1 Trends in Data Center Design ASHRAE Leads the Way to Large Energy Savings ASHRAE Conference, Denver Otto Van Geet, PE June 24, 2014 NREL/PR-6A NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.
2 2 Data Center Energy Data centers are energy intensive facilities x more energy intensive than an office Server racks well in excess of 30 kw Surging demand for data storage EPA estimate: 3% of U.S. electricity Power and cooling constraints in existing facilities. Photo by Steve Hammond, NREL Data center inefficiency steals power that would otherwise support compute capability.
3 3 BPG Table of Contents Summary Background Information Technology Systems Environmental Conditions Air Management Cooling Systems Electrical Systems Other Opportunities for Energy Efficient Design Data Center Metrics & Benchmarking
4 4 Safe Temperature Limits CPUs ~65C (149F) Memory ~85C (185F) GPUs ~75C (167F) Photo by Steve Hammond, NREL CPU, GPU & Memory, represent ~75-90% of heat load
5 Environmental Conditions Data center equipment s environmental conditions should fall within the ranges established by ASHRAE as published in the Thermal Guidelines. Environmental Specifications ( F) Equipment Intake) Recommended Allowable Temperature Data Centers ASHRAE F F (A1) F (A4) Humidity (RH) Data Centers ASHRAE 42 F DP 60% or 59 o F DP 20% 80% & 63 F DP ASHRAE Reference: ASHRAE (2008), (2011) 5
6 6 Equipment Environmental Specification Air inlet to IT equipment is the important specification to meet Outlet temperature is not important to IT equipment
7 7 Key Nomenclature Recommended Range (Statement of Reliability) Preferred facility operation; most values should be within this range. Allowable Range (Statement of Functionality) Robustness of equipment; no values should be outside this range. RACK INTAKE TEMPERATURE MAX ALLOWABLE MAX RECOMMENDED MIN RECOMMENDED MIN ALLOWABLE Over-Temp Recommended Range Under-Temp Allowable Range
8 ASHRAE Thermal Guidelines 2011 Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments Expanded Data Center Classes and Usage Guidance. White paper prepared by ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 9.9
9 ASHRAE Allowable Ranges Dry Bulb Temperature
10 10 Psychrometric Bin Analysis Relative Humidity 40ºF 40ºF 50ºF Boulder, Colorado TMY3 Weather Data 60ºF 50ºF 70ºF 60ºF 80ºF Design Conditions (0.4%): 91.2 db, 60.6 wb 100% % 60% TMY3 Weather Data % 20% Class 1 Recommended 0 Range Dry-Bulb Temperature (ºF) Class 1 Allowable Range Humidity Ratio (lb Water/lb Dry Air)
11 Estimated Savings Baseline System DX Cooling with no economizer Load 1 ton of cooling, constant year-round Efficiency (COP) 3 Total Energy (kwh/yr) 10,270 RECOMMENDED RANGE ALLOWABLE RANGE Results Hours Energy (kwh) Hours Energy (kwh) Zone1: DX Cooling Only Zone2: Multistage Indirect Evap. + DX (H80) Zone3: Multistage Indirect Evap. Only Zone4: Evap. Cooler Only Zone5: Evap. Cooler + Economizer Zone6: Economizer Only Zone7: 100% Outside Air Total 8, , Estimated % Savings - 95% - 98% 11
12 Energy Savings Potential: Economizer Cooling Energy savings potential for recommended envelope, Stage 1: Economizer Cooling. 12 (Source: Billy Roberts, NREL) 12
13 Energy Savings Potential: Economizer + Direct Evaporative Cooling Energy savings potential for recommended envelope, Stage 2: Economizer + Direct Evap. Cooling.12 (Source: Billy Roberts, NREL) 13
14 Energy Savings Potential: Economizer + Direct Evap. + Multistage Indirect Evap. Cooling Energy savings potential for recommended envelope, Stage 3: Economizer + Direct Evap. + Multistage Indirect Evap. Cooling.12 (Source: Billy Roberts, NREL) 14
15 15 Improve Air Management Typically, more air circulated than required Air mixing and short circuiting leads to: Low supply temperature Low Delta T Use hot and cold aisles Improve isolation of hot and cold aisles Reduce fan energy Improve air-conditioning efficiency Increase cooling capacity Source: Hot aisle/cold aisle configuration decreases mixing of intake & exhaust air, promoting efficiency.
