Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)

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1 Toxicological information Exosex contains 3.2 mg Technical Grade Pheromone per gram of food grade wax powder and poses virtually no hazard to health. Ecotoxicological information Non hazardous to the environment. Regulatory information Based on toxicological studies in the published literature, there are no risk and safety phrases to assign to this product. Distributor details: Technical Guide Yellow Stem Borer (Scirpophaga incertulas) Exosect Limited Feb 09 YSB IN Exosect Limited. Leylands Business Park, Colden Common, Winchester, Hampshire, SO21 1TH. United Kingdom T +44 (0) F +44 (0) E W

2 2 3 Ideal for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies, including Zero residue requirements Exosex provides robust reliable protection against Yellow stem borer of rice matching or exceeding industry standards Large cost saving in labour compared to mass trapping or repeat insecticide treatments Season long control costs no more than insecticide Flexible use with up to days coverage Exosex is an unique and effective crop protection solution for conventional, organic and IPM growers. Can be used in organic crops offers an environmentally friendly means of controlling Yellow Stem Borer of rice as part of a Zero residue IPM approach which includes the targeted use of approved insecticides or mass trapping in nursery crops. Exosex provides continuous activity, even during difficult weather conditions when spraying may be delayed Provides antiresistance support for insecticides Kind to the crop, no risk of spray scorch or abiotic stress All packaging is suitable for recycling in line with local requirements whilst tablets and hangers are biodegradable

3 4 5 Auto-Confusion method of control Unlike Mating Disruption systems, employs Auto-Confusion. Using Exosect s patented Entostat powder technology, uniquely produces an automatic transfer of the confusion effect in male moths. This spreads sexual confusion throughout the male moth population (Auto-ConfusionTM) thereby requiring a lower number of dispensers per ha. Wax Palm Entostat powder Entostat is a food grade powder refined from a natural wax, which is harvested from a particular species of palm tree. TM The active ingredient is a species-specific pheromone, which is impregnated into the Entostat powder. Male moths are attracted to the Exosex which contains Entostat powder formulated with synthetic female pheromone. Male moths pick up Entostat powder and female pheromone. The male s pheromone receptors become overloaded and so the male is unable to locate females. A male carrying Entostat powder will form a mobile pheromone dispenser, producing false pheromone trails, which attract additional males. Contact between the males ensures that the Entostat powder and the confusion effect is automatically passed on, this process is called Auto-Confusion. The result is a state of sexual confusion amongst the male moth population leading to effective mating disruption. The Auto-Confusion effect dramatically reduces the chances of the female moth to mate. In the unlikely event that mating does occur, delays beyond the optimum period of fertility of the female moth will reduce the number and viability of the eggs. Exosex is an Auto-Confusion system using the male moth to distribute the pheromone impregnated Entostat powder. Entostat powder is natural technology An electrostatic charge builds up on an insect cuticle and is generated through the insect s movement (tribocharging), e.g. the insect walking on a surface or flying through the air. The charge is dependent upon the surface which can be either positive or negative. The entostat powder being bipolar will be attracted strongly to the charged insect cuticle. Antenna (before contact with Entostat powder) Antenna (after contact with Entostat powder) exosex

4 6 7 Minimising insecticide treatments Under the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach, should be deployed immediately after the transplanted crop has become established to form the basis of the control programme throughout the season. It should be supported by prior treatment in the nursery crop either by appropriate, well timed, approved insecticide treatments or by the use of mass trapping. The use of helps to reduce insecticide treatments which could leave residues in the crop. No harvest intervals or restrictions on field entry Dispensers are visible and easy to locate in the field. This ensures proper deployment and avoids loss during field operations is totally safe to the operator Spray thresholds Crops should be monitored regularly for dead hearts throughout the growing season and where the numbers exceed the local economic threshold an approved insecticide should promptly be applied according to its manufacturers recommendations Tablet replacement Tablets should be replaced to match the flight of the next generation of moths, with a maximum of 55 to 65 days after setting out the previous tablet. This ensures that maximum activity is available when moths are flying. leaves no residues in crops Anti-resistance strategy for valuable insecticides as Yellow Stem Borer life cycle is disrupted prior to egg laying activity is specific to Yellow Stem Borer of rice. Assists build up of beneficial pest predators Naturally occurring, solvent and propellant free, Entostat powder is safe to the public and the environment

