and more concentrated and thus more and more of a hazard to animal populations as they move up the food chain. 22. Answer C is correct. 23. Answer A is correct. 7

9 24. Answer B is correct. Pesticides are under constant review. Strict regulations govern highly toxic pesticides and those persistent pesticides that remain in the environment for more than one year, either in the soil or through bio-concentration. Many pesticides have been canceled over the years because they were determined to be too hazardous to use. Others have been canceled because newer, less expensive pesticides were developed to replace the older less effective ones, or in some cases, a pest may have developed a resistance to a certain pesticide, making it ineffective. 8

10 Pesticide Applicator Training Evaluation SD Strongly Disagree D Disagree Circle one response for each item. N Neither Agree nor Disagree A Agree SA Strongly Agree If you have already been active in this behavior, circle NA Not Applicable As a result of this training 1. My knowledge of the effects of pesticides on the SD D N A SA NA environment has increased. 2. I am more aware of the ways pesticides enter the food SD D N A SA NA chain. 3. I better understand the importance of protecting the SD D N A SA NA environment from pesticide contamination. 4. I feel that Clemson Extension is helping me to better SD D N A SA understand the importance of safe pesticide use to protect the environment. 5. I intend to put into practice the following safe pesticide application practices: (Check ALL that apply.) 9 Alternating different chemicals when repeating pesticide applications. 9 Use pesticides only when necessary. 9 Use less persistent pesticides. 9 Read the entire label, especially the section on pesticide effects on the environment, each time I apply. 9 Other (please specify) Overall, I think this recertification training video was: (circle one) Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent Overall, I think this recertification training workbook was: (circle one) Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent What could be done to improve this training?

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