The New Data Center Cooling Paradigm The Tiered Approach

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1 Product Footprint - Heat Density Trends The New Data Center Cooling Paradigm The Tiered Approach Lennart Ståhl Amdahl, Cisco, Compaq, Cray, Dell, EMC, HP, IBM, Intel, Lucent, Motorola, Nokia, Nortel, Sun, Unisys AFCOM Data Center World October, 24 Source: Uptime Institute Typical Server Comparisons IBM - xseries Bladecenter 7U High Server - Six per Enclosure [2.4 GHz Pentium Xeon, (1 or 2)] Fully Configured, 2.7 kw / Server = 16.2 kw = 2,37 W/sf Minimum Configure, 1.6 kw / Server = 9.6 kw = 1,45 W/sf Hewlett Packard - Proliant BL 2p Blade Server 7U High Server - Six per Enclosure [1.4 GHz Pentium III, (1 or 2 )] Fully Configured, 1.86 kw / Server = kw = 1,633 W/sf Minimum Configure, 1.27 kw / Server = 7.62 kw = 1,115 W/sf Sun Fire Blade, B16 (Announced 2/1/3) 3U High Shelf - Fourteen per Encl [Sun Ultra Sparc Processor, (1 )] Maximum Power / Shelf, 1.15 kw = 14.2 kw = 2,78 W/sf Avg Operating Power / Shelf,.5 kw = 7. kw = 1,24 W/sf Dell PowerEdge 16MC 3U High Server - 14 per Enclosure [(1+1) watt power supply] Fully Configured, 1.5 kw / Server = 14.7 kw = 2,1 W/sf Product Footprint - Heat Density Trends Source: Uptime Institute Sensitivity Of Projections Sensitivity Of Projections Conservative Moderate Aggressive Space 24% 3% 36% Utilization (%) Product % 6% 75% Configuration (%) Operating 6% 55% 6% Power (%) Average Age (Years) Storage (%) 15% 12% 1% Communication (%) 5% 6% 9% Work Station (%) 11% 1% 9% Server + Disk (%) 69% 72% 72% Average W/sf Aggressive Moderate Conservative Maximum Average Minimum

2 Server Power - kw Server Power (Fully Configured Cabinet) Uptime Institute Forecast (8.5 kw) Equipment Inlet Air Temperature C 45C 4C 35C Space Temperature Rise Loss of Cooling Test Results 4 W/sf 3C 86F 25C 77F 2C 68F 15C 59F 1C F Time (Minutes) 3 W/sf 1 W/sf 122F 112F 14F 95F Example - Texas Site 1U Server - 88 per Enclosure Stacked Vertically Front & Back 2 GHz Pentium Xeon, (1 or 2) Measured Power / Cabinet Design = 14.4 kw Normal = Minimum = 9. kw Entire Room Will Be 391 W/sf 326 Sensible Tons in a 39 x 75 Area Example - Virginia Tech Installation Third Fastest Supercomputer in the World (1.28 TeraFlops) 1,1 PC, 2 Ghz CPU 3, sf Section of a 9, sf Data Center Initial Load = 19 W/sf Tower Model Ultimate Load 4 W/sf 1U Model 18 Inch Raised Floor Website: VA Tech Supercomputer Space Required to Accommodate Higher Power Loads Empty Area Empty Distance Cabinet Footprint A 1 kw Load in a W/sf Facility Requires 2 sf,, or a 14.2 ft * 14.2 ft Area Empty Distance

3 1, sf W/sf of Cooling (4 1 kw Cabinets ) 1, sf W/sf of Cooling (16 1 kw Cabinets ) Cabinet Empty Space Around Cabinet 1 1 1, sf W/sf of Cooling ( 1 kw Cabinets ) Theoretical Cabinets Allowed in a 1, sf Data Center at Various Power Uses 1 Number of Cabinets Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) Number of Cabinets Theoretical Cabinets Allowed in a 1, sf Data Center at Various Power Uses Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) Area Distribution in 1, sf Data Center ( - 2 W/sf) Percentage of Area Cabinets 457 Cabinets 414 Cabinets 371 Cabinets 1 1 kw / Cabinet 2.2 kw / Cabinet 3.6 kw / Cabinet 5.4 kw / Cabinet 9 23% 23% 4% % 6 3% 35% 12% % 2 35% 1 26% Data Center - Average W/sf of Cooling Computers Hot & Cold Aisles Cooling Power Other

