Selective Breeding of P. vannamei: Impact on World Aquaculture and Lessons for Future. Dr. Jim Wyban PhD Marine Genetics LLC Kona Hawaii USA

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1 Selective Breeding of P. vannamei: Impact on World Aquaculture and Lessons for Future Dr. Jim Wyban PhD Marine Genetics LLC Kona Hawaii USA

2 Industry Situation & Outlook Shrimp farming is the world s most valuable aquaculture industry million MT worth >$22 billion in 2018; 400 Billion PL/yr ($1 Billion) Introduction of SPF P. vannamei in Asia increased global production 5x and added $225 B to shrimp crop value To remain competitive, farmers must increase efficiency and reduce production costs: Selective breeding is most powerful tool to achieve these.

3 Breeding Models for P. vannamei SPF Model F2 Model Ecuador Model SPF/SPT Model

4 SPF Breeding Model Majority of Asia broodstock supply Breeding SPF shrimp only Mostly focused on breeding for growth: fast growth required for economic success in Asia s intensive culture systems Germplasm limitations. Requires biosecure systems.

5

6 TSV-Challenges: 100% Survival by 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Generation Control G1 G2 G3 G4 G5

7 6,000 5,000 US Shrimp Farming TVR 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Pre-SPF SPF

8 HHA Hybrid Breeding Experiment To determine effects of line crossing on susceptibility against TSV & IMNV in virus challenges. To determine effects of line crossing on growth performance. Four stocks: GxTVR: Fast growing, TSV-resistant Control stock (not selected = Kona) Hybrid GxTVR x Kona stock Blue shrimp (P. stylirostris)

9 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Virus Challenge Results IMNV TSV 0% GxTVR Hybrids Kona Stock Blue Shrimp

10 TSV Challenge Survival 100% IMNV vs TSV Survival by Family r 2 = % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% IMNV Challenge Survival

11 Shrimp Size (grams) Growth by Stocks TVR Hybrid Styli Kona Days of Culture

12

13 Metric Tons (000) % Domesticated P. vannamei 4, % 3,000 80% 60% 2,000 40% 1,000 20% %

14 Market Values for White Shrimp Amount Value Shrimp Production (MT) 3,800,000 $22 B PL required 380 B $750 M Broodstock required (pairs) 1,000,000 $100 M

15 800, ,000 Hawaii SPF Broodstock Exports 600, , , , , ,

16 350, ,000 Hawaii SPF Broodstock Exports 250, , , , ,000 0 India Vietnam China Indonesia

17 Ecuador Breeding Model Started following 1999 WS epidemic Mass selection for pond survival Created WS-tolerant (SPT) stocks Entire industry now use domesticated stocks. Biosecurity not required. Ecuador at center of PV natural range vast germplasm resource. Resulted in 10-yr growth of Ecuador industry. SPT stocks grow slow compared to SPF.

18 from Piedrahita 2018

19 SPF/SPT Breeding Model Use SPT stock as Founder stock Develop new SPF stock from SPT Pro: built-in genetic tolerance, SPF stocks Con: growth-limited stocks, limited germplasm Successful in Saudi (NAQUA) and China (API) this year.

20 NAQUA (Saudi) Shrimp Production from Alday-Sanz 2018

21 New Technologies Complete sequencing of P. vannamei genome has been delayed by technical issues. QTL, SNP and Genomic Selection will accelerate shrimp breeding programs. CRISPR technology may develop disease resistance but not GM. OMICS Technologies (genomics, metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) important in time.

22 The Road Ahead Introduction and adoption of SPF P. vannamei in Asia transformed shrimp farming and added $224 Billion to global crop value. Selective breeding for fast growth, high survival and disease-resistant stocks is essential for sustainable shrimp production. Family-based selection most efficient method currently. New germplasm with special traits maybe useful.

23 Thank you

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