16 16 Isolate Cold and Hot Aisles ºF vs ºF 70-80ºF vs ºF Source:
17 17 Adding Air Curtains for Hot/Cold Isolation Photo used with permission from the National Snow and Ice Data Center.
18 Move to Liquid Cooling Server fans are inefficient and noisy. Liquid doors are an improvement but we can do better! Power densities are rising making componentlevel liquid cooling solutions more appropriate. Liquid benefits Thermal stability, reduced component failures. Better waste heat re-use options. Warm water cooling, reduce/eliminate condensation. Provide cooling with higher temperature coolant. Eliminate expensive & inefficient chillers. Save wasted fan energy and use it for computing. Unlock your cores and overclock to increase throughput! 18
19 Liquid Cooling Overview Water and other liquids (dielectrics, glycols and refrigerants) may be used for heat removal. Liquids typically use LESS transport energy (14.36 Air to Water Horsepower ratio for example below). Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers have closer approach temps than Liquid-to-air (coils), yielding increased economizer hours. 19
20 20 Liquid Cooling New Considerations Air Cooling Humidity Fan failures Air side economizers, particulates Liquid Cooling ph & bacteria Dissolved solids Corrosion inhibitors, etc. When considering liquid-cooled systems, insist that providers adhere to the latest ASHRAE water quality spec or it could be costly.
21 2011 ASHRAE Liquid Cooling Guidelines 21
22 ASHRAE Liquid Cooling Guidelines NREL ESIF HPC (HP hardware) using 75 F supply, 113 F return W4/W5
23 Courtesy of Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
24 Three Cooling Device Categories 1 - Rack Cooler APC-water Knürr(CoolTherm)-water Knürr(CoolLoop)-water Rittal-water rack containment SERVER FRONT IT Equipment Rack cooling water row containment SERVER FRONT 2 - Row Cooler APC(2*)-water Liebert-refrigerant IT Equipment Rack IT Equipment Rack IT Equipment Rack cooling water cooling water 3 - Passive Door Cooler IBM-water Vette/Coolcentric-water Liebert-refrigerant SUN-refrigerant SERVER FRONT IT Equipment Rack cooling water Courtesy of Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 24
25 25 Chill-off 2 Evaluation of Close-coupled Cooling Solutions less energy use Courtesy of Geoffrey Bell and Henry Coles, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
26 Cooling Takeaways Use a central plant (e.g., chiller/crahs vs. CRAC units) Use centralized controls on CRAC/CRAH units to prevent simultaneous humidifying and dehumidifying Move to liquid cooling (room, row, rack, chip) Consider VSDs on fans, pumps, chillers, and towers Use air- or water-side economizers Expand humidity range and improve humidity control (or disconnect) 26
27 Data Center Efficiency Metric Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) is an industry standard data center efficiency metric. The ratio of power used or lost by data center facility infrastructure (pumps, lights, fans, conversions, UPS ) to power used by compute. Not perfect, some folks play games with it survey estimates industry average is 1.8. Typical data center, half of power goes to things other than compute capability. P.U.E. = IT power + Facility power IT power 27
28 PUE Simple and Effective 28
29 29 Data Center PUE PUE Outdoor Temperature ( F) NREL PIX PUE Outdoor Temperature ( F) Data Center PUE Outdoor Temperature
30 I am re-using waste heat from my data center on another part of my site and my PUE is 0.8!
31 I am re-using waste heat from my data center on another part of my site and my PUE is 0.8!
32 ASHRAE & friends (DOE, EPA, TGG, 7x24, etc..) do not allow reused energy in PUE & PUE is always >1.0. Another metric has been developed by The Green Grid +; ERE Energy Reuse Effectiveness.