5 8 9 Exosex product and assembly consists of a hanger and a tablet containing compressed Entostat powder and Yellow stem borer pheromone. is supplied in boxes containing 2 bags of 80 hangers and 2 tubs of 88 tablets to allow for breakages in transit. Also included are instructions for use. Exosex dispenser basic field layout Dispensers should be set out uniformly in a grid formation of 80/ha. See illustration below: Pheromones are most effective when used in fields of 2 ha and above. If the field is less than 2 ha, guard barriers should be put in place e.g. add a second row of dispensers on the external perimeter. Remove one tablet from the container and place it into the holder, gently pushing until it reaches the bottom of the hole Secure the the hanger to the stick Place the hanger just above the crop canopy. Reposition the hanger at each tablet replacement to maintain the position above the crop canopy Re-inforcement dispensers Basic grid layout dispensers Where circumstances demand, an extra row of reinforcement dispensers should be placed adjacent to the area of pest pressure 18m metres The hanger is made from biodegradable material and is designed to last for no more than one season. Can be secured to pre-placed sticks in the field 7m 7m 11m metres Entostat powder is unaffected by UV light or high temperatures 7m Dispensers should be placed about 11 m apart throughout the field. Start at the corner of the field with the first dispenser about 7 m in from that corner. Entostat powder is unaffected by high winds or rainfall 7m Additional dispensers should be placed in areas likely to experience higher pest pressure see page 10.

6 10 11 Optimising Exosex performance Place close above the crop canopy Yellow Stem Borer moth activity and mating are concentrated in the crop canopy, so dispensers should be placed approximately 1 foot above the crop canopy and raised at tablet replacement to maintain relative position Dispenser placement Trials have shown the optimum number of dispensers to be 80/ha. Dispensers should be placed uniformly throughout the treated field (see suggested placement grid, page 9). Local environmental factors that influence dispenser placement Local conditions will affect the distribution of Yellow Stem Borer hence the density of yellow stem borer throughout the crop will vary and may necessitate reinforcement of areas of high activity with additional dispensers. Field size Pheromones are most effective when used in fields of 2 ha and above. If the field is between 2 and 5 ha, guard barriers should be put in place e.g. add a second row of dispensers on the external perimeter. Early deployment is essential The dispensers should be in place in the field before Yellow Stem Borer moth flight occurs. Tablet replacement Tablets should be replaced after days to match moth generations. Q. Is the system expensive compared to insecticides? A. Trials have shown that in most situations can replace traditional insecticide at a similar cost for the season. Q. How can Exosex be effective with so few dispensers per ha? A. is an Auto-Confusion system; the pheromone in the Entostat powder is carried around the field by the male Yellow stem borer moth itself, therefore in practice there are a very high number of dispensers. Each male moth is potentially an extra dispenser. Q. Is affected by high winds? A. Provided the dispenser is properly attached to the stick with the tablet firmly in place the dispenser will be unaffected by high winds. The supporting sticks should be pushed firmly into the ground. Q. Is affected by rain? A. Entostat powder does not absorb water and will return to its normal state as soon as any surface water has evaporated. Untreated field less than 100m away Rice seedling nurseries Avoid product contamination Do not handle other types of insect lures or pheromone products before or after placement of product without thoroughly washing hands. Adjacent untreated rice fields Areas adjacent to infested fields of rice even up to 100 m away where Yellow Stem Borer is not controlled are likely to suffer from a higher infestation level and necessitate the application of an additional row of dispensers along the field edge. Raised areas or banks at field borders Banks at the edges of fields can serve as a physical barrier to moth flight leading to higher local infestations. Rice seedling nurseries These serve as a source of pest infestation and necessitate the application of an additional row of dispensers along the field edge. Q. What should I be aware of when using in an area with a history of high Yellow stem borer pressure? A. As with Mating Disruption systems, can be overwhelmed in areas of very high pest pressure. In situations of high pest pressure, it is essential to have good crop monitoring discipline and to treat with appropriate insecticides if thresholds are exceeded. Q. Why should we combine fields into areas of more than 2 ha for the system? A. As with Mating Disruption systems, requires a minimum area to be effective. Too large a border area, compared to total surface area, could easily allow female moths to enter and lay eggs when they have already mated in the surrounding fields. A larger surface area compared to border size reduces this risk. Q. Why could I find hot spots of Yellow Stem Borer damage? A. Surrounding fields that receive inadequate control can lead to localised areas of higher pest infestation particularly if the infested fields are upwind. Raised field boundaries can serve as physical barriers to moths leading to increased local infestations. Q. Why does the tablet need to be replaced after days? A. After days the tablets should be replaced. This ensures that fresh pheromone is present for each new generation of the pest. Q. Do I need to change the tablet even if there is still powder present? A. Pheromone needs to be released at an optimal level to attract male Yellow Stem Borer moths. Too much, or too little pheromone can detrimentally affect the performance of any pheromone system. The tablet releases the optimum amount of pheromone for days. After this point, the tablet must be replaced to maintain the correct level of control, even if there is plenty of powder left in the tablet. Consult the product label for your country to see the stated number of days the tablet should be deployed before tablet replacement is recommended for your market conditions. If in doubt please contact Exosect directly. Q. Does the shape of the field need to be taken into account as well as the size? A.Narrow fields are likely to suffer more pressure from pre-mated females flying in from neighbouring high pressure areas. Consolidating strips together will help to reduce this problem. Q. What protective clothing does the operator need to wear? A. is totally safe to the operator and no personal protective clothing is required.

