Best Practices in HVAC Design/Retrofit

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1 Best Practices in HVAC Design/Retrofit Little Server Room BIG $AVINGS Justin Lewis, P.E., LEED AP, DCEP Sr Energy Project Manager C: O:

2 What s the problem here? Hot Exhaust Here Seismic Brace Here New computers placed with inlets facing exhaust. Plate leaned against rack to direct cold air into computer inlets Not Enough room for a ventilation tile 2

3 What s a Data Center? Enterprise Data Center Focus on cost and uptime Background on the Speaker: I helped save 11 enterprise class data centers and colocations around the country a total of 19.5 million kwh while working for SynapSense as a Sr. Field Engineer. Today I ll share those techniques. 3

4 This is a Server Room Grad Student built Super Computing Center Focus on Get it working. 4

5 Servers put out a ton of heat and need cooling or they break They also compute My experience has been server racks are more typically in the 6-12 kw range That is still 1.7 to 3.4 tons of cooling per rack. 5

6 How to Optimize the Data Center s HVAC Optimize the heat equation Reduce fan speed Increase delta T 6

7 Optimization Opportunities Old Conditions New Conditions Setpoints: 65 F, 50%RH ±5% Coils have low Delta T Hot and cold spots Unbalanced ventilation Setpoints: 80.6 F, RH 10%-80% Coils have high Delta T Hot aisles Hot, Cold aisles Cold Balanced ventilation 2011 ASHRAE recommends inlet conditions to servers be: between 64.4 and 80.6 F, and dew point between 41.9 and 59 F Typical Server Specs (Dell PowerVault MD3000) between 50 and 95 F, and RH between 20% and 80% 7

8 Heat Equation for Air Q = 1.08 * (Air Flow) * ( Temp) [BTU/hr] [CFM] [ o F] Divide by to get [Tons] Divide by 3412 to get [kw] For Example: 1 kw = 1.08 * (150) * ( 20 ) 8

9 Goal: Raise return temps to at least 80.6 F Slow Fans Down Reduce Air Mixing Q = 1.08 * (Air Flow) * ( Temp) Heat remains constant For every 10% reduction in fan speed An increases temp rise by 10% equal$ Decrea$e power of 25% Fan Affinity Law: Power% = ( Speed%)^3 ( really more like 2.5) Flow%= Speed% 9

10 Implement Hot/Cold Aisle Return Plenum Orient Equipment to have common intake and exhaust directions to reduce hot air mixing with cold air. 10

11 Reduce By-Pass Air Don t over blow cold aisles Block penetrations outside of cold aisles (Power/Data penetrations) 11

12 Manage Recirculation < 80.6 F Use Blanking panels Manage air to keep top servers below ~80.6 F 12

13 Servers aren t that sensitive YMMV (your may vary) 7 months of no mechanical cooling, no air filtering, no humidity control -date:

14 Servers aren t that sensitive YMMV -date:

15 What UCD did in their Server Room Area: 125,810 sqft Load: 31.3 tons cooling 110 kw plug load Approximately 37 populated racks. 46 capacity improved ventilation (delta t of 12 to 20 f) plugging holes by removing the over provisioned tiles by balancing the air to top server intake temperature to below 80 f installing controls in the returns installing pressure controls in the floor control fan speed to maintain hottest return temp 15

16 Why a pressure sensor? 3kW = 1.08 * (476) * ( 20 ) [CFM] [ o F] 1x perf = 3kw 16

17 Results Graphs 17

18 Old Economizer Mode 18

19 New Economizer Mode 19

20 Delta T Rose 20

21 Fan Power Reduced 78% 21

22 Challenges: Communication Culture Change In a culture of only answering maintenance calls, it s hard to sell a higher touch continual optimization process. Set it and forget it is the norm. Communication Silos: IT services has not had to check with HVAC in the past. 22

23 What s the problem here? Hot Exhaust Here Seismic Brace Here New computers placed with inlets facing exhaust. Plate leaned against rack to direct cold air into computer inlets Not Enough room for a ventilation tile Better Solution: Better hot/cold aisle planning. Disconnect seismic brace, move rack, or just move some cardboard boxes on the adjacent rack. 23

24 What we did in summary Improved air flow by blocking leaks and orienting servers Hot/Cold Aisle Balanced air to servers so tops of servers were below 80 F Placed return grills and temperature sensors in hot aisles Control supply temp to a constant temperature (57 F) Control supply fan speed to maintain hottest return temp is <82 F Control return fan to maintain room pressure only 24

25 Looking Ahead Virtualization Eliminate 80% of your plug load. Fanless cooling Oil bath, Chilled plate. Outsourced Computing Cloud providers may offer computing power and storage cheaper than the cost to maintain onsite servers. Until then I suggest you implement these easy improvements 25

26 Questions? 26

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