33 33 ERE Adds Energy Reuse Rejected Energy (a) Cooling (f) Reused Energy Utility (e) IT (g) (b) UPS (c) PDU (d)
34 34 DOE/NREL Research Support Facility More than 1300 people in DOE office space on NREL s campus 360,0,000 ft 2 Design/build process with required energy goals 25 kbtu/ft 2 50% energy savings LEED Platinum Replicable Process Technologies Cost Site, source, carbon, cost ZEB:B Includes plugs loads and datacenter Firm fixed price - $246/ft 2 construction cost (not including $27/ft 2 for PV from PPA/ARRA) Opened June 10, 2010 (First Phase) Credit: Haselden Construction
35 35 RSF Datacenter Fully containing hot aisle Custom aisle floor and door seals Ensure equipment designed for cold aisle containment And installed to pull cold air Not hot air 1.18 annual PUE ERE = 0.9 Control hot aisle based on return temperature of ~90F. Waste heat used to heat building. Economizer and Evaporative Cooling Low fan energy design 1900 ft 2 NREL PIX Credit: Marjorie Schott/NREL
36 36 NREL HPC Data Center Chips to bricks approach Leveraged expertise in energy efficient buildings to focus on showcase data center Showcase Facility 10MW, 10,000 ft 2 Leverage favorable climate Use evaporative rather mechanical cooling. Waste heat captured and used to heat labs & offices. World s most energy efficient data center, PUE 1.06! Lower CapEx and OpEx. High Performance Computing Petascale+ HPC Capability in year planning horizon 5 to 6 HPC generations. Insight Center Scientific data visualization Collaboration and interaction.
37 37 Critical Data Center Specs Warm water cooling, 75F (24C) Water much better working fluid than air - pumps trump fans. Utilize high quality waste heat, 95F (35C) or warmer. +90% IT heat load to liquid. High power distribution 480VAC, Eliminate conversions. Think outside the box Don t be satisfied with an energy efficient data center nestled on campus surrounded by inefficient laboratory and office buildings. Innovate, integrate, optimize. Photo by Steve Hammond, NREL Dashboards report instantaneous, seasonal, and cumulative PUE values.
38 38 Water Considerations We shouldn t use evaporative cooling, water is scarce. Thermoelectric power generation (coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear) consumes about 1.1 gallon per kw hour, on average. This amounts to about 9.5M gallons per MW year. We estimate about 2.0M gallons water consumed per MW year for on-site evaporative cooling at NREL. If chillers need 0.2MW per MW of HPC power, then chillers have an impact of 2.375M gallons per year per MW. Actuals will depend on your site, but evap. cooling doesn t necessarily result in a net increase in water use. NREL PIX 17828
39 Data Center Energy Efficiency ASHRAE requires economizer in most data centers. ASHRAE Standard 90.4P, Energy Standard for Data Centers and Telecommunications Buildings PURPOSE: To establish the minimum energy efficiency requirements of data centers and telecommunications buildings for: Design, construction, and a plan for operation and maintenance SCOPE: This standard applies to: New, new additions, and modifications to data centers and telecommunications buildings or portions thereof and their systems Will set minimum PUE based on climate More details at 39
40 40 Energy Conservation Measures 1. Reduce the IT load - Virtualization & Consolidation (up to 80% reduction). 2. Implement contained hot aisle and cold aisle layout. Curtains, equipment configuration, blank panels, cable entrance/exit ports, 3. Install economizer (air or water) and evaporative cooling (direct or indirect). 4. Raise discharge air temperature. Install VFD s on all computer room air conditioning (CRAC) fans (if used) and network the controls. 5. Reuse data center waste heat if possible. 6. Raise the chilled water (if used) set-point. Increasing chiller water temperature by 1 F reduces chiller energy use by 1.4% 7. Install high efficiency equipment including UPS, power supplies, etc. 8. Move chilled water as close to server as possible (direct liquid cooling). 9. Consider centralized high efficiency water cooled chiller plant Air-cooled = 2.9 COP, water-cooled = 7.8 COP.
41 QUESTIONS? RSF II 21 kbtu/ft2 $246/ft2 Construction Cost Otto VanGeet
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