7 12 reduced tiller and panicle damage more than Farmer insecticides and mass trapping Mass trapping Farmer insecticide programme The technique should be utilized in all stem borer prone rice growing areas/season Acharaarya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU) cost similar to insecticides over the season reduced tiller & panicle damage more than Farmer insecticides and mass trapping Mass trapping Farmer insecticide programme has been shown to be at least as effective as mass trapping reduced tiller and panicle damage similar to Farmer insecticide programme Farmer insecticide programme % tiller/pannicle damage Site: Cherukupalli, Andra Pradesh, Kharif season 2006 was found to reduce larval damage to within commercially acceptable levels, comparable to those achieved with mass trapping, and significantly better than Farmer insecticide programme. The system was tested in both the Kharif and Rabi rice growing seasons of 2006 and 2007/2008. The first trial in the Kharif season of 2006 was a range finder type trial to determine the best formulation concentration and application rate. This chosen rate was then tested in a set of two trials in the 2006/2007 Rabi season with a higher number of replicates and a larger treatment area. In the Kharif season of 2007 the same treatment was re-tested in an even larger area containing both basmati and non-basmati varieties in a different geographical location to the previous trials. The fifth set of trials was done in the 2007/2008 Rabi season, allowing the consolidation of 5 successful efficacy trials over 4 growing seasons. is quick and easy to use Dispensers/ties per ha Time to set out per ha Number of hangings Estimated placement cost (Rs/ha) 80 /ha 60 mins /ha 2 Rs 12.5 /ha % tiller/pannicle damage Site: Cherukupalli, Andra Pradesh, Rabi season 2006/7: Exosex offers an effective and practical alternative to insecticides control of Yellow Stem Borer in rice crops reduced tiller and panicle damage more than mass trapping Mass trapping % tiller/panicle damage Site: GBPANT University, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, Kharif season 2007, plot size 8ha offers an effective and practical alternative to mass trapping for control of Yellow Stem Borer in basmati rice crops Number of moths captured per 3 days reduced the population of yellow stem borer moths more than farmer insecticide and mass trapping Feb Mar Apr Mean Sampling dates Mass trapping Site: ANGRAU University, Andhra Pradesh, Rabi season 2007/8, plot size 3ha offers an effective and practical alternative to insecticides and mass trapping for control of Yellow Stem Borer in basmati rice crops In trials has consistently matched the performance of insecticide programs % tiller/pannicle damage Site: ANGRAU University, Andhra Pradesh, Rabi season 2007/8 Plot size 3 ha Farmer insecticide programme Site: ANGRAU University, Andhra Pradesh, Rabi season 2007/8 Plot size 3 ha can offer a safe alternative to broad spectrum insecticides Use of significantly increases beneficial predator populations compared to insecticide Farmer insecticide programme % tiller/panicle damage was shown to be environmentally friendly by preserving the beneficial predator population, (mainly spiders and coccinellids) compared to a reduction by the insecticide programme

8 14 15 Effectiveness Employs Auto-Confusion, causing male moths to distribute the product around the field Control targets the mating process prior to egg laying Pest specific Robust design enhances reliability Male moths act as mobile pheromone dispensers providing huge increase of free dispensers and creating an Auto-Confusion effect amongst the Yellow Stem Borer moth population No risk of resistance developing Does not affect activity of beneficial insects in the field No risk of loss of persistence from undetected damage to dispenser during application. Activity is unaffected by wind or rainfall Exosect is actively focussed on the development and sales of Intelligent Pest Management solutions. Our innovative and cost-effective products help growers, food producers and processors actively reduce their use of insecticides. Our goal is to assist growers achieve zero residues in their crops and produce high quality food for the consumer. Proven in over 20 trials under wide ranging climatic conditions Provides confidence to grower that Exosex will perform well Our products are used globally in a wide range of sectors including crop protection, (agriculture, horticulture and stored products), apiculture, amenity and public health. Cost effective Rapid deployment Season long cost similar to insecticides Simple and easy deployment saves time compared to mass trapping or insecticide treatments No additional costs during growing season For more information on Exosect and its products visit: Continuous activity Large cost saving in labour compared to mass trapping methods or repeat insecticide treatments Environmental benefits Pest life cycle disrupted prior to egg laying Operator safety Ideal for IPM programs provides anti-resistance measure for insecticides Species specific Assists biodiversity and supports natural predators Entostat powder is naturally occurring, solvent and propellant free Can be safely used close to homes, schools, hospitals and water courses No harvest intervals Protection provided right up to harvest with no residues No restrictions on field entry Field operations unaffected, no restrictions on public rights of way Convenience provides continuous activity Avoids problems of maintaining spray timings during difficult weather Dispensers visible, easily located in the field Avoids loss of dispensers during field operations Provides visual reassurance to grower that dispenser has been deployed correctly Product stored continuously below 5 C can be used the following season, above 5 C and below 20 C can be stored for up to 5 months Ease of storage and stocking also reduces costs USA South America Europe Middle East Far East South Africa Australia New Zealand

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