4 Price per Cabinet - $ 1, sf Data Center Price / Cabinet (Air Cooled, N + 1, Chilled Water System) $44,28 Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) Price per Cabinet - $ 1, sf Data Center Price / Cabinet (Air Cooled, N + 1, Chilled Water System) Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) Things That Affect Air Flow in The Raised Floor Plenum Blast Losses Friction Losses Total Pressure 1, sf W/sf of Cooling ( 1 kw / Cabinet = Cabinets = kw) CRAC = 125 2, CFM Each 4 Required ( 8, CFM = Total ) Height Velocity Pressure Distance Static Pressure Perforated Tile (25% Open CFM Each 16 Required (Note: There are other losses, such as barriers, pipes, cables, etc, that are not accounted for in this example.) 1 1 kw / Cabinet 24 Raised Floor 2 kw / Cabinet 24 Raised Floor

5 4 kw / Cabinet 36 Raised Floor 8 kw / Cabinet 54 Raised Floor Percent Variation in Perforated Tile Airflow Raised Floor Height Vs. Variation In Airflow 1, sf Data Center 1 kw / Cabinet 2 kw / Cabinet 4 kw / Cabinet 8 kw / Cabinet Raised Floor Height - Inches Minimum Raised Floor Height Vs. Power per Cabinet - 1, sf Data Center Raised Floor Height - Inches Typical Air Cooling System.49 Air Changes Per Minute kw / Cabinet 3.95 Air Changes Per Minute Raised Floor Height - Inches Impact on Larger Floor Areas Minimum Height 3 kw Floor Area sf x 1, 2.5 kw 2 kw 1.5 kw 1 kw Recommended CRAC Placement At the End of the

6 Recommended CRAC Placement At the End of the Not Recommended CRAC Placement Perpendicular to the Aisles Velocity = 1x Velocity = 2x Velocity = 3x Velocity = 4x Heat Density - Raised Floor 1, sf Center, 53 W/sf = 53 kw Heat Density - Raised Floor 1, sf Center, 16 W/sf = 1,6 kw CRAC = 88.6 kw ( Qty = 6 ) CRAC = 88.6 kw ( Qty = 12) Heat Density - Raised Floor 1, sf Center, 159 W/sf = 1,59 kw Heat Density - Raised Floor 1, sf Center, 3 W/sf = 3, kw CRAC = 88.6 kw ( Qty = 18) CRAC = 88.6 kw ( Qty = 36) 1 1

7 New ASHRAE Document Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments Equipment Environment Specifications Facility Temperature & Humidity Measurement Equipment and Facility Layout Equipment Manufacturers Heat & Airflow Reporting ASHRAE Example of Hot and Cold Aisles with Under-floor Cooling Contributors: Computer Manufacturers, Support Equipment Manufacturers, Consulting Engineers, Academic and Research Institutions, Data Center Design Software Companies Item Number 9431, or D9431 ASHRAE Recommended Airflow Protocol for Computer Equipment Absolute Humidity - lbs / lb ASHRAE Class 1 Operating Conditions Recommended Range Allowable Range % RH Ambient Dry Bulb Temperature - F % RH Increased Equipment Failures Room Entire area Base level of cooling Zone Hot zones Tiered Cooling Approach Each Data Center Is Unique and it changes frequently! High Heat Density Solutions on the Market Raised Floor Overhead Ducts Closed Loop Air Systems Fans in Racks Distributed Cooling Modules Spot High density racks

8 Factors to Consider Protection of IT Systems Lifetime Costs Initial Costs Continuing Costs Disposal/Salvage Costs Flexibility/Scalability Room - Traditional Units Provide base level of cooling everywhere in the room Effective control of humidity & air cleanliness Zone Overhead & Over Cabinets Zone Overhead & Over Cabinets Added capacity for high density areas Hot / cold aisles Overhead Cooling Module Cabinet COLD Cold Aisle Raised Floor Fluid In/Out WARM Side View Zone Overhead & Over Cabinets Spot - Cabinet Cooling Removes heat closest to source Targeted high capacity Side View

9 Spot - Cabinet Cooling Spot - Cabinet Cooling Top Mounted Cooling Module Fluid In/Out Vertical Cooling Module Cabinet Cabinet COLD AISLE Raised Floor SIDE VIEW Fluid In/Out SIDE VIEW System Schematic System Schematic Building Chilled Water Pumping Unit Coolant Heat Rejection XDC Chiller Coolant Cooling Module Cooling Module Theoretical Cabinets Allowed in a 1, sf Data Center at Various Power Uses Number of Cabinets DCM Solution Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) Price per Cabinet - $ 1, sf Data Center Price / Cabinet $44,28 $23,86 $16,787 $13, $11,649 Cooling Capability of Data Center (W/sf) 1 1 2

10 Power Required per 8 kw of Heat Load Conclusion (kw) $71 / Year $451 / Year TRADITIONAL Fan Pump Fan Chiller Pump Chiller DCM Heat loads consistently increasing. Projected to double or triple in the next five years Data Centers are transitioning from Hot Spots to Hot Zones to Hot Rooms Tiered cooling strategy Spot Zone Room Multiple solutions required Each Data Center Is Unique And It Changes Frequently! Thank